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1 17) Original Article J Journal of Korean Society of Dental Hygiene 2015; 15(4): ISSN (Print) ISSN (Online) KSDH 한국치위생학회 김천시초등학교구강보건실운영을통한계속구강건강관리사업효과 최옥선 김혜진 1 장선주 2 대전대학교생물학과 1 동의대학교치위생학과 2 김천대학교치위생학과 Effect of continuing dental care program by elementary school dental clinic in Gimcheon Ok-Sun Choi Hye-Jin Kim 1 Sun-ju Jang 2 Department of Biology, Daejeon University 1 Department of Dental Hygiene, Dong-eui University 2 Department of Dental Hygiene, Gimcheon University *Corresponding Author: Sun-ju Jang, Department of Dental Hygiene, Gimcheon University, 214, Daehak-ro, Gimcheon-si, Gyeongsangbukdo, Korea, Tel : , Fax : , Received: 3 March 2015; Revised: 10 June 2015; Accepted: 30 July 2015 ABSTRACT Objectives: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of continuing dental care program by elementary school dental clinic in Gimcheon from 2008 to Methods: The subjects were experimental group of 152 students from three elementary schools having dental clinics and control group of 136 students from three elementary schools of no dental clinics. The six dentists in Gimcheon community health center carried out the regular dental checkups in the elementary schools and four dental hygienists recorded the dental examination results. After receiving WHO dental survey guideline education, the examiners used dental mirror and dental probe under the natural light. The contents of the survey included dental caries in the deciduous and permanent teeth, malocclusion, remaining ratio of sealant, treatment, and follow up. Results: DFT index by grade showed that 3.71 in experimental group and 4.56 in control group and it was remarkable in the 3rd grade. Thus. DFT index in the experimental group was lower than that of control group (p<0.05). DT index by grade was 0.63 in experimental group and 1.28 in control group marked in the 6th grade. DT index in the control group was higher than that of the experimental group (p<0,001). DFT index and DMFT Index by grade showed no significant difference between the control group and the experimental group. DFT and DMFT Index of the control group in the 3rd and 6th grade were lower score than those of experimental group. DFT and DMFT index in the third and 6th grade showed no significant difference between the control group and the experimental group. The remaining ratio of the sealant was 4.89 experimental group in the 6th grade. The remaining ratio of the sealant in the experimental group was higher