Journal of the KIMST, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp , 2016 ISSN DOI Research Paper 시험평가부문 화포소음저감을

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1 Journal of the KIMST, Vol. 19, No. 4, pp , 2016 ISSN DOI Research Paper 시험평가부문 이해석 1) 홍준희 *,2) 1) 국방과학연구소제 8 기술연구본부 2) 충남대학교기계공학과 An Experimental Study on Installation of the Shielding Material to Reduce the Shock Noise of a Gun Haesuk Lee 1) Junhee Hong *,2) 1) The 8th Research and Development Institute, Agency for Defense Development, Korea 2) Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chungnam National University, Korea (Received 22 January 2016 / Revised 31 March 2016 / Accepted 17 June 2016) ABSTRACT The paper represents the experimental analysis of the shock noise of medium caliber guns when a projectile is passed through the shielding material. In the study, the shielding material was constructed and tested in three separate experiments. The shielding material was not installed for medium caliber gun in Case 1. A medium caliber gun was fully covered with shielding material in Case 2, and another one was put with shielding material near muzzle in Case 3. In each experiment, the experimental data was compared with each other. Results showed the firing shielding material achieved a significant noise reduction in 90 to the noise source. Case 3 is confirmed to be better effective than Case 2 in the near field. But, the noise reduction in the far field is small in quantity due to the low frequency. The paper is considered that further study is necessary for the shielding material which can absorb a low frequency noise in the future. Key Words : Shock Noise( 충격소음 ), Shielding Material( 차폐재 ), Noise Reduction( 소음감소 ) 1. 서론 충격소음은소리의세기가매우빠른속도로증가하고지속시간이짧은소음으로소음레벨의최대세기 * Corresponding author, Copyright c The Korea Institute of Military Science and Technology (peak intensity) 까지 35 ms 이하의상승시간과피크레벨로부터 20 db 감쇠되는소리로써정의된다 [1]. 이와같이충격소음은 140 db 이상으로사격요원의청각또는인체에심각한손상을줄뿐만아니라사격장주위민가로부터많은민원발생소지가있어이에대한대책방안마련이필요한실정이다 [2~4]. 사격장에서포탄발사에의해발생하는충격소음의 한국군사과학기술학회지제 19 권제 4 호 (2016 년 8 월 ) / 453

2 이해석 홍준희 원인은크게세가지로분류할수있으며그첫째는포탄의포구이탈에앞선공기분출로발생하는선임충격파 (Precursor shock wave), 둘째로는포탄이탈로발생하는탄자파열음 (Projectile burst shock wave), 셋째로는포탄이탈후추진가스의고폭분출 (High explosive emission) 로인해발생되는추진가스폭풍파 (Propellant shock wave) 이다. Fig. 1은추진가스의분출로발생되는충격파의개략도이다. 사하여탄자가대형튜브를통과할때감음효과를측정함으로써소음차폐용튜브를제작하기위한기초설계데이터를획득하였다. 지금까지의연구결과에서는주로소총류에대한소음저감목적으로방음사격장에대한소음저감시뮬레이션또는차폐재등에대한실험을수행해왔다. Fig. 1. Propellant shock wave 충격파경계를둘러싸고원형의형태로진행하며형성되는것이연기기둥이며기둥내부에는경사충격파인배럴충격파 (Barrel shock) 와수직충격파인마하디스크 (Mach disk) 가존재한다. 이연기기둥을경계로외부는내부에비해매우낮은온도와높은온도를갖는유동이형성된다 [5~7]. 포탄사격시 Fig. 1과같이포구쪽에서주로발생되는충격소음을저감하기위한방안으로방음시설또는차폐재분야에대한연구는극히제한적으로이루어져왔으며주요연구결과는다음과같다. 정아영, 김재수 [8] 는군부대방음사격장의음향특성분석및사격소음예측을위하여방음사격장을대상으로 AutoCAD를이용하여모델링후 ODEON이라는음향시뮬레이션프로그램을이용하여사격장내부의음향특성을파악하여이를토대로사로에서의사격시방음사격장출구부분의음압레벨을예측하였다. 이상우 [9] 등은현재군에서운용되고있는소화기사격장에서실제사격간발생하는소음을측정하여일부군부대에서설치및운용되고있는차폐재, 간이소음저감장치및실내사격장을비롯한여러가지소음저감방법들의실제소음의저감정도를평가하였다. 이진호 [10] 는 K2 소총사격시발생하는폭발소음을감소시킬수있는장치개발에필요한기초자료를조 Fig. 2. A figure installed a shielding material around 40 mm medium caliber gun 따라서본연구에서는 Fig. 2와같이중구경화포에서발생하는충격소음을저감할수있는이동식차폐재 ( 가로 : 3,690 mm, 세로 : 2,460 mm, 길이 : 4,920 mm) 를포구전방에설치하여감음효과를측정분석함으로써향후화포소음저감용차폐재연구를위한기초자료를제공하고자한다. 논문의전반부에서는음압특성에대한관련이론을고찰하였으며중반부에서는소음계측방법과차폐재의구조안전성등에대하여기술하였다. 후반부에서는거리및각도변화에따른충격소음특성, 차폐재유무에따른소음저감도비교, 차폐재위치변경등에따른소음저감비교등을하였으며, 결론으로화포소음저감을위한차폐제설치위치및설계방안등을제시하였다. 2. 이론적배경 2.1 소음성분분석인간은공기의압력변화가고막에가해질때소리로느끼게된다. 인간의소리에대한감각은로그척도에대응하며소리의크기는최소음압을기준값으로한음압레벨로식 (1) 과같이정의된다. 최소음압은 454 / 한국군사과학기술학회지제 19 권제 4 호 (2016 년 8 월 )

