ISSN (Print) ISSN (Online) BRIEF COMMUNICATION Korean J Parasitol Vol. 54, No. 3: , June

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "ISSN (Print) ISSN (Online) BRIEF COMMUNICATION Korean J Parasitol Vol. 54, No. 3: , June"

Transcription

1 ISSN (Print) ISSN (Online) BRIEF COMMUNICATION Korean J Parasitol Vol. 54, No. 3: , June New Record of Schistorophus cirripedesmi (Nematoda: Acuariidae) from a Bar-Tailed Godwit, Limosa lapponica baueri (Charadriformes: Scolopacidae) in Korea Seongjun Choe 1, Hyun Kim 2, Junsik Lim 2, Dongmin Lee 1, Hansol Park 1, Hyeong-Kyu Jeon 1, Heejong Kim 3, Youngjun Kim 4, Keeseon S. Eom 1, * 1 Department of Parasitology, Medical Research Institute and Parasite Resource Bank, School of Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 28644, Korea; 2 College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea; 3 Chungnam Wild Animal Rescue Center, Kongju National University, Yesan, Chungnam 32439, Korea; 4 National Institute of Ecology, Seocheon, Chungnam 33657, Korea Abstract: In July 2014, a nematode species, Schistorophus cirripedesmi Rhizhikov and Khokhlova, 1964, was recovered from a bar-tailed godwit, Limosa lapponica baueri that was stored in a -20 C freezer in the Chungnam Wild Animal Rescue Center. The bird was collected in 2012 from the coastal region of Pyeongtaek-si (City), Gyeonggi-do (Province) in the Republic of Korea, although the exact date is not clear. At necropsy, 9 nematodes were found in the gizzard of the bird. The parasites had 4 horn-like cephalic cuticular ornamentations. After morphometric comparison and morphological observations, including scanning electron microscopy, the nematodes were identified as S. cirripedesmi. This is the first description of a nematode species in a shorebird in Korea. This is also the first time this genus and species have been found in Korea. Key words: Schistorophus cirripedemi, nematode, bar-tailed godwit, Korea The coastal regions of Korea, especially the Yellow Sea, are important staging or breeding sites for a variety of shorebirds. To date, 63 species belonging to 7 families (Haematopodidae, Recurvirostridae, Charadriidae, Rostratulidae, Jacanidae, Scolopacidae, and Glareolidae) have been recorded in Korea [1]. Considering the diversity and numbers of these birds, it is likely that they bear many different species of parasites. However, relatively little is known about the parasite fauna in the shorebirds in Korea: to date, only 8 species of parasites in 9 species of shorebirds have been recorded in Korea [2-7]. To the best of our knowledge, other helminths such as nematodes or cestodes have never been reported in shorebirds in Korea. The bar-tailed godwit, Limosa lapponica (Linnaeus, 1758), is a shorebird that visits the Yellow Sea region frequently. It is a relatively large wader species that is renowned for its extreme migration. It spends time in Northern Eurasia and Western Alaska to breed and then migrates to its wintering locations, Received 16 December 2015, revised 29 March 2016, accepted 19 April * Corresponding author 2016, Korean Society for Parasitology and Tropical Medicine This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. namely, Europe, Africa, Middle and South Eastern Asia, and Australia. It has several subspecies. Of these, L. lapponica baueri and L. lapponica menzbieri can be observed in Korea during the migrating seasons, which are early April to mid-may and early August to early October [1]. According to the reports on its migration, the subspecies L. l. baueri often chooses a circuitous route during its northward migration that includes the Yellow Sea region, Japan, Kamchatka Peninsula, and the Bering Islands as its staging regions. After completing its breeding in Alaska, it returns to New Zealand directly or via a circuitous route that follows coastal regions [8-10]. In the present study, we report for the first time a nematode species, Schistorophus cirripedesmi Rhižhikov and Khokhlova, 1964, in a shorebird in Korea. The shorebird was a L. lapponica baueri that had been rescued in Korea but then died and was stored in a -20 C freezer in the Chungnam Wild Animal Rescue Center (CWARC). The parasitic faunas of migratory birds in Korea are discussed. A bar-tailed godwit was rescued from the coastal region of Pyeongtaek-si (City), Gyeonggi-do (Province) in the Republic of Korea ( =Korea) in 2012, although the exact date is not clear. The bird was an adult and died during treatment. Its visceral organs were stored in a -20 C freezer in the CWARC and 349

2 350 Korean J Parasitol Vol. 54, No. 3: , June 2016 Fig. 1. Schistorophus cirripedesmi attached on the gizzard wall of a bird. then donated in July 2014 to the Parasite Resource Bank in Korea (PRB) for parasitological examinations. At necropsy, 9 nematodes (4 females and 5 males) were found in the wall of the gizzard (Fig. 1). Their anterior extremity was located at the muscular layer of the organ. Three female and 3 male worms were chosen for morphological identification, and slide specimens were generated using glycerin-jelly. The specimens were placed under a light microscope, and all organs were measured with a micrometer. Two of the specimens studied are deposited in the National Institute of Biological Resources in Korea (NIBR). NIBR specimen numbers are KOSPIV and KOSPIV A male and a female worm were subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thus, they were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde after washing in PBS 3 times, each for 15 min. Thereafter, they were dehydrated using a graded alcohol series (70%, 80%, 90%, 95%, 100%, and again 100% ethyl alcohol; 30 min per step). The specimens were then dipped in hexamethyldisilazan for 1 hr, after which they were dehydrated again in a sealed box with silica gel for 1 day. After coating with gold, they were observed by SEM (LEO ; Oberkochen, Germany). The light microscopy and SEM analyses indicated that the body was thin and long. The head was compressed laterally. The oral opening was narrow dorsoventrally and surrounded by 2 pairs of teeth on each side. The pseudolabia were well developed, square shaped, and covered the lateral part of the head. Two pairs of cephalic papillae were located on each side of the pseudolabia. An amphid was observed at the extremity of each pseudolabia. Four sublabia were situated at the sublateral part of the pseudolabia and elongated to the posterior extremity of the pseudolabia. Four ptilina originated from the lower position of each sublabium. The ptilina were well developed and resembled a hawk s wing (Fig. 2A-D). The buccal cavity was well developed, deep, and narrow (Fig. 3A). The esophagus was divided into a muscular and a glandular esophagus. The muscular esophagus was relatively shorter than the glandular esophagus. The deirid was very small and shaped like a dragon fruit (Fig. 2C, E). Under light microscopy, its location was obscure. Table 1 presents the morphometric measurements of male and female worms (Table 1). The posterior part of the male worm was coiled. The caudal alae were well developed. The tail was short and had a blunted end. The papillae were located on the ventral side of the caudal alae. There were pairs of preanal papillae and 4 pairs of postanal papillae (Figs. 3D, 4A). There were 2 spicules that were unequal in size and dissimilar. The left spicule was long and slender. Its distal end was complicated with several processes (Fig. 4B). The right spicule was stout, short, and curved with a triangular process slightly ventrally near distal end (Fig. 4C). The female worm was much larger than the males in terms of both length and width. The vulva was prominent, was located almost in the middle of the body (Figs. 2F, 3B). The uterus was didelphic and had an amphidelphic position. It was packed with numerous eggs. The vagina vera and vagina uterine could not be observed well. The eggs near the vulva were larger than the other eggs and were embryonated. The eggs (n=30) were thick-shelled. The tail was short and had a blunted end (Fig. 3C). The family Acuariidae is characterized by cuticular ornamentation of the anterior extremity. In terms of the species in this family, the species in the genus Schistorophus Railliet, 1916 are easily distinguishable from those in other genera because of the presence of 4 characteristic horn-shaped cephalic cuticular ornamentations [11]. In the past, 16 species of the genus Schistorophus were described. However, Wong and Lankester [12] revised the genus after observing the specimens recovered from North American waders and burrowing specimens. They recognized only 5 valid species, Schistorophus longicornis (Hemprich and Ehrenberg, 1866) Railliet, 1916; S. skrjabini (Vassilkova, 1926) Guschanskaya, 1950; S. cornutus Sobolev, 1943; S. guschanskoi Ablasov and Chibichenko, 1962, and S. cirripedesmi Rhizhikov and Khokhlova, 1964 [12]. Zhang [13] added 1 more species, S. fukienensis, which was found in China, and

3 Choe et al.: A nematode Schistorophus cirripedesmi from a godwit, Korea 351 A B C D E F Fig. 2. Scanning electron microscopic views of Schistorophus cirripedesmi. (A) Apical view of the head. (B) Lateral view. (C, D) Dorsal views. Arrow. deirid. (E) Enlarged view of the deirid that looks like dragon fruit. (F) Vulva opening. Pinto et al. [14] described the 7th species, S. molini. Wong and Lankester [12] proposed the term ptilinum for the cephalic horn-like structures of the genus Schistorophus and used the size of the ptilinum as one of the keys for distinguishing between the species of the genus. They also used the length and shape of the spicules and the number of cloacal papillae [12]. Pinto et al. [14] modified this species key and added S. molini as a species. The specimens in the present study undoubtedly belong to the genus Schistorophus because of their ptilina. Moreover, the other characteristics in the species key proposed by Wong and Lankester [12] and Pinto et al. [14] indicate that our specimens belong to S. cirripedesmi, namely, the length of ptilina ( µm in the male and µm in the female), length of the left spicule ( µm), and number of pre-cloacal papillae (20-21 pairs). The morphometric measurements of our specimens also matched well with those of the previous S. cirripedesmi specimens. Table 1 does not include the size of the undeveloped eggs, but, in our speci-