than that in the control group. Conclusions: The continuing dental care program in the elementary school is very effective method in the treatment of oral disease in the elementary school children. The oral health care and prevention for the elementary school children should be implemented and carried out continuously. Key Words: continuing oral health program, school dental clinic, school children 색인 : 구강건강증진프로그램, 학교구강보건, 학생 서론 Copyrightc2015 by Journal of Korean Society of Dental Hygiene This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 초등학생의구강은유치에서영구치로교환되는시기로구강의대표적질환인치아우식증의발생률이높고, 혼합치열기로서부정교합률이높게나타나며치은염이서서히시작되는시기이다. 치아우식증을방치하면치아상실의원인이

2 706 J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2015; 15(4): 되며유치를너무일찍상실하거나유치가만기잔존이될경우부정교합의원인이된다. 이러한시기에구강에대한전반적인지식과태도에대한교육이이루어져야하고, 구강보건행동을습관화하여구강건강관리의기틀을마련해야한다 1). 또한초등학교아동들을대상으로포괄적인구강진료를제공하기위해서는학교구강보건실이확대설치되어야하며구강보건전담인력이상주하여예방진료와교육을병행하여야한다 2). 학교구강보건사업은 1923년뉴질랜드에서처음으로실시된것으로담당구강보건인력이대상아동을계속적으로소환하여구강병예방진료와필요한치료를공급해준다. 우리나라학교구강보건실은 1978년서울대학교치과대학에서창경초등학교를대상으로실시한것이시초이다. 그이후국립보건원은봉일천초등학교, 단국대학교치과대학에서는목천초등학교에시범학교구강진료실을설치 운영하였다. 1999년도에국고지원을통해전국 15개초등학교에학교구강보건실을설치 운영하였으며 1), 이후해마다점차확대되어 2007년도에는전국초등학교 312개소, 특수학교 45개소로추가설치되었고 3) 2012년에는특수학교학교구강보건실을 51개소로추가설치 운영되고있다 4). 학교구강보건실운영사업은학교내에구강보건실을설치하고치과의사와치과위생사가정기적으로근무하면서학생들에게포괄보건진료서비스를제공해주는사업으로호주에서계속적으로수행함으로써 9.0이였던 12세아동우식경험영구치지수를 1.0으로, 뉴질랜드에서는 1979년 7.0에서 1993 년 1.7까지낮추는데큰역할을하였고 5), 일본 Kobayashi 등 6) 의연구에서 17년간학교불소용액사업을실시한결과 6~14 세아동의우식경험영구치지수가 86.0% 감소하였다. 우리나라연구로는박등 7) 의연구에서는대구소재초등학교에서 5 년간학교구강보건실을운영한결과영구치우식예방율이 60.8% 로높게나타났고, 치면열구전색영구치보유자율도 6 학년에서 89.2% 로나타났으며, 마등 8) 의연구에서는 1학년에서 83.3% 였던우식치율이 3년동안의계속적인관리후에 72.1% 로낮아졌다. 또한신등 9) 은계속구강건강관리사업에서 45.2% 의치아우식증이감소되었고 75.6% 의소요경비절 감효과를보고하였고, 강릉시에서 3년간학교구강건강관리사업결과 10) 우식경험영구치지수가 1학년때부터학교구강보건사업을실시한아동들에게서유의하게낮게나타나효율적인구강보건사업을위해서는초등학교 1학년때구강보건사업지원을집중적으로투입하여야한다고주장하였다. 김천시보건소에서는김천서부초등학교, 아포초등학교, 모암초등학교에구강보건실을설치하여주기적으로구강검진, 불소용액양치사업, 치면열구전색등을포함하여계속구강건강관리사업을실시하고있다. 치과진료는사전에학부모동의서를받은학생들을대상으로실시하고, 치료결과는안내문으로개별발송하며, 학생들의구강관리를위해구강건강관리수첩을제작배부하여학생들의구강건강에대한관심을높이고구강위생관리능력을향상시키기위하여노력하고있다. 따라서본연구에서는김천시소재학교구강보건실에서 2008년부터 6년간계속구강건강관리사업을실시한후치아우식증유병률및치면열구전색률을조사하고학교구강보건실운영에따른실태와수혜아동의구강건강증진정도를알아보고, 후속사업에결과가반영되도록함으로써사업이더욱발전되도록하는데목적이있다. 1. 연구대상 연구방법 본연구는경상북도김천시소재하는초등학교에서학교구강보건실을운영하는아포초등학교는 2008년입학생 24 명, 모암초등학교는 2008년입학생 40명, 2009년입학생 21 명, 서부초등학교는 2008년 32명, 2009년 1학년입학생 32 명으로총 149명을실험군으로하였으며, 대조군으로는학교구강보건실이나기타구강보건사업이시행된적이없는직지초등학교, 중앙초등학교, 김천초등학교를대상으로 2008 년입학생 136명을선정하여 6년간추적조사하였으며전학및결석으로인하여결과에영향을미치는경우는연구에서제외하였다 <Table 1>. Table 1. Subjects : select the chart for 5 years participants Group School Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Experimental Apo Group Moam Seobu Total * Control Group Jikji Jungang Gimcheon Total * While in 96 of the 149 persons was participated, the number of person who could not be participated was 55 persons due