3 1 khz에서 = N/m 2 이며 는계측시간, 는음압레벨이다. 음압레벨은소리를만들어내는공기진동의압력, 즉, 소리가나타내는물리적인압력을측정하는것으로서그것은고정된기준압력 ( ) 과실제의음압 ( ) 과의비로서측정되는상대적인양으로, 사람이감지하는음압범위 (20 µpa ~ 60 µpa) 가크기때문에수를다루는데편의성을제공하기위하여데시벨단위 (db) 를가지는대수눈금에의하여측정한다 [11]. log (1) 소음은음압뿐만아니라주파수나수음자의심리적상태에따라서다를수있기때문에귀의특성을고려한 된소음원의음압레벨을적용한다. 3. 실험장치및차폐재구조설계 3.1 실험장치및신호획득방법 Fig. 3은 40 mm 중구경화포를이용하여탄자가차폐재를통과할때소음저감효과를확인하기위해설계된실험장치의개략도이다. Case 1에서는차폐재를설치하지않은상태에서시험을수행하였으며 Case 2는차폐재를포마운트를감쌀수있도록하여시험을수행하였다. 최종적으로 Case 3에서는차폐재가포구끝단을차폐할수있도록설치하여소음저감량을확인하였다. 각 Case별로 5발씩단발사격을수행하여최대피크치 (Peak) 를측정하였으며소음측정지점은포구주위로부터 Fig. 4와같이포구반경 45, 90, 135 의 4 m, 8 m, 20 m 지점과포구우측으로 200 m 떨어진지점에서측정하였다 [12,13]. 음압센서는지상 1.5 m 위치에삼각대를이용하여설치하였으며기상상태는흐린날씨, 기온은영하 1도에습도는 25 % 조건이다. 사격에따른순간적인최대음압계측을위해신호획득장치는 DEWE-5000으로분해능 24 bit와샘플링 2 ks/sec가적용되어졌으며신호조절기는 DAQP-ACC -A가사용되었다. 자료처리는 Dewesoft 6.6.7을이용하였으며사용된센서는포구주위에 PCB 106B50(9개 ) 와포구에서우측으로 200 m 이격된지점에 B&K 4954-B(2개 ) 를설치하였다. Fig. 3. Designed shape of shielding material for medium caliber gun Fig. 4. Measurement of sound pressure 3.2 차폐재가설치된구조물설계본실험에사용된차폐재는방음재를형강에부착시킨구조로국부적으로발생되는폭압에대한영향만을고려하여 H형강 ( ) 과 C형강 ( ) 을사용하여제작하였다. 방음재는도로, 고속도로, 철도및공장등으로부터발생되어주거지로확산되는소음을차단하는수단으로널리사용되고있다. 방음재의성능은소음원으로부터방음재를회절하는 한국군사과학기술학회지제 19 권제 4 호 (2016 년 8 월 ) / 455