4 352 Korean J Parasitol Vol. 54, No. 3: , June 2016 A B C D Fig. 3. Light microscopic views of Schistorophus cirripedemi attached. (A) Lateral view of a female worm. (B) Larvated eggs in the uterus and prominent lips of vulva. (C) Posterior extremity of a female worm. (D) Posterior extremity of a male worm. Table 1. Morphometirc comparison of previously described Schistorophus cirripedesmi and the present study References Present study Li (1934) Wong and Lankester (1984) Rhizhikov and Khokhlova (1964) Host Limosa lapponica baueri Numenius arquata a Numenius arquata arquata c Charadrius leschenaultii c Location Korea China Egypt Vietnam Gender of worm Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female No. of exam. worm Body length (mm) Body width Ptilina length Buccal capsule depth Nerve ring a Excretory pore a Muscular esophagus length , ,060-1, , Glandular esophagus length ,148-1, , , Total esophagus length 1,526-1,630 2,075-2,464 1,420 1,520-2,000 Tail length Left spicule length Right spicule length No. of preanal papillae Over No. of postanal papillae pair Vulva b (mm) Egg length Egg width a : Length from anterior extremity. b : Length from posterior extremity. c : We modified the scientific names to currently used names.

5 Choe et al.: A nematode Schistorophus cirripedesmi from a godwit, Korea 353 C A 200 μm B Fig. 4. (A) Posterior part of the male Schistorophus cirripedemi with papillae and spicules. (B) Left spicule. (C) Right spicule. mens, the eggs inside the early uterus were smaller than those near the vulva. Such size variation in the eggs was also evident in Fig. 1 of Rhizhikov and Khokhlova, 1964, who described the first specimens of S. cirripedesmi [15]. When S. cirripedesmi was first described in Vietnam by Rhizhikov and Khokhlova, the host was Charadrius leschenaultia (Lesson, 1826) [15], although, in their original description, Rhizhikov and Khokhlova stated that the host was Cirripedesmus leschenaulti. It is likely that the genus name Cirripedesmus was a miscitation of Cirrepidesmus Bonaparte, 1856 [16], which is regarded as a synonym of the genus Charadrius. Thus, the scientific name of the nematode species S. cirripedesmi appears to have originated from the wrong host genus name. This requires further discussion. In terms of distribution, S. cirripedesmi has been recorded in both the Old World (China, Europe, Egypt, Malaysia, Russia, and Vietnam) and the New World (Antigua) [12,15,17-21]. However, there is some doubt about its New World distribution, which was recorded by Clapham [18]. He reported finding of nematode larvae belonging to the genus Schistorophus in the gizzard of a willet, Tringa semipalmata ( =Catoptrophorus semipalmatus), and a killdeer, Charadrius vociferus (originally recorded as a rufous necked plover, Oxychus vociferus), in Antigua. Moreover, he recorded adults belonging to the genus Schistorophus in the gizzard of a black-necked stilt, Himantopus mexicanus [18]. Although Clapham [18] concluded on the basis of the morphology of these specimens that they were S. laciniatus, he mentioned that this identity was in some doubt because an adult male was not found [18]. Wong and Lankester [12] commented that the specimens described by Clapham [18] were identical to the description of S. cirripedesmi presented in their study and thus considered the specimens of Clapham to be S. cirripedesmi. However, the description of Clapham [18] was based on adult female worms only, and this description is also very similar to that of the female S. molini, which was recorded in Brazil [14]. Thus, because of the incomplete description, we cannot make a definite conclusion regarding the identity of Clapham s specimens: the deposited specimens should be observed in detail to resolve this issue. At this point, it seems advisable to treat Clapham s specimens as belonging to a species inquirendae, namely, S. laciniatus, as recorded by Clapham [18]. Thus, at this time, we tentatively conclude that the distribution of S. cirripedesmi may not include Antigua. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that S. cirripedesmi is also distributed in Australia. Mawson [19] described the nematodes of waders in Australia. These included 2 different Schistorophus species, 1 in Calidris canutus and 1 in L. lapponica (possibly L. lapponica baueri). Wong and Lankester [12] discussed the worms found in L. lapponica by Mawson [19] and stated

6 354 Korean J Parasitol Vol. 54, No. 3: , June 2016 that they belonged to S. longicornis. However, they did not discuss the worms found in C. canutus [12]. Mawson [19] mentioned that the latter worms closely resembled the description of S. longicornis by Li [20] but differed from the record of S. longicornis by Akhtar. Interestingly, the specimens of Li [20] were originally considered to belong to S. longicornis but were later considered by Daiya, Bondarenko, and Gubanov to belong to S. lii [20,21]. Notably, Wong and Lankester [12] considered S. lii to be a conspecific species with S. cirripedesmi. In addition, the drawings provided by Mawson [19] completely matched the description of S. cirripedesmi that was proposed by Wong and Lankester [12]. On this basis, we conclude that the distribution of S. cirripedesmi includes Australia. Satellite tracking technology revealed the extreme migrations of L. lapponica baueri, the shorebird host of the specimens described in the present study. These birds employ a wide range of Eastern Pacific regions for their airway. They fly directly from the non-breeding site of New Zealand to the Yellow Sea region; on average, they fly 10,060 km in 7.2 days [10]. Moreover, the flight from the Yellow Sea region to the breeding region in Alaska is 6,770 km, which is achieved on average in 4.6 days [10]. There is also a case of a female L. lapponica baueri that flew for the 29,280 km (including 11,680 km over 8.1 days) between Alaska and New Zealand during its entire migration [9,10]. She only landed at 3 spots: New Zealand, the Yellow Sea, and Alaska [10]. This extremely fast migration of the host indicates that unless the parasites are eliminated by their host before leaving, there is a high possibility that the host can carry the parasite from the point of departure to the destination: it is likely that if the lifespan of S. cirripedesmi is longer than few days it can take the birds to travel the long distances. Indeed, several reports state that L. lapponica taymyrensis that were caught in Castricum, the Netherlands, before reaching their stop-over site in the Wadden Sea had nematodes in their feces [22,23]. Thus, apprehending the route and duration of migration by the hosts of S. cirripedesmi will help us to better understand the distribution of the parasite. This was also suggested by Wong and Anderson [17]. Thus, as explained above, S. cirripedesmi has been reported in Korea (Yellow Sea), Kamchatka Peninsula, and Australia [19,21]; all of these places overlap with the migration route of L. lapponica baueri [8-10]. The existence of the species in stop-over sites indicates that they could be carried to breeding sites; thus, it seems likely that S. cirripedesmi will be present in L. lapponica baueri in New Zealand and Alaska as well. This insight may also be useful for understanding the distributions of other parasites. In particular, the cestodes Ophrycotyle proteus Friis, 1870 and Capsulata edenensis Sandeman, 1959 [24], and the acanthocephalans Profilicollis antarcticus and P. novaezealandensis [25] have been recorded in L. lapponica baueri in New Zealand, while the nematode, S. longicornis has been recorded in L. lapponica baueri in Australia [19]. This indicates that these parasites may also be distributed in Korea. In conclusion, we believe that our specimens are S. cirripedesmi on the basis of morphological observations. This is the first time both the genus and species have been found to belong to the Korean parasite fauna. This is also the first time a nematode parasite has been recorded in shorebirds in Korea. While we sought to estimate the distribution of S. cirripedesmi by examining the migration of the host, many questions remain, including the location of infection, sources of infection, and host-parasite interactions. Further studies that examine these facets are needed to improve our understanding of the ecology of S. cirripedesmi. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), which is funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea (NIBR no ). The parasite materials used in this study were provided by the Parasite Resource Bank of Korea of the National Research Resource Center ( ) of the Republic of Korea. CONFLICT OF INTEREST We have no conflict of interest related to this work. REFERENCES 1. Park JY, Park JG, Choi CY. A photographic guide to the shorebirds of Korea. No. 5. Checklist of organisms in Korea. Nature and Ecology, Seoul, Korea. p Chu JP, Cho YJ, Yoo JC, Park SG. Himasthla kusasigi (Trematoda, Echinostomatidae) recovered from the intestine of the Dunlin, Calidris alpine sakhalina, in Korea. Korean J Syst Zool 1987; 16: Ryang YS, Yoo JC, Lee SH, Chai JY. The palearctic oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus, a natural definitive host for Gymnophalloides seoi. J Parasitol 2000; 86: Seo M, Guk SM, Chai JY. The ruddy turnstone, Arenaria interpres