3 최옥선 김혜진 장선주 / 김천시초등학교구강보건실운영을통한계속구강건강관리사업효과 연구방법 김천시보건소에근무하는 6명의공중보건치과의사가매년 4월에서 5월까지초등학교를순회하여구강검진을실시하였고치과위생사 4명이구강검진을기록하였다. 구강검진은세계보건기구 (WHO) 의치아조사기준에근거하여자연광아래치경과탐침을사용하였고, 조사자간의오차를줄이기위하며조사참여공중보건치과의사와치과위생사를대상으로진단과측정기준, 조사방법에대하여사전교육을실시하였다. 개인용구강검사기록부를만들어사용하였으며, 유치및영구치의우식상태, 충전상태, 칫솔질횟수, 부정교합유무, 치면열구전색시행여부, 처지및진료상황등에대해구강검사기록부에자세히기록하였다. 3. 통계분석 수집된자료는 SPSS/Win 18.0 프로그램을이용하여분석하였다. 학년별아동의우식경험유치수및우식경험영구 치수, 우식충전영구치수, 우식상실영구치수, 구강보건실운영여부에따른우식경험유치수및우식경험영구치수및치면열구전색율은 t-test를실시하였다. 1. 우식경험유치수 연구결과 대상자의우식경험유치수는 1학년에서는관리군이 3.67, 대조군이 4.18이었으며 2학년에서는관리군이 4.08, 대조군이 4.67로조금씩차이가있었으나통계적으로유의하지는않았다. 3학년에서는관리군이 3.71 대조군에서 4.56±2.71 로유의한차이가나타났다 <Table 2>. 2. 우식영구치수 대상자의우식영구치수감소효과는 <Table 3> 1학년에서 5학년까지는관리군과대조군에서차이가없었으나 6학년 Table 2. DFT index 1 st Grade 0 year 3.67± ± nd Grade 1 year 4.08± ± rd Grade 2 years 3.71± ± Table 3. DT index 1 st Grade 0 year 0.17± ± nd Grade 1 year 0.56± ± rd Grade 2 years 0.72± ± th Grade 3 years 0.76± ± th Grade 4 years 0.68± ± th Grade 5 years 0.63±1.25 ** 1.28± Table 4. FT index 1 st Grade 0 year 0.09± ± nd Grade 1 year 0.19± ± rd Grade 2 years 0.45± ± th Grade 3 years 0.77± ± th Grade 4 years 1.12± ± th Grade 5 years 1.44±1.52 ** 1.52±

4 708 J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2015; 15(4): 에서는관리군이 0.63, 대조군이 1.28로대조군보다관리군에서우식영구치수가감소하여유의한차이가있었다 (p<.001). 3. 충전영구치수 대상자의충전영구치수는 1학년에서관리군이 0.09, 대조군이 0.18이었으며 2학년은관리군이 0.19, 대조군이 0.27로조금씩차이가있었으나통계적으로유의하지는않았다. 전학년모두에서관리군과대조군의유의한차이는없었다 <Table 4>. 4. 상실영구치수 대상자의상실영구치수는전학년에서관리군과대조군모두에서발거치아는전혀나타나지않았다 <Table 5>. 로유의하였다 (p<.01). 대상자의학교별우식경험영구치수를살펴보면 <Table 7> 4학년과 5학년에는관리군과대조군에서우식경험영구치수가차이가없었으며, 6학년에는관리군에서 2.06, 대조군에서 2.97로관리군에서우식경험영구치수가낮게나타나통계적으로유의하였다. 6. 학년별치면열구전색보존률 학년별치면열구전색보존률은 1학년은관리군에서 0.13, 대조군은 0.06이며, 2학년은관리군은 0.89, 대조군은 1.20 이었으며, 3학년은관리군은 1.82, 대조군은 1.89였다. 4학년은관리군은 2.47, 대조군은 2.15였으며, 5학년은관리군은 3.20, 대조군은 2.35, 6학년은관리군은 4.89, 대조군은 2.46으로나타나고학년에서치면열구전색보존률이높게나타나통계적으로유의하였다 <Table 8>. Table 5. MT index Division MT Experimental Group 0.00±0.00 Control Group 0.00± 학교별우식경험유치수와영구치수 대상자의학교별우식경험유치수를살펴보면 <Table 6> 1학년과 2학년에는관리군과대조군에서통계적인차이가없었으나 3학년에는관리군에서 3.71, 대조군에서 4.56으로나타나관리군에서우식경험유치수가낮게나타나통계적으 총괄및고안 치아우식증은아동기에가장빈발하여성인에이르기까지축적되는질환이며치주병은초등학교졸업시기부터시작한다는점에서학령기아동의구강보건은매우중요 10) 하다고볼수있겠다. 이러한시기에학생스스로자신의구강을적절히관리할수있는능력배양과, 구강보건지식을제공하여야하며구강보건행동을변화시킬수있어야한다 11). 