4 이해석 홍준희 음과방음재를직접투과하는음의합에의해설명된다. 일반적으로방음재를투과하는음은회절음에비해매우작기때문에방음재의성능은회절음의크기에의해좌우되게된다. H형강이부착된방음재는 2,450 mm 1,230 mm의크기로규격화되어있는재료로 H형강의좌, 우및상부에각각 4개씩설치하였다. 방음재두께는 110 mm로후면에는체크스틸판으로고정하였으며소음을흡수하는내부는 10 mm 철망을사용하여방음재를고정하였다. 사격실험은평각만으로수행할수있도록설계되어졌으며, 방음재가부착되는구조물은 Solidworks 2012를이용하여모델링한후 Cosmosworks 를이용하여응력해석을실시하였다. 응력해석시방음재는금속이아닌재질이므로구조적으로안전하다는판단하에 H형강에대하여포구압력을 70 kg/cm 2 (6,865 Pa) 으로가정하여해석하였다. Table 1은구조해석시사용된물성치를나타낸것으로방음재가설치되는 H형강은안전율이 2이상으로구조적으로안전성이있음을확인할수있었다. Fig. 5. A test result of Case 1(45 ) Table 1. Mesh properties for structural analysis Mesh property value A size of element(mm) Allowable tolerance(mm) Fig. 6. A test result of Case 1(90 ) Qualification High Number of element 446,158 Number of nodes 877, 실험및분석결과 4.1 거리변화에의한충격소음비교 (Case 1) Fig 5, 6, 7은차폐재을설치하지않고 Weighting을부여하지않은상태에서각도별로거리에따른충격소음을측정한결과로서포구에가까울수록높은충격소음이발생하며각도가커질수록대체적으로거리에따른차이가줄어드는것을확인할수있다. 그러나포마운트를중심으로 20 m 이격된지점에서의소음감소량은각도별로큰차이가없음을확인할수있다. Fig. 7. A test result of Case 1(135 ) 4.2 각도변화에의한충격소음비교 (Case 1) Fig. 8, 9, 10은차폐재을설치하지않은상태에서거리별로각도에따른소음을측정한결과이다. 포구에서나오는압력은주로전방으로분사되기때문에 456 / 한국군사과학기술학회지제 19 권제 4 호 (2016 년 8 월 )

5 각도가커질수록소음이줄어드는것을확인할수있다. 대체적으로 45 ~ 135 구간에서약 5 db 정도의소음저감효과가있으나 20 m 이격된지점에서의 90 ~ 135 구간에서는소음저감효과가적은것을알수있다. 4.3 차폐재유무에의한충격소음비교 Fig. 11, 12, 13, 14는 45 의 4 ~ 20 m와포마운트우측인 90 방향의 200 m 지점에서 Case1과 Case2을비교한그래프로서차폐재유무에따라약 5 db의소음저감효과가있으나 20 m 구간과 200 m 구간에서는소음감소량이크지않음을알수있다. Fig. 8. A test result of Case 1(4 m) Fig. 11. A comparative result with shielding material and shielding material(4 m) Fig. 9. A test result of Case 1(8 m) Fig. 12. A comparative result with shielding material and shielding material(8 m) Fig. 10. A test result of Case 1(20 m) Fig. 13. A comparative result with shielding material and shielding material(20 m) 한국군사과학기술학회지제 19 권제 4 호 (2016 년 8 월 ) / 457

6 이해석 홍준희 해서는차폐재가포구앞쪽으로많이도출되면될수록소음저감효과가좋은것으로확인되었다. Fig. 14. A comparative result with shielding material and shielding material(200 m) Fig. 16. A test result by location changing of shielding material(4 m) Fig. 15. A result of frequency analysis by Case changing(45, 20 m) Fig. 15는 Case를변화시키면서 45 방향의 20 m 이격된장소에서주파수에따른소음감소특성을나타낸그래프로서저주파수대역에서는소음감소량이큰차이를보이지않지만 2,500 Hz ~ 12,500 Hz 구간의고주파수영역에서는충격소음이크게줄어드는것을확인할수있다. Fig. 17. A test result by location changing of shielding material(8 m) 4.4 차폐재위치변경에의한충격소음비교 Fig. 16, 17, 18, 19는차폐재의설치위치변화에따른충격소음측정결과를비교한그래프로서근거리인 45 의 4 m 지점에서 Case 2의충격소음값이 Case 3보다크게발생되는것을확인할수있었다. 그러나차폐재에의한소음감소효과는고주파영역에서만해당되기때문에 4 m 지점이후인원거리에서는큰차이를보이지않음을확인할수있다. 본실험결과를통해근거리 (4 m, 45 ) 에서화포소음저감을위 Fig. 18. A test result by location changing of shielding material(20 m) 458 / 한국군사과학기술학회지제 19 권제 4 호 (2016 년 8 월 )