7 Choe et al.: A nematode Schistorophus cirripedesmi from a godwit, Korea 355 interpres, a new definitive host for Gynaecotyla squatarolae (Digenea: Microphallidae). Korean J Parasitol 2008; 46: Chung OS, Lee HJ, Sohn WM, Park YK, Chai JY, Seo M. Discovery of Parvatrema duboisi and Parvatrema homoeotecnum (Digenea: Gymnophallidae) from migratory birds in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 2010; 48: Chung OS, Sohn WM, Chai JY, Seo M, Lee HJ. Discovery of Maritrema obstipum (Digenea: Microphallidae) from migratory birds in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 2011; 49: Yoo HJ, Chung OS, Seo M. Discovery of Endocotyle incana and Spelotrema pseudogonotyla (Digenea: Microphallidae) from Scolopacid migratory birds in Korea. Korean J Parasitol 2012; 50: Riegen AC. Movements of banded arctic waders to and from New Zealand. Notornis 1999; 46: Gill RE Jr, Tibbitts TL, Douglas DC, Handel CM, Mulcahy DM, Gottschalck JC, Warnock N, McCaffery BJ, Battley PF, Piersma T. Extreme endurance flights by landbirds crossing the Pacific Ocean: ecological corridor rather than barrier? Proc R Soc B 2009; 276: Battley PF, Warnock N, Tibbitts TL, Gill Jr RE, Piersma T, Hassell CJ, Douglas DC, Mulcahy DM, Gartell BD, Schuckard RS, Melville DS, Riegen AC. Contrasting extreme long-distance migration patterns in bar-tailed godwits Limosa lapponica. J Avian Biol 2012; 43: Railliet A. La famille des Thelaziidae. J Parasitol 1916; 2: Wong PL, Lankester MW. Revision of the genus Schistorophus Railliet, 1916 (Nematoda: Acuarioidea). Canadian J Zool 1984; 62: Zhang L. Three new species of Acuarioidea from birds from Fujian, China. Sichuan J Zool 1987; 9: Pinto RM, Vicente JJ, Muniz-Pereira LC, Noronha D. On two nematodes from Brazilian birds and description of a new species (Acuarioidea, Schistorophinae) parasitizing Laterallus viridis (Müllet, 1776) (Gruiformes, Rallidae). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz (Rio de Janeiro) 1999; 94: Rhizhikov KM, Khokhlova IG. Two new nematode species Schistorophus cirripedesmi n. sp. and Viktorocara helcyoni n. sp. from wild birds in Vietnam. Helminthologia 1964; 5: Bonaparte CL. Excursions dans les divers musee d Allemagne, de Hollande et de Belgique, et tableaux paralleliques de l ordre des Echassiers. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l Academie des Sciences 1856; 43: Wong PL, Anderson RC. Acuarioids (Nematoda: Acuarioidea) from waders and terns (Aves) in Sabah, East Malaysia: evidence for transmission on the wintering ground. Can J Zool 1984; 63: Clapham PA. Some bird helminthes from Antigua. J Helminthol 1945; 21: Mawson PM. Some Acuariinae (Nematoda) from Australian birds. Trans R Soc South Australia 1982; 106: Li HC. Report on a collection of parasitic nematodes, mainly from North China. Part 2. Spiruroidea. Trans Am Microscop Soc 1934; 53: Daiya GG, Bondarenko SK, Gubanov NM. Description of Schistorophus lii n. sp. and. S. longicornis (Hemprich and Ehrenberg, 1866). Sb Rab Gel mintol Akad Skrj KOLOS. p Landys MM, Piersma T, Visser GH, Jukema J, Wijker A. Water balance during real and simulated long-distance migratory flight in the bar-tailed godwit. Condor 2000; 102: Piersma T, Mendes L, Hennekens J, Ratiarison S, Groenewold S, Jukema J. Breeding plumage honestly signals likelihood of tapeworm infestation in females of a long-distance migrating shorebird, the bar-tailed godwit. Zoology 2001; 104: Schmidt GD, Allison FR. New records of cestodes of New Zealand birds. New Zealand J Zool 1989; 16: Brockerhoff AM, Smales LR. Profilicollis novaezelandensis n. sp. (Polymorphidae) and two other acanthocephalan parasites from shore birds (Haematopodidae and Scolopacidae) in New Zealand, with records of two species in intertidal crabs (Decapoda: Grapsidae and Ocypodidae). Syst Parasitol 2002; 52:

- i - - ii - - iii - - iv - - v - - vi - - 1 - - 2 - - 3 - 1) 통계청고시제 2010-150 호 (2010.7.6 개정, 2011.1.1 시행 ) - 4 - 요양급여의적용기준및방법에관한세부사항에따른골밀도검사기준 (2007 년 11 월 1 일시행 ) - 5 - - 6 - - 7 - - 8 - - 9 - - 10 -

More information

한국성인에서초기황반변성질환과 연관된위험요인연구

한국성인에서초기황반변성질환과 연관된위험요인연구 한국성인에서초기황반변성질환과 연관된위험요인연구 한국성인에서초기황반변성질환과 연관된위험요인연구 - - i - - i - - ii - - iii - - iv - χ - v - - vi - - 1 - - 2 - - 3 - - 4 - 그림 1. 연구대상자선정도표 - 5 - - 6 - - 7 - - 8 - 그림 2. 연구의틀 χ - 9 - - 10 - - 11 -

More information

歯kjmh2004v13n1.PDF

歯kjmh2004v13n1.PDF 13 1 ( 24 ) 2004 6 Korean J Med Hist 13 1 19 Jun 2004 ISSN 1225 505X 1) * * 1 ( ) 2) 3) 4) * 1) ( ) 3 2) 7 1 3) 2 1 13 1 ( 24 ) 2004 6 5) ( ) ( ) 2 1 ( ) 2 3 2 4) ( ) 6 7 5) - 2003 23 144-166 2 2 1) 6)

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA The e-business Studies Volume 17, Number 4, August, 30, 2016:319~332 Received: 2016/07/28, Accepted: 2016/08/28 Revised: 2016/08/27, Published: 2016/08/30 [ABSTRACT] This paper examined what determina

More information

- iii - - i - - ii - - iii - 국문요약 종합병원남자간호사가지각하는조직공정성 사회정체성과 조직시민행동과의관계 - iv - - v - - 1 - - 2 - - 3 - - 4 - - 5 - - 6 - - 7 - - 8 - - 9 - - 10 - - 11 - - 12 - - 13 - - 14 - α α α α - 15 - α α α α α α

More information

- 2 -

- 2 - - 1 - - 2 - - 3 - - 4 - - 5 - - 6 - - 7 - - 8 - - 9 - - 10 - - 11 - - 12 - - 13 - - 14 - - 15 - - 16 - - 17 - - 18 - - 19 - - 20 - - 21 - - 22 - - 23 - - 24 - - 25 - - 26 - - 27 - - 28 - - 29 - - 30 -

More information

135 Jeong Ji-yeon 심향사 극락전 협저 아미타불의 제작기법에 관한 연구 머리말 협저불상( 夾 紵 佛 像 )이라는 것은 불상을 제작하는 기법의 하나로써 삼베( 麻 ), 모시( 苧 ), 갈포( 葛 ) 등의 인피섬유( 靭 皮 纖 維 )와 칠( 漆 )을 주된 재료

135 Jeong Ji-yeon 심향사 극락전 협저 아미타불의 제작기법에 관한 연구 머리말 협저불상( 夾 紵 佛 像 )이라는 것은 불상을 제작하는 기법의 하나로써 삼베( 麻 ), 모시( 苧 ), 갈포( 葛 ) 등의 인피섬유( 靭 皮 纖 維 )와 칠( 漆 )을 주된 재료 MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies Vol. 47. No. 1, March 2014, pp.134~151. Copyright 2014, National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage 심향사 극락전 협저 아미타불의 제작기법에 관한 연구 정지연 a 明 珍 素 也

More information

#Ȳ¿ë¼®

#Ȳ¿ë¼® http://www.kbc.go.kr/ A B yk u δ = 2u k 1 = yk u = 0. 659 2nu k = 1 k k 1 n yk k Abstract Web Repertoire and Concentration Rate : Analysing Web Traffic Data Yong - Suk Hwang (Research

More information

아니라 일본 지리지, 수로지 5, 지도 6 등을 함께 검토해야 하지만 여기서는 근대기 일본이 편찬한 조선 지리지와 부속지도만으로 연구대상을 한정하 기로 한다. Ⅱ. 1876~1905년 울릉도 독도 서술의 추이 1. 울릉도 독도 호칭의 혼란과 지도상의 불일치 일본이 조선