배와장 12) 은일부초등학교에서구강보건교육및구강검진등의구강보건사업이이루어지고있지만양질의구강보건교 Table 6. dft index by elementary school Grade Duration of Health Care Division School dft p-value * 1 st Grade 0 year 2 nd Grade 1 year 3 rd Grade 2 years Experimental group Control group Experimental group Control group Experimental group Control group Apo 3.54±3.45 Moam 3.44±2.88 Seobu 3.93±3.58 Jikji 2.85±3.75 Jungang 4.23±2.81 Gimcheon 4.87±3.42 Apo 3.08±3.12 Moam 3.96±2.91 Seobu 4.59±3.44 Jikji 4.17±2.98 Jungang 4.34±2.89 Gimcheon 5.28±3.33 Apo 2.48±2.61 Moam 3.91±2.56 Seobu 4.00±3.02 Jikji 4.25±2.64 Jungang 4.27±2.62 Gimcheon 5.03± ± ± ± ± ± ±

5 최옥선 김혜진 장선주 / 김천시초등학교구강보건실운영을통한계속구강건강관리사업효과 709 Table 7. DMFT index by elementary school Grade Duration of Health Care Division School DMFT p-value * Experimental group Apo 1.26±1.65 Moam 1.67± ± th Grade 3 years Seobu 1.48±1.84 Control group Jikji 2.14± Jungang 1.65± ±1.62 Kimcheon 1.62±1.85 Experimental group Apo 1.62±1.66 Moam 1.93± ± th Grade 4 years Seobu 1.75±2.13 Control group Jikji 2.89± Jungang 2.00± ±2.04 Kimcheon 2.03±2.20 Experimental group ** Apo 1.96±1.78 Moam 2.35± ± th Grade 5 years Seobu 1.81±1.95 Control group Jikji 3.64± Jungang 2.70± ±2.37 Kimcheon 2.47±2.52 Table 8. Remaining ration of sealant by grade 1 st Grade 0 year 0.13± ± nd Grade 1 year 0.89± ± rd Grade 2 years 1.82± ± th Grade 3 years 2.47± ± th Grade 4 years 3.20± ± th Grade 5 years 4.89±3.69** 2.46± 육과보건교과의신설이필요하다고주장하였고, 정등 13) 은체험구강보건교육이구강보건행동변화와치아우식증을예방할수있다는신념을심어줄수있다고하였다. 예방지향적이고포괄적인초등학교구강보건실을운영하는경우구강보건지식과구강보건행동수준이높게나타났고 14,15), 계속구강건강관리사업을수행한경우우식경험영구치지수및영구치우식예방에효과적인 16-18) 연구결과들이보고되어있다. 학교구강보건실운영은치과의사및치과위생사에의해학생들에게정기구강검진을통하여구강병을초기에발견하고, 학생의구강건강에대한관심을증대시키며, 치면열구전색, 불소도포, 칫솔질교습, 구강보건교육등정보를제공한다. 또한후속학교구강보건사업에필요한구강보건자료를수집하고, 계속구강건강관리사업의기반을확립시킨다. 호 주, 뉴질랜드싱가폴, 말레이시아, 핀란드, 스웨덴, 노르웨이, 덴마크등에서는학교구강보건사업을통하여학생의구강건강수준을증진시키고, 일생동안구강건강을유지할수있는지식을체계적으로제공 1) 하고있다. 마등 8) 도학교구강보건실의운영은집단구강보건교육및개별구강보건교육을위해필요하다고강조하였으며, 아동구강건강증진을위하여학교구강보건실확대의필요성을주장 19,20) 하였다. 본연구는학교구강보건실의운영을통한계속구강건강관리사업의효과를알아보고자학교구강보건실이운영되고있는초등학교학생 149명과구강보건사업의수혜를받지못한 3개의초등학교학생 136명을대상으로실시하였다. 학교구강보건실의운영은보건소에근무하는공중보건치과의사와치과위생사가주 1회이상출장업무로구강검진결과에근거하여초기우식치료및불소도포, 치면열구전색, 스