7 대칭이동시켜사용해도큰차이가없을것으로판단된다. Fig. 19. A test result by location changing of shielding material(200 m) 4.5 충격소음평균값비교 Fig. 20은 Case 변경과센서위치에따른소음저감평균값을나타낸것이다. 사격시사격음은최대약 16 db(4 m, = 90 ), 최소약 4 db(8 m, = 45 ) 가량감소하는것을볼수있으며포구를중심으로우측약 200 m 이격된거리에서는약 3 db의소음저감이있음을확인할수있다. Fig. 21. A comparative result with shielding material and without shielding material cover(4 m) Fig. 20. An effect of noise reduction by Case changing 본결과로부터도출해볼때포구근처에서많은소음이저감되므로실제사격을수행하는사수들에게차폐재설치시많은도움이될것으로판단되나원거리에서의소음은크게감소하지않으므로이에대한방안마련이필요할것으로판단된다. Fig. 21, 22, 23은 Case변화에따라사격된평균값을음압센서설치위치별로세부적으로나타낸것으로포구를기준으로 = 225 ~ 315 에서의계측값은필요할경우 = 45 ~ 135 의값을사격방향을중심으로 Fig. 22. A comparative result with shielding material and without shielding material cover(8 m) Fig. 21에서는거리가 4 m 이격되었을때 Case변화에따른계측값을나타낸것으로사격음은 Case 1과 Case 2에서최대약 16 db( = 90 ), Case 1과 Case 3 한국군사과학기술학회지제 19 권제 4 호 (2016 년 8 월 ) / 459

8 이해석 홍준희 에서최소 4 db( = 135 ) 가량감소한것을확인할수있다. 따라서중구경화포에서발생한추진가스의팽창과포탄에의한충격파로발생한소음은차폐재설치위치및각도에따라차이가있음을알수있다. Fig. 22에서는거리가 8 m 이격되었을때의그래프로서사격음은 Case 1과 Case 3에서최대약 12 db( = 90 ), Case 1과 Case 2에서최소약 4 db( = 45 ) 가량감소한것을확인할수있다. Fig. 23은거리가 20 m 이격되었을때의그래프로서최대약 15 db( = 90 ), 최소약 4 db( = 45 ) 가량소음이감소한것을볼수있다. Fig. 23. A comparative result with shielding material and without shielding material cover(20 m) 5. 결론 40 mm 중구경화포의포구주위에흡음재가포함된차폐재를설치하여소음저감효과실험을실시한결과전체적으로차폐재설치시소음이감소하였으며대체적으로근거리 4 m( = 135 ) 지점을제외하고 Case3 에서의충격소음이 Case2보다더많이저감되는것을확인할수있었다. 차폐재에의한소음감소는주로근거리영역에서발생하는것으로확인되었으며방사나투과소음이저감되었다는것은감소한양만큼반사될가능성이있으므로향후반사소음에대한추가연구가필요할것으로판단된다. References [1] John. E. K. F, Sound Analysis and Noise Control, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp. 208~209, [2] William J. Murphy, Randy L. Tubbs, Assessment of Noise Exposure for Indoor and Outdoor Firing Ranges, Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, ISSN: , pp. 688~697, September [3] I. S. Moon, H. S. Choi, H. S. Kim, J. Kim, W. S. Lee, Clinical Characteristics of Acoustic Trauma Caused by Rifle Gunshot Noise, Korean J Otorhinolaryngol-Head Neck Surg, DOI , pp. 699~ [4] MIL-STD-1474D, Department of Defense Design Criteria Standard, NOISE LIMITS, [5] K. J. Kang, S. H. Ko, D. S. Lee, A Study on Impulsive Sound Attenuation for a High-Pressure Blast Flowfield, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, [6] K. J. Kang, S. H. Ko, Y. K. Kwak, D. J. Lee, I. C. Lee, An Evaluation of Silencer Characteristics by Live Firing Test, Journal of the Korea Institute of Military Science and Technology Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 217~224, September [7] M. S. Park, T. W. Koo, B. S. Kang, Performance Evaluation for Noise Suppression of a Silencer in Small Arms, Journal of the Korea Society of Precision Engineering Vol. 20, No. 9, pp. 151~158, September [8]A. Y. Jeong, J. S. Kim, A analysis of Acoustic Characteristics and Shooting Noise Prediction for Shooting Range shielding in Military, Transactions of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering, Vol. 24, No. 11, pp. 833~839, November [9] S. W. Lee, H. S. Kim, S. J. Jeong, Measurement of Noise and Evaluation of Noise Control Methods for Military Rifle Shooting Ranges, Journal of the Korea Institute of Military Science and Technology Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 123~132, February [10] J. H. Lee, An Experimental Study on shielding 460 / 한국군사과학기술학회지제 19 권제 4 호 (2016 년 8 월 )

9 Apparatus for the Impulse Noise of K2 Rifle, Journal of the Korea Institute of Military Science and Technology Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 486~492, July [11] I. W. Cha, Noise and Vibration Engineering, Mood Woon Dang, korea, pp , [12] US Army TECOM, Sound Level Measurement, TOP , [13] Arnold P. G. Peterson, Handbook of Noise Measurement, GenRad Inc., USA, pp. 3-18, 한국군사과학기술학회지제 19 권제 4 호 (2016 년 8 월 ) / 461

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