아니라 일본 지리지, 수로지 5, 지도 6 등을 함께 검토해야 하지만 여기서는 근대기 일본이 편찬한 조선 지리지와 부속지도만으로 연구대상을 한정하 기로 한다. Ⅱ. 1876~1905년 울릉도 독도 서술의 추이 1. 울릉도 독도 호칭의 혼란과 지도상의 불일치 일본이 조선 근대기 조선 지리지에 보이는 일본의 울릉도 독도 인식 호칭의 혼란을 중심으로 Ⅰ. 머리말 이 글은 근대기 일본인 편찬 조선 지리지에 나타난 울릉도 독도 관련 인식을 호칭의 변화에 초점을 맞춰 고찰한 것이다. 일본은 메이지유신 이후 부국강병을 기도하는 과정에서 수집된 정보에 의존하여 지리지를 펴냈고, 이를 제국주의 확장에 원용하였다. 특히 일본이 제국주의 확장을

More information

Stage 2 First Phonics

Stage 2 First Phonics ORT Stage 2 First Phonics The Big Egg What could the big egg be? What are the characters doing? What do you think the story will be about? (큰 달걀은 무엇일까요? 등장인물들은 지금 무엇을 하고 있는 걸까요? 책은 어떤 내용일 것 같나요?) 대해 칭찬해

More information

03-서연옥.hwp

03-서연옥.hwp 농업생명과학연구 49(4) pp.31-37 Journal of Agriculture & Life Science 49(4) pp.31-37 Print ISSN 1598-5504 Online ISSN 2383-8272 http://dx.doi.org/10.14397/jals.2015.49.4.31 국가산림자원조사 자료를 적용한 충남지역 사유림경영율 추정 서연옥

More information

216 동북아역사논총 41호 인과 경계공간은 설 자리를 잃고 배제되고 말았다. 본고에서는 근세 대마도에 대한 한국과 일본의 인식을 주로 영토와 경계인 식을 중심으로 고찰하고자 한다. 이 시기 대마도에 대한 한일 양국의 인식을 살펴볼 때는 근대 국민국가적 관점에서 탈피할

216 동북아역사논총 41호 인과 경계공간은 설 자리를 잃고 배제되고 말았다. 본고에서는 근세 대마도에 대한 한국과 일본의 인식을 주로 영토와 경계인 식을 중심으로 고찰하고자 한다. 이 시기 대마도에 대한 한일 양국의 인식을 살펴볼 때는 근대 국민국가적 관점에서 탈피할 전근대시기 한국과 일본의 대마도 인식 215 전근대시기 한국과 일본의 대마도 인식 하우봉 전북대학교 사학과 교수 Ⅰ. 머리말 브루스 배튼(Bruce Batten)의 정의에 따르면 전근대의 국경에는 국경선으로 이루어진 boundary가 있고, 공간으로 이루어진 frontier란 개념이 있다. 전자 는 구심적이며 내와 외를 격리시키는 기능을 지니고, 후자는 원심적이며

More information

<B3EDB9AEC1FD5F3235C1FD2E687770>

<B3EDB9AEC1FD5F3235C1FD2E687770> 오용록의 작품세계 윤 혜 진 1) * 이 논문은 생전( 生 前 )에 학자로 주로 활동하였던 오용록(1955~2012)이 작곡한 작품들을 살펴보고 그의 작품세계를 파악하고자 하는 것이다. 한국음악이론이 원 래 작곡과 이론을 포함하였던 초기 작곡이론전공의 형태를 염두에 둔다면 그의 연 구에서 기존연구의 방법론을 넘어서 창의적인 분석 개념과 체계를 적용하려는

More information

03이경미(237~248)ok

03이경미(237~248)ok The recent (2001-2010) changes on temperature and precipitation related to normals (1971-2000) in Korea* Kyoungmi Lee** Hee-Jeong Baek*** ChunHo Cho**** Won-Tae Kwon*****. 61 (1971~2000) 10 (2001~2010).

More information

Abstract Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Related Factors for Nurses and Radiological Technologists Wearing a Lead Apron for Radiation Pro t e c t i o n Jung-Im Yoo, Jung-Wan Koo 1 ) Angio Unit, Team of Radiology,

More information

歯M991101.PDF

歯M991101.PDF 2 0 0 0 2000 12 2 0 0 0 2000 12 ( ) ( ) ( ) < >. 1 1. 1 2. 5. 6 1. 7 1.1. 7 1.2. 9 1.3. 10 2. 17 3. 25 3.1. 25 3.2. 29 3.3. 29. 31 1. 31 1.1. ( ) 32 1.2. ( ) 38 1.3. ( ) 40 1.4. ( ) 42 2. 43 3. 69 4. 74.

More information

대한한의학원전학회지24권6호-전체최종.hwp

대한한의학원전학회지24권6호-전체최종.hwp 小兒藥證直訣 의 五臟辨證에 대한 小考 - 病證과 處方을 중심으로 1 2 慶熙大學校大學校 韓醫學科大學 原典學敎室 ㆍ 韓醫學古典硏究所 白裕相1,2*1)2) A study on The Diagnosis and Treatment Using The Theory of Five Organs in Soayakjeungjikgyeol(小兒藥證直訣) 1 Dept. of Oriental

More information

182 동북아역사논총 42호 금융정책이 조선에 어떤 영향을 미쳤는지를 살펴보고자 한다. 일제 대외금융 정책의 기본원칙은 각 식민지와 점령지마다 별도의 발권은행을 수립하여 일본 은행권이 아닌 각 지역 통화를 발행케 한 점에 있다. 이들 통화는 일본은행권 과 等 價 로 연

182 동북아역사논총 42호 금융정책이 조선에 어떤 영향을 미쳤는지를 살펴보고자 한다. 일제 대외금융 정책의 기본원칙은 각 식민지와 점령지마다 별도의 발권은행을 수립하여 일본 은행권이 아닌 각 지역 통화를 발행케 한 점에 있다. 이들 통화는 일본은행권 과 等 價 로 연 越 境 하는 화폐, 분열되는 제국 - 滿 洲 國 幣 의 조선 유입 실태를 중심으로 181 越 境 하는 화폐, 분열되는 제국 - 滿 洲 國 幣 의 조선 유입 실태를 중심으로 - 조명근 고려대학교 BK21+ 한국사학 미래인재 양성사업단 연구교수 Ⅰ. 머리말 근대 국민국가는 대내적으로는 특정하게 구획된 영토에 대한 배타적 지배와 대외적 자주성을 본질로 하는데, 그

More information

Output file

Output file 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 An Application for Calculation and Visualization of Narrative Relevance of Films Using Keyword Tags Choi Jin-Won (KAIST) Film making

More information

01_60p_서천민속지_1장_최종_출력ff.indd

01_60p_서천민속지_1장_최종_출력ff.indd 01 달 모양의 해안을 따라, 월하성 012 달 모양의 해안을 따라, 월하성 013 달 빛 아 래 신 선 이 노 는, 월 하 성 마 을 1장 달 모양의 해안을 따라, 월하성 초승달을 닮은 바닷가마을 월하성( 月 河 城 )이 위치한 충청남도 서천군( 舒 川 郡 )은 육지로는 동쪽으로 부 여군( 扶 餘 郡 ), 북쪽으로 보령시( 保 寧 市 )와 접하고 남쪽은 금강(

More information

<30322D28C6AF29C0CCB1E2B4EB35362D312E687770>

<30322D28C6AF29C0CCB1E2B4EB35362D312E687770> 한국학연구 56(2016.3.30), pp.33-63. 고려대학교 한국학연구소 세종시의 지역 정체성과 세종의 인문정신 * 1)이기대 ** 국문초록 세종시의 상황은 세종이 왕이 되면서 겪어야 했던 과정과 닮아 있다. 왕이 되리라 예상할 수 없었던 상황에서 세종은 왕이 되었고 어려움을 극복해 갔다. 세종시도 갑작스럽게 행정도시로 계획되었고 준비의 시간 또한 짧았지만,

More information

232 도시행정학보 제25집 제4호 I. 서 론 1. 연구의 배경 및 목적 사회가 다원화될수록 다양성과 복합성의 요소는 증가하게 된다. 도시의 발달은 사회의 다원 화와 밀접하게 관련되어 있기 때문에 현대화된 도시는 경제, 사회, 정치 등이 복합적으로 연 계되어 있어 특

232 도시행정학보 제25집 제4호 I. 서 론 1. 연구의 배경 및 목적 사회가 다원화될수록 다양성과 복합성의 요소는 증가하게 된다. 도시의 발달은 사회의 다원 화와 밀접하게 관련되어 있기 때문에 현대화된 도시는 경제, 사회, 정치 등이 복합적으로 연 계되어 있어 특 한국도시행정학회 도시행정학보 제25집 제4호 2012. 12 : pp.231~251 생활지향형 요소의 근린주거공간 분포특성 연구: 경기도 시 군을 중심으로* Spatial Distribution of Daily Life-Oriented Features in the Neighborhood: Focused on Municipalities of Gyeonggi Province

More information

01이정훈(113~127)ok

01이정훈(113~127)ok The Role of Historical Relativity in International Exchange of Culture and Tourism at the Regional Level: A Case of Gyeonggi and Shandong Province Jung-hoon Lee** Kyung-Eun Choi*** Eun-Ja Lee****,.,,.,,.,,.,.,.,,,