6 710 J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2015; 15(4): 켈링, 칫솔질교습등의예방처치및치료서비스를실시하고, 제공받는서비스에대한내용은보호자에게결과를서면으로통보하였다. 총 6개초등학교에서관리군 149명, 대조군 136명으로총 285명을대상으로하였다. 저학년우식경험유치수는 1, 2학년때보다 3학년에서대조군 (4.56) 보다관리군 (3.71) 에서조금낮게나타나통계적으로유의하였다. 1, 2학년보다 3학년에서우식경험유치수가낮게나타난것은 2008년도사업수행초기에학생들의칫솔질교습시이해부족, 학부모관심저조로인한초기구강상태가저조한결과이며, 학년이높을수록대조군보다관리군에서계속구강건강관리를수혜하였기때문에나타나는결과로사료된다. 이는아동구강관리프로그램을지속하는것이더욱효과적인결과를도출할수있다는것을뒷받침하며유치관리는학령기이전부터관리되어야하며학교구강보건실뿐만아니라어린이집, 유치원에서구강보건교육및지속적인관리가필요한것으로사료된다. 정과신 21) 의연구에서도유치원과초등학교 1학년의구강관리에있어구강보건교육의중요성인지와가정과연계지도를통한부모의협조가필요하다고하였다. 우식영구치수는 1학년에서 5학년까지대조군보다관리군에서우식영구치수가낮게나타난결과를확인하였으나통계적으로유의하지는않았다. 6학년에서는관리군이 0.63, 대조군이 1.28로유의하게관리군이우식영구치수가낮아졌음을확인하였다. 덴마크에서는 1960대부터학령기아동을대상으로구강건강관리를위해철저한구강검진및구강보건교육을실시하여치아우식증예방 22) 에노력하였고, 호주와뉴질랜드는치과위생사의지속적인재방문을통하여구강검진, 개별구강보건교육, 조기치과치료를공급해줌으로써치아우식증을예방하였다. 이러한치아우식증예방을위한프로그램운영은지역사회소재기관에서전문인력을투입하여장기적으로수행할수있는제도적인정착과초등학교아동을위한구강보건관련 표준화교육 마련방안도함께모색되어야할것이다. 학년별치면열구전색보존률은 1학년은관리군이 0.13, 대조군이 0.06이었으며 3학년은관리군이 1.82, 대조군이 1.89로비슷하게나타났으며, 6학년에서관리군이 4.89, 대조군이 2.46으로나타나관리군에서유의하게치면열구전색보존률이높게나타났다. 이는저학년시기보다고학년일수록영구치맹출로인한치면열구전색을추가적으로수행하였기때문이라고사료된다. 학교구강보건실을운영하는초등학교에서는점심후개별적으로칫솔질교습을하거나, 불소도포, 치면열구전색등을시행하여구강관리를좀더효율적으로유지할수있도록하였다. 결론적으로초등학교구강보건실운영은학령기아동의치아우식증관리에영향을미칠수있어현행처럼보건소에서출장업무로시행하고있는프로그램운영에는공중보건 치과의사의부재로인한치과위생사업무에제한이있을수있다. 과거와는달리학령기아동을위한구강보건교육과불소양치사업등이활성화되었지만근본적으로학교구강보건실개소와치과위생사인력을배치하는것이장기적인아동구강건강관리에반드시필요할것으로사료된다. 본연구의제한점으로는구강검진시검사자간일치도조사가이루어지지못하였으며추후연구에서검토되어야할것으로사료된다. 김천시학교구강보건실의확대운영과향후예방지향적이고지속적인구강보건교육이저학년때부터집중적으로실시되어야하며, 주 1회방문이아닌구강보건인력이상주하여개별적으로맞춤구강보건교육으로효과적인구강관리가이루어질수있도록제도적인뒷받침이필요할것으로사료된다. 결론 본연구는학교구강보건실운영에따른계속구강건강관리사업효과를알아보고자김천시소재학교구강보건실이운영되고있는 3개의초등학교학생 149명과, 구강보건사업의수혜를받지못한 3개의초등학교학생 136명을대상으로 2008년부터 2013년도까지조사한결과는다음과같다. 1. 학년별우식경험유치수는 3학년에관리군에서 3.71 로, 대조군에서 4.56으로관리군에서우식경험유치수가낮게나타났다 (p<0.05). 학년별우식영구치수는 6 학년에서관리군에서 0.63, 대조군에서 1.28로나타났다 (p<0.001). 학년별충전영구치수와상실영구치수는관리군과대조군에서유의한차이가없었다. 학교별우식경험유치수와영구치수에서는 3학년과 6학년에서관리군이대조군보다우식경험유치수및영구치수가낮게나타나유의한차이가있었다. 2. 대상자의치면열구전색보존률은 6학년에서관리군이 4.89로, 대조군이 2.46으로나타나관리군에서보존률이높게나타났다 (p<0.001). 이상의연구결과로학교구강보건실운영은초등학교아동의구강병관리에효과적이며, 계속구강관리사업시행을확대하여학령기아동의구강건강관리및예방에힘써야하며학교구강보건실운영이제도적으로정착할수있도록후속연구가더욱활발히이루어져야할것이다. References 1. Kang BW, Kwak JS, Kwon SJ, Kwon HS, Kim MJ, Kim SJ. Public health dentistry. Seoul: KMS; 2011:

7 최옥선 김혜진 장선주 / 김천시초등학교구강보건실운영을통한계속구강건강관리사업효과 Song KH, Go YA. The Study on the Status of Oral Health According to the Administration of an Oral Infirmary at Elementary School. J Korean Acad Dent Hyg 2011; 13(1): Dental care program in Ministry of health and welfare. 2007; Dental care program in Ministry of health and welfare. 