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1 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE Dec.; 27(12), ISSN (Print) ISSN X (Online) VHF A Study on Radiator of VHF-Band Active Electronically Scanned Array with the Trapezoidal Dipole Structure Using Meander-Line 박대성 고영관 최재훈 Dae-Sung Park*, ** Young-