More information

서강대학원123호

서강대학원123호 123 2012년 12월 6일 발행인 이종욱 총장 편집인 겸 주간 임종섭 편집장 김아영 (우편번호 121-742) 주소 서울시 마포구 신수동1번지 엠마오관 B133호 대학원신문사 전화 705-8269 팩스 713-1919 제작 일탈기획(070-4404-8447) 웃자고 사는 세상, 정색은 언행 총량의 2%면 족하다는 신념으로 살았습니다. 그 신념 덕분인지 다행히

More information

012임수진

012임수진 Received : 2012. 11. 27 Reviewed : 2012. 12. 10 Accepted : 2012. 12. 12 A Clinical Study on Effect of Electro-acupuncture Treatment for Low Back Pain and Radicular Pain in Patients Diagnosed with Lumbar

More information

<BCF6BDC3323030392D31385FB0EDBCD3B5B5B7CEC8DEB0D4C5B8BFEEB5B5C0D4B1B8BBF3BFACB1B85FB1C7BFB5C0CE2E687770>

<BCF6BDC3323030392D31385FB0EDBCD3B5B5B7CEC8DEB0D4C5B8BFEEB5B5C0D4B1B8BBF3BFACB1B85FB1C7BFB5C0CE2E687770> ... 수시연구 2009-18.. 고속도로 휴게타운 도입구상 연구 A Study on the Concept of Service Town at the Expressway Service Area... 권영인 임재경 이창운... 서 문 우리나라는 경제성장과 함께 도시화가 지속적으로 진행되어 지방 지역의 인구감소와 경기의 침체가 계속되고 있습니다. 정부의 다각 적인

More information

발간사 반구대 암각화는 고래잡이 배와 어부, 사냥하는 광경, 다양한 수륙동물 등 약 300여점의 그림이 바위면에 새겨져 있는 세계적 암각화입니다. 오랜 기간 새겨진 그림들 가운데 고래를 잡는 배와 어부모습은 전 세계적으로 유례를 찾기 힘들 정도로 그 중요성과 가치가 큽

발간사 반구대 암각화는 고래잡이 배와 어부, 사냥하는 광경, 다양한 수륙동물 등 약 300여점의 그림이 바위면에 새겨져 있는 세계적 암각화입니다. 오랜 기간 새겨진 그림들 가운데 고래를 잡는 배와 어부모습은 전 세계적으로 유례를 찾기 힘들 정도로 그 중요성과 가치가 큽 울주 대곡리 반구대 암각화 발굴조사보고서 BANGUDAE PETROGLYPH IN DAEGOK-RI, ULJOO EXCAVATION 발간사 반구대 암각화는 고래잡이 배와 어부, 사냥하는 광경, 다양한 수륙동물 등 약 300여점의 그림이 바위면에 새겨져 있는 세계적 암각화입니다. 오랜 기간 새겨진 그림들 가운데 고래를 잡는 배와 어부모습은 전 세계적으로 유례를

More information

歯1.PDF

歯1.PDF 200176 .,.,.,. 5... 1/2. /. / 2. . 293.33 (54.32%), 65.54(12.13%), / 53.80(9.96%), 25.60(4.74%), 5.22(0.97%). / 3 S (1997)14.59% (1971) 10%, (1977).5%~11.5%, (1986)

More information

YI Ggodme : The Lives and Diseases of Females during the Latter Half of the Joseon Dynasty as Reconstructed with Cases in Yeoksi Manpil (Stray Notes w

YI Ggodme : The Lives and Diseases of Females during the Latter Half of the Joseon Dynasty as Reconstructed with Cases in Yeoksi Manpil (Stray Notes w 497 의사학 제24권 제2호(통권 제50호) 2015년 8월 Korean J Med Hist 24 ː497-532 Aug 2015 c대한의사학회 http://dx.doi.org/10.13081/kjmh.2015.24.497 pissn 1225-505X, eissn 2093-5609 역시만필( 歷 試 漫 筆 ) 의 사례로 재구성한 조선후기 여성의 삶과 질병

More information

433대지05박창용

433대지05박창용 Recent Changes in Summer Precipitation Characteristics over South Korea Changyong Park* JaYeon Moon** Eun-Jeong Cha*** Won-Tae Yun**** Youngeun Choi***** 1958 2007 6 9 6 9 10 10 10 10 10 Abstract This

More information

2 동북아역사논총 50호 구권협정으로 해결됐다 는 일본 정부의 주장에 대해, 일본군 위안부 문제는 일 본 정부 군 등 국가권력이 관여한 반인도적 불법행위이므로 한일청구권협정 에 의해 해결된 것으로 볼 수 없다 는 공식 입장을 밝혔다. 또한 2011년 8월 헌 법재판소는

2 동북아역사논총 50호 구권협정으로 해결됐다 는 일본 정부의 주장에 대해, 일본군 위안부 문제는 일 본 정부 군 등 국가권력이 관여한 반인도적 불법행위이므로 한일청구권협정 에 의해 해결된 것으로 볼 수 없다 는 공식 입장을 밝혔다. 또한 2011년 8월 헌 법재판소는 일본군 위안부 피해자 구제에 관한 일고( 一 考 ) 1 일본군 위안부 피해자 구제에 관한 일고( 一 考 ) 김관원 / 동북아역사재단 연구위원 Ⅰ. 머리말 일본군 위안부 문제가 한일 간 현안으로 불거지기 시작한 것은 일본군 위안부 피해를 공개 증언한 김학순 할머니 등이 일본에서 희생자 보상청구 소송을 제 기한 1991년부터다. 이때 일본 정부는 일본군이 위안부

More information

1..

1.. Volume 12, Number 1, 6~16, Factors influencing consultation time and waiting time of ambulatory patients in a tertiary teaching hospital Jee-In Hwang College of Nursing Science, Kyung Hee University :

More information

386-390.hwp

386-390.hwp 386 HANYANG MEDICAL REVIEWS Vol. 29 No. 4, 2009 우리나라 미숙아의 통계와 의료비용 Statistics and Medical Cost of Preterm in Korea 윤혜선 을지대학교 노원을지병원 소아청소년과학교실 Hye Sun Yoon, M.D., Ph.D., Department of Pediatrics, Nowon

More information

2011´ëÇпø2µµ 24p_0628

2011´ëÇпø2µµ 24p_0628 2011 Guide for U.S. Graduate School Admissions Table of Contents 02 03 04 05 06 08 09 10 11 13 15 21 LEADERS UHAK INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS SERVICE www.leadersuhak.com Leaders Uhak International Students

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA 27(2), 2007, 96-121 S ij k i POP j a i SEXR j i AGER j i BEDDAT j ij i j S ij S ij POP j SEXR j AGER j BEDDAT j k i a i i i L ij = S ij - S ij ---------- S ij S ij = k i POP j a i SEXR j i AGER j i BEDDAT

More information

IKC43_06.hwp

IKC43_06.hwp 2), * 2004 BK21. ** 156,..,. 1) (1909) 57, (1915) 106, ( ) (1931) 213. 1983 2), 1996. 3). 4) 1),. (,,, 1983, 7 12 ). 2),. 3),, 33,, 1999, 185 224. 4), (,, 187 188 ). 157 5) ( ) 59 2 3., 1990. 6) 7),.,.

More information

2 1896 2 26 ( ) 2 7-20 2) 1897 1898 ( )3) 6 1902 8 1904 10 10 (19 05-1914 ) ( ) ( ) 4) 1915 ( ) ( ) 1917 2) 3) 4) 285

2 1896 2 26 ( ) 2 7-20 2) 1897 1898 ( )3) 6 1902 8 1904 10 10 (19 05-1914 ) ( ) ( ) 4) 1915 ( ) ( ) 1917 2) 3) 4) 285 13 2 ( 25 ) 2004 12 Korean J Med Hist 13 284 296 Dec 2004 ISSN 1225 505X 1) * ** ** 1 1920 1930 40 ( 1896-1973) 80 * ** 1) 2003 284 2 1896 2 26 ( ) 2 7-20 2) 1897 1898 ( )3) 6 1902 8 1904 10 10 (19 05-1914

More information

12Á¶±ÔÈŁ

12Á¶±ÔÈŁ Journal of Fashion Business Vol. 5, No. 4. pp.158~175(2001) A Study on the Apparel Industry and the Clothing Culture of North Korea + Kyu Hwa Cho Prof., Dept. of Clothing & Textiles, Ewha Womans University

More information

Page 2 of 5 아니다 means to not be, and is therefore the opposite of 이다. While English simply turns words like to be or to exist negative by adding not,

Page 2 of 5 아니다 means to not be, and is therefore the opposite of 이다. While English simply turns words like to be or to exist negative by adding not, Page 1 of 5 Learn Korean Ep. 4: To be and To exist Of course to be and to exist are different verbs, but they re often confused by beginning students when learning Korean. In English we sometimes use the

More information

_KF_Bulletin webcopy

_KF_Bulletin webcopy 1/6 1/13 1/20 1/27 -, /,, /,, /, Pursuing Truth Responding in Worship Marked by Love Living the Gospel 20 20 Bible In A Year: Creation & God s Characters : Genesis 1:1-31 Pastor Ken Wytsma [ ] Discussion