2012; Shin SC. Dental travel in world. Seoul: Koonja, 1994: Kobayashi S, Kishi H, Yoshihara A, Horii K, Tsutsui A, Himeno T. Treatment and posttreatment effects of fluoride mouthrinsing after 17 years. J Public Health Dent 1995; 55(4): Park JH, Ahn SH, Jeong SH, Choi YH, Song KB. The 5th year appraisal for effectiveness of school-based oral health program in Daegu, Korea. J Korean Acad Dent Health 2009; 33(2): Ma JK, Kim JK, Choi JH, Kim DK, Oh JS. Analysis of oral health promotion of primary school children on oral health care room. Oral Biology Research 2005; 29(1): Shin SC, Cho WH, Seo HS. School - based comprehensive oral health care program and expending proposal in Korea. J Korean Acad Dent Health 2000; 24(2): Hong JW, Lee SW, Park DY, MA DS. Evaluation of school -based oral health program in Kangnung city. J Korean Acad Dent Health 2000; 24(4): Lee SK, Song KB, Cheon HJ. The improvement of knowledge and management capability of oral health according to the oral health education system for elementary school student. J Korean Soc Sch Health 1999; 12(2): Pae JS, Jang SS. Current oral health care of elementary school in Chungnam province. J Korean Soc Sch Health 2000; 13(2): Jeong JY, Moom HS, Kim YK, Han SJ, Lee BJ, Kim EK. A pilot study on the development of oral health education through actual experience in primary school. J Korean Acad Dent Health 2001; 25(4): Jeong HJ, Kim Hj, Lee MK, Yoon HS, Oh SH, Lee JH. Oral health knowledge and practice of elementary school students in school dental clinics. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2013; 13(6): Kang HJ. Effect of administration by school dental clinic program. J Korean Soc Dent Hyg 2013; 13(4): Kang SH, Kim MS, Lee SM, Bae KH, Oh MY, Kim JB. Effectiveness evaluation of an incremental oral health program by school dental clinic. J Korean Acad Dent Health 2006; 30(3): Jun SH, Jeong SH, Park JH, Lee HK, Song KB. Effectiveness evaluation of school-based oral health program in Daegu, Korea. J Korean Acad Dent Health 2006; 30(4): Ahn YS, Jang JH, Lee YS. The effect of an oral health program by B school dental clinic in Anyang city. J Dent Hyg Sci 2008; 8(4): Choi HY, Hong SJ, Choi CH. Effectiveness evaluation of an incremental oral health program of school-based oral health clinic in Gwangju, Korea. J Korean Acad Dent Health 2007; 31(4): Lee TY, Yoom YE, Kim KH. The Effect of school dental service on dental health knowledge, behavoirs and dental health status among elementary school students. J Korean Soc Sch Health 2009; 10(1): Jung YH, Shin HM. The effects of oral health education activities in kindergarten and elementary schools. J Future Early Childhood Education 2009; 16(2): Cha MH. Present status of oral health care based in denmark. J Korean Acad Dent Health 1967; 1(2): 4.

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