More information

<BABBB9AE2E687770>

<BABBB9AE2E687770> 253 단소산조 퉁소산조 피리산조 형성시기 재검토 49) 이진원* Ⅰ. 머리말 Ⅱ. 기존 연구성과 검토 Ⅲ. 단소산조 퉁소산조 피리산조 형성시기 검토 Ⅳ. 단소산조 퉁소산조 피리산조 형성시기 재검토의 의의 Ⅴ. 맺음말 Ⅰ. 머릿말 우리나라의 대표적인 종취관악기(縱吹管樂器)에는 무황악기(無簧樂器)인 퉁소 단소가 있 고, 유황악기(有簧樂器)로 피리와 쇄납 등이

More information

<32382DC3BBB0A2C0E5BED6C0DA2E687770>

<32382DC3BBB0A2C0E5BED6C0DA2E687770> 논문접수일 : 2014.12.20 심사일 : 2015.01.06 게재확정일 : 2015.01.27 청각 장애자들을 위한 보급형 휴대폰 액세서리 디자인 프로토타입 개발 Development Prototype of Low-end Mobile Phone Accessory Design for Hearing-impaired Person 주저자 : 윤수인 서경대학교 예술대학

More information

09김정식.PDF

09김정식.PDF 00-09 2000. 12 ,,,,.,.,.,,,,,,.,,..... . 1 1 7 2 9 1. 9 2. 13 3. 14 3 16 1. 16 2. 21 3. 39 4 43 1. 43 2. 52 3. 56 4. 66 5. 74 5 78 1. 78 2. 80 3. 86 6 88 90 Ex e cu t iv e Su m m a r y 92 < 3-1> 22 < 3-2>

More information

44-3대지.08류주현c

44-3대지.08류주현c A Comparative Study on the Commuting Regional Type According to the Features of Foreigner Commuting Ju-Hyun Ryu* Abstract The purposes of this study are to identify many implications of commuting regional

More information

139~144 ¿À°ø¾àħ

139~144 ¿À°ø¾àħ 2 139 DOI : 10.3831/KPI.2010.13.2.139 2 Received : 10. 04. 08 Revised : 10. 04. 26 Two Case Report on Wrist Ganglion Treated with Scolopendrid Pharmacopuncture Accepted : 10. 05. 04 Key Words: Wrist Ganglion,

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering 한국정보통신학회논문지(J. Korea Inst. Inf. Commun. Eng.) Vol. 19, No. 5 : 1031~1039 May. 2015 정보보호 산업의 경제적 파급효과 및 기여도 분석 김방룡 1 홍재표 2* Economic

More information

THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE Feb.; 29(2), IS

THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE Feb.; 29(2), IS THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. 2018 Feb.; 29(2), 93 98. http://dx.doi.org/10.5515/kjkiees.2018.29.2.93 ISSN 1226-3133 (Print) ISSN 2288-226X (Online) UHF-HF

More information

<30312DC1A4BAB8C5EBBDC5C7E0C1A4B9D7C1A4C3A52DC1A4BFB5C3B62E687770>

<30312DC1A4BAB8C5EBBDC5C7E0C1A4B9D7C1A4C3A52DC1A4BFB5C3B62E687770> Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering 한국정보통신학회논문지(J. Korea Inst. Inf. Commun. Eng.) Vol. 19, No. 2 : 258~264 Feb. 2015 ID3 알고리즘 기반의 귀납적 추론을 활용한 모바일 OS의 성공과 실패에 대한

More information

03-ÀÌÁ¦Çö

03-ÀÌÁ¦Çö 25 3 (2004 9 ) J Korean Oriental Med 2004;25(3):20-31 1), 2), 3) 1) 2) 3) Grope for a Summary Program about Intellectual Property Protection of Traditional Knowledge (TK)etc. Discussed in WIPO Hwan-Soo

More information

서론 34 2

서론 34 2 34 2 Journal of the Korean Society of Health Information and Health Statistics Volume 34, Number 2, 2009, pp. 165 176 165 진은희 A Study on Health related Action Rates of Dietary Guidelines and Pattern of

More information

ePapyrus PDF Document

ePapyrus PDF Document 육아지원연구 2008. 제 3권 1 호, 147-170 어린이집에서의 낮잠에 대한 교사와 부모의 인식 및 실제 이 슬 기(동작구 보육정보센터)* 1) 요 약 본 연구의 목적은 어린이집에서의 일과 중 낮잠 시간에 대한 교사와 부모의 인식 및 실제를 알아봄 으로써, 교사와 부모의 협력을 통해 바람직한 낮잠 시간을 모색해 보는 데 있었다. 연구 대상은 서울, 경기지역

More information

歯kjmh2004v13n1.PDF

歯kjmh2004v13n1.PDF 13 1 ( 24 ) 2004 6 Korean J Med Hist 13 20 36 June 2004 ISSN 1225 505X * 1 1886 ( ) 1) 1905 * 1) 20 2) 1910 1926 1910 1926 1930 40 2 1899 1907 3) 4) 1908 1909 ( ) ( ) ( 2) 1995 1998 3) 1997 p 376 4) 1956

More information

퇴좈저널36호-4차-T.ps, page 2 @ Preflight (2)

퇴좈저널36호-4차-T.ps, page 2 @ Preflight (2) Think Big, Act Big! Character People Literature Beautiful Life History Carcere Mamertino World Special Interview Special Writing Math English Quarts I have been driven many times to my knees by the overwhelming

More information

THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 29, no. 10, Oct ,,. 0.5 %.., cm mm FR4 (ε r =4.4)

THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 29, no. 10, Oct ,,. 0.5 %.., cm mm FR4 (ε r =4.4) THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. 2018 Oct.; 29(10), 799 804. http://dx.doi.org/10.5515/kjkiees.2018.29.10.799 ISSN 1226-3133 (Print) ISSN 2288-226X (Online) Method

More information

Special Issue Food borne Parasitic Diseases Jong Yil Chai, M.D. Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine Seoul National University College of

Special Issue Food borne Parasitic Diseases Jong Yil Chai, M.D. Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine Seoul National University College of Special Issue Food borne Parasitic Diseases Jong Yil Chai, M.D. Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine Seoul National University College of Medicine E mail : cjy@snu.ac.kr Abstract This article

More information

09권오설_ok.hwp

09권오설_ok.hwp (JBE Vol. 19, No. 5, September 2014) (Regular Paper) 19 5, 2014 9 (JBE Vol. 19, No. 5, September 2014) http://dx.doi.org/10.5909/jbe.2014.19.5.656 ISSN 2287-9137 (Online) ISSN 1226-7953 (Print) a) Reduction

More information

THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE Nov.; 26(11),

THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE Nov.; 26(11), THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. 2015 Nov.; 26(11), 985991. http://dx.doi.org/10.5515/kjkiees.2015.26.11.985 ISSN 1226-3133 (Print)ISSN 2288-226X (Online) Analysis

More information

141(26) 20056 1930 19 () ( ( ) () () () ) 2) 1932 ()()3) 2 1) 1897519( ) ( ) () () () 4) ( ) 5) 6) 15-20 7) 191216 2) ( ) () 42 () 193111 12 1933 4 3)

141(26) 20056 1930 19 () ( ( ) () () () ) 2) 1932 ()()3) 2 1) 1897519( ) ( ) () () () 4) ( ) 5) 6) 15-20 7) 191216 2) ( ) () 42 () 193111 12 1933 4 3) 141(26) 20056 Korean J Med Hist 14131 Jun 2005 ISSN 1225505X ( 1897-1982) * ** 1 ( 1897-1982) ( ) 1) 3 1 ( ) 1930 1930 1930 * () ** 1) ( 2000 p 13-15) 1 141(26) 20056 1930 19 () ( ( ) () () () ) 2) 1932

More information

<31382D322D3420BDC5B1D4C8AF5FB3EDB9AE28C3D6C1BEBABB292E687770>

<31382D322D3420BDC5B1D4C8AF5FB3EDB9AE28C3D6C1BEBABB292E687770> 醫 史 學 제18권 제2호(통권 제35호) 2009년 12월 Korean J Med Hist 18ː57 72 18ː173-188 Dec. Dec. 2009 2009 C 大 韓 醫 史 學 會 ISSN ISSN 1225 505X 1225-505X 지방병 연구와 식민지배 : 1927년 영흥 및 해남지역 에메틴 중독사건을 중심으로 신 규 환* 1. 머리말 2. 일제의

More information

Can032.hwp

Can032.hwp Chromosomal Alterations in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines Detected by Comparative Genomic Hybridization Sang Jin Park 1, Mahn Joon Ha, Ph.D. 1, Hugh Chul Kim, M.D. 2 and Hyon Ju Kim, M.D. 1 1 Laboratory

More information

大学4年生の正社員内定要因に関する実証分析

大学4年生の正社員内定要因に関する実証分析 190 2016 JEL Classification Number J24, I21, J20 Key Words JILPT 2011 1 190 Empirical Evidence on the Determinants of Success in Full-Time Job-Search for Japanese University Students By Hiroko ARAKI and

More information

03¹ü¼±±Ô

03¹ü¼±±Ô Relevancy between Aliases of Eight Provinces and Topographical Features during the Chosun Dynasty Seon-Gyu Beom* Abstract : In Korea, aside from their official administrative names, aliases of each province

More information

02À±¼ø¿Á

02À±¼ø¿Á Geomorphic Development of Marine Terraces at Jeongdongjin-Daejin area on the East Coast, Central Part of Korean Peninsula Soon-Ock Yoon*, Sang-Ill Hwang** and Hak-Kyun Ban*** Abstract : In this paper we

More information

인문사회과학기술융합학회

인문사회과학기술융합학회 Vol.5, No.5, October (2015), pp.471-479 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ajmahs.2015.10.50 스마트온실을 위한 가상 외부기상측정시스템 개발 한새론 1), 이재수 2), 홍영기 3), 김국환 4), 김성기 5), 김상철 6) Development of Virtual Ambient Weather Measurement

More information

49-9분동안 표지 3.3

49-9분동안 표지 3.3 In the ocean, humans create many noises. These noises disturb the waters. People do not know that manmade sound harms the creatures living in the sea. In the end, disturbing the ocean affects each one

More information

Lumbar spine

Lumbar spine Lumbar spine CT 32 111 DOI : 10.3831/KPI.2010.13.2.111 Lumbar Spine CT 32 Received : 10. 05. 23 Revised : 10. 06. 04 Accepted : 10. 06. 11 Key Words: Disc herniation, CT scan, Clinical analysis The Clinical

More information

Vol.259 C O N T E N T S M O N T H L Y P U B L I C F I N A N C E F O R U M

Vol.259 C O N T E N T S M O N T H L Y P U B L I C F I N A N C E F O R U M 2018.01 Vol.259 C O N T E N T S 02 06 28 61 69 99 104 120 M O N T H L Y P U B L I C F I N A N C E F O R U M 2 2018.1 3 4 2018.1 1) 2) 6 2018.1 3) 4) 7 5) 6) 7) 8) 8 2018.1 9 10 2018.1 11 2003.08 2005.08

More information

<BFA9BAD02DB0A1BBF3B1A4B0ED28C0CCBCF6B9FC2920B3BBC1F62E706466>

<BFA9BAD02DB0A1BBF3B1A4B0ED28C0CCBCF6B9FC2920B3BBC1F62E706466> 001 002 003 004 005 006 008 009 010 011 2010 013 I II III 014 IV V 2010 015 016 017 018 I. 019 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 028 029 030 031 032 033 034 035 036 037 038 039 040 III. 041 042 III. 043

More information

THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE Jun.; 27(6),

THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE Jun.; 27(6), THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. 2016 Jun.; 27(6), 495 503. http://dx.doi.org/10.5515/kjkiees.2016.27.6.495 ISSN 1226-3133 (Print) ISSN 2288-226X (Online) Design

More information

` Companies need to play various roles as the network of supply chain gradually expands. Companies are required to form a supply chain with outsourcing or partnerships since a company can not

More information

Kor. J. Aesthet. Cosmetol., 및 자아존중감과 스트레스와도 밀접한 관계가 있고, 만족 정도 에 따라 전반적인 생활에도 영향을 미치므로 신체는 갈수록 개 인적, 사회적 차원에서 중요해지고 있다(안희진, 2010). 따라서 외모만족도는 개인의 신체는 타

Kor. J. Aesthet. Cosmetol., 및 자아존중감과 스트레스와도 밀접한 관계가 있고, 만족 정도 에 따라 전반적인 생활에도 영향을 미치므로 신체는 갈수록 개 인적, 사회적 차원에서 중요해지고 있다(안희진, 2010). 따라서 외모만족도는 개인의 신체는 타 RESEARCH ARTICLE Kor. J. Aesthet. Cosmetol., 20-40대 여성의 외모만족도가 미용관리태도에 미치는 영향 홍수남 1, 김효숙 2 * 1 건국대학교 뷰티사이언스디자인학과, 2 건국대학교 의상디자인과 Effects of Extrinsic Body Satisfaction on Beauty Management Behavior of

More information

<303220BAAFB1A4BCAE2E687770>

<303220BAAFB1A4BCAE2E687770> 한국민족문화 33, 2009. 3, 39~73쪽 임진왜란 직후 기장지역의 상황과 被 虜 人 沙 器 匠 1)변 광 석* 1. 머리말 2. 16세기 전후 기장현의 상황 3. 기장의 陶 瓷 와 沙 器 匠 4. 被 虜 人 사기장과 기장지역 1) 경상도 일원 주민의 납치 2) 주요 피로인 사기장들의 출신지역 문제 3) 回 答 兼 刷 還 使 의 피로인 송환시도와 현지의

More information

대한한의학원전학회지26권4호-교정본(1125).hwp

대한한의학원전학회지26권4호-교정본(1125).hwp http://www.wonjeon.org http://dx.doi.org/10.14369/skmc.2013.26.4.267 熱入血室證에 대한 小考 1 2 慶熙大學校大學校 韓醫學科大學 原典學敎室 韓醫學古典硏究所 白裕相1, 2 *117) A Study on the Pattern of 'Heat Entering The Blood Chamber' 1, Baik 1

More information

THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE Sep.; 30(9),

THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE Sep.; 30(9), THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. 2019 Sep.; 30(9), 712 717. http://dx.doi.org/10.5515/kjkiees.2019.30.9.712 ISSN 1226-3133 (Print) ISSN 2288-226X (Online) MOS

More information

........

........ Investigation of the Korean Traditional Hobun Manufacturing Technique NATIONAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF CULTURAL HERITAGE 2008 Investigation of the Korean Traditional Hobun Manufacturing Technique - Centering

More information

04_이근원_21~27.hwp

04_이근원_21~27.hwp 1) KIGAS Vol. 16, No. 5, pp 21~27, 2012 (Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas) http://dx.doi.org/10.7842/kigas.2012.16.5.21 실험실의 사례 분석에 관한 연구 이근원 이정석 한국산업안전보건공단 산업안전보건연구원 (2012년 9월 5일 투고, 2012년 10월 19일

More information

10(3)-12.fm

10(3)-12.fm w y wz 10«3y 273~280 (2010.12.) Journal of Korean Society of Urban Environment p yá xá½k w y œw (2010 9 15, 2010 12 2 k) Analysis of Characteristics of Delivered Nonpoint Source Pollution at Forested Watershed

More information

泰 東 古 典 硏 究 第 24 輯 이상적인 정치 사회의 구현 이라는 의미를 가지므로, 따라서 천인 합일론은 가장 적극적인 경세의 이론이 된다고 할 수 있다. 권근은 경서의 내용 중에서 현실 정치의 귀감으로 삼을 만한 천인합일의 원칙과 사례들을 발견하고, 이를 연구하여

泰 東 古 典 硏 究 第 24 輯 이상적인 정치 사회의 구현 이라는 의미를 가지므로, 따라서 천인 합일론은 가장 적극적인 경세의 이론이 된다고 할 수 있다. 권근은 경서의 내용 중에서 현실 정치의 귀감으로 삼을 만한 천인합일의 원칙과 사례들을 발견하고, 이를 연구하여 權 近 의 五 經 인식 - 經 學 과 經 世 論 의 연결을 중심으로 - 姜 文 植 * 1. 머리말 2. 經 學 과 經 世 論 연결의 이론적 기반 3. 五 經 淺 見 錄 의 經 典 해석과 經 世 論 4. 맺음말 요약문 권근( 權 近 )은 체용론( 體 用 論 )에 입각하여 오경( 五 經 ) 간의 관계 및 각 경서의 근본 성격을 규정하였다. 체용론에서 용( 用 )

More information

09È«¼®¿µ 5~152s

09È«¼®¿µ5~152s Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol.23, No.2, 2007, pp.45~52 Measurement of Backscattering Coefficients of Rice Canopy Using a Ground Polarimetric Scatterometer System Suk-Young Hong*, Jin-Young Hong**,

More information

에너지경제연구 제13권 제1호

에너지경제연구 제13권 제1호 에너지경제연구 Korean Energy Economic Review Volume 13, Number 1, March 2014 : pp. 83~119 거시계량모형을이용한유가변동및 유류세변화의파급효과분석 * 83 84 85 86 [ 그림 1] 모형의해결정과정 87 [ 그림 2] 거시계량모형의흐름도 (flow chart) 88 89 < 표 1> 유류세현황 (2013

More information

00내지1번2번

00내지1번2번 www.keit.re.kr 2011. 11 Technology Level Evaluation ABSTRACT The Technology Level Evaluation assesses the current level of industrial technological development in Korea and identifies areas that are underdeveloped

More information

Crt114( ).hwp

Crt114( ).hwp cdna Microarray Experiment: Design Issues in Early Stage and the Need of Normalization Byung Soo Kim, Ph.D. 1, Sunho Lee, Ph.D. 2, Sun Young Rha, M.D., Ph.D. 3,4 and Hyun Cheol Chung, M.D., Ph.D. 3,4 1

More information

http://www.kbc.go.kr/pds/2.html Abstract Exploring the Relationship Between the Traditional Media Use and the Internet Use Mee-Eun Kang This study examines the relationship between

More information

11¹ÚÇý·É

11¹ÚÇý·É Journal of Fashion Business Vol. 6, No. 5, pp.125~135(2002) The Present State of E-Business according to the Establishment Year and the Sales Approach of Dongdaemun Clothing Market Park, Hea-Ryung* and

More information

황지웅

황지웅 Comparison of Laparoscopy and Exploration in the Distal Pancreatectomy BACKGROUND: To determine the benefits of laparoscopic surgery compared with exploration, the clinical outcomes of open and laparoscopic

More information

<303038C0AFC8A3C1BE5B315D2DB1B3C1A42E687770>

<303038C0AFC8A3C1BE5B315D2DB1B3C1A42E687770> 배아복제논의에있어서단정적태도와 오류가능성인정태도 1) 유호종 * (ethics) (bioethics),,,........ (1) (2) (3) (4).. *,, 226 I. 서론.. 2004,.. 2004,.,,,. 1). 3 1) (Nature, Vol. 429(2004 ) www.nature.com). 227. 2004 11 19..,.. 2)..,...

More information

7 1 ( 12 ) 1998. 1913 ( 1912 ) 4. 3) 1916 3 1918 4 1919. ( ) 1 3 1, 3 1. 1.. 1919 1920. 4) ( ), ( ),. 5) 1924 4 ( ) 1. 1925 1. 2). ( ). 6). ( ). ( ).

7 1 ( 12 ) 1998. 1913 ( 1912 ) 4. 3) 1916 3 1918 4 1919. ( ) 1 3 1, 3 1. 1.. 1919 1920. 4) ( ), ( ),. 5) 1924 4 ( ) 1. 1925 1. 2). ( ). 6). ( ). ( ). 7 1 ( 12 ) : 1-11, 1998 K orean J M ed H ist 7 : 1-11, 1998 ISSN 1225-505X * **.,.., 1960.... 1) ( ) 1896 3 2 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2. 1), 14 1909 1,. 14 17 1913. 2)..,. ( ) ( ),. * 1998 (1998. 5. 7). ** 1).

More information

<B7CEC4C3B8AEC6BCC0CEB9AEC7D0322832303039B3E23130BFF9292E687770>

<B7CEC4C3B8AEC6BCC0CEB9AEC7D0322832303039B3E23130BFF9292E687770> 로컬리티 인문학 2, 2009. 10, 257~285쪽 좌절된 세계화와 로컬리티 - 1960년대 한국영화와 재외한인 양 인 실* 50) 국문초록 세계화 로컬리티는 특정장소나 경계를 지칭하는 것이 아니라 관계와 시대에 따 라 유동적으로 변화하는 개념이다. 1960년대 한국영화는 유례없는 변화를 맞이하고 있었다. 그 중 가장 특이할 만한 사실은 미국과 일본의 영화계에서

More information

1. 2. 2 1. 2 2. 2 3. 3. 3 3 1. 3 2. 3 3. 4. 4 1. : 4 2. : (KSVD) 4 3. : 88 5. 36

1. 2. 2 1. 2 2. 2 3. 3. 3 3 1. 3 2. 3 3. 4. 4 1. : 4 2. : (KSVD) 4 3. : 88 5. 36 , 1965 1994: 3 1965 (Konstfackskolan). 1996. (, 2004) :, (, 2010), 20 (, 2005), :,, (, 2005), 02: (, 2008), (KDF, 2009), (, 2011), (, 2011). ( _, 2011 3 ), : ( 前 史 ) (, 102, 2012). 35 1. 2. 2 1. 2 2. 2

More information

02이용배(239~253)ok

02이용배(239~253)ok A study on the characteristic of land use in subcenter of Seoul. - Cases of Yeongdeungpo and Kangnam Ok Kyung Yuh* Yong-Bae Lee**,. 2010,,..,.,,,,.,,.,,.,,,, Abstract : This study analyzed the land use

More information

272 石 堂 論 叢 49집 기꾼이 많이 확인된 결과라 할 수 있다. 그리고 이야기의 유형이 가족 담, 도깨비담, 동물담, 지명유래담 등으로 한정되어 있음도 확인하였 다. 전국적인 광포성을 보이는 이인담이나 저승담, 지혜담 등이 많이 조사되지 않은 점도 특징이다. 아울

272 石 堂 論 叢 49집 기꾼이 많이 확인된 결과라 할 수 있다. 그리고 이야기의 유형이 가족 담, 도깨비담, 동물담, 지명유래담 등으로 한정되어 있음도 확인하였 다. 전국적인 광포성을 보이는 이인담이나 저승담, 지혜담 등이 많이 조사되지 않은 점도 특징이다. 아울 271 부산지역 구비설화 이야기꾼의 현황과 특징 정 규 식* 1) - 목 차 - Ⅰ. 서론 Ⅱ. 부산지역 구비설화 이야기꾼의 전반적 현황 1. 이야기꾼의 여성 편중성 2. 구연 자료의 민요 편중성 3. 이야기꾼의 가변적 구연력 4. 이야기 유형의 제한성 5. 이야기꾼 출생지의 비부산권 강세 Ⅲ. 부산지역 구비설화 이야기꾼의 특징 Ⅳ. 결론 개 요 본고의 목적은

More information

달생산이 초산모 분만시간에 미치는 영향 Ⅰ. 서 론 Ⅱ. 연구대상 및 방법 達 은 23) 의 丹 溪 에 최초로 기 재된 처방으로, 에 복용하면 한 다하여 난산의 예방과 및, 등에 널리 활용되어 왔다. 達 은 이 毒 하고 는 甘 苦 하여 氣, 氣 寬,, 結 의 효능이 있

달생산이 초산모 분만시간에 미치는 영향 Ⅰ. 서 론 Ⅱ. 연구대상 및 방법 達 은 23) 의 丹 溪 에 최초로 기 재된 처방으로, 에 복용하면 한 다하여 난산의 예방과 및, 등에 널리 활용되어 왔다. 達 은 이 毒 하고 는 甘 苦 하여 氣, 氣 寬,, 結 의 효능이 있 대한한방부인과학회지 THE JOURNAL OF ORIENTAL OBSTETRICS & GYNECOLOGY VOL.17, NO.2 : 115-122 (2004) 달생산이 초산모 분만시간에 미치는 영향 * 북경한의원, ** 윤산부인과의원, *** 최은림산부인과의원, 상지대학교 한의과대학 부인과학교실 ****, 경희대학교 동서의학대학원 김성준 *****, 윤왕준

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA The e-business Studies Volume 17, Number 6, December, 30, 2016:275~289 Received: 2016/12/02, Accepted: 2016/12/22 Revised: 2016/12/20, Published: 2016/12/30 [ABSTRACT] SNS is used in various fields. Although

More information

44-4대지.07이영희532~

44-4대지.07이영희532~ A Spatial Location Analysis of the First Shops of Foodservice Franchise in Seoul Metropolitan City Younghee Lee* 1 1 (R) 0 16 1 15 64 1 Abstract The foodservice franchise is preferred by the founders who

More information

Æ÷Àå½Ã¼³94š

Æ÷Àå½Ã¼³94š Cho, Mun Jin (E-mail: mjcho@ex.co.kr) ABSTRACT PURPOSES : The performance of tack coat, commonly used for layer interface bonding, is affected by application rate and curing time. In this study, bonding

More information

(

( 317 318 319 320 1 3 5 5 5 5 2 321 : 1.,,,,, 06 2. X-ray beam penetration (density) (contrast) 03 3. patch coating, precipitation, flaking 03 4. centering 03 5. Esophagus, cardia, fundus, body, angle, antrum,

More information

11¹Ú´ö±Ô

11¹Ú´ö±Ô A Review on Promotion of Storytelling Local Cultures - 265 - 2-266 - 3-267 - 4-268 - 5-269 - 6 7-270 - 7-271 - 8-272 - 9-273 - 10-274 - 11-275 - 12-276 - 13-277 - 14-278 - 15-279 - 16 7-280 - 17-281 -

More information

5. .......hwp

5. .......hwp X i D i ) 8 6 4 2 0-2 -4 1987 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 year 12 8 4 0-4 -8 1987 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 year 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 1987 19 90 1994 1998 2002 year ln W X 30

More information

04±èºÎ¼º

04±èºÎ¼º Introduction of Integrated Coastal Management Program and Sustainable Development of Fishing Villages in Cheonsu Bay Region* Boosung Kim** Abstract : Sustainable Development(SD) is an important concept

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2016, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp DOI: * Experiences of Af

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2016, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp DOI:   * Experiences of Af Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2016, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp.201-229 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.26.2.201608.201 * Experiences of After-school Class Caring by Married Early Childhood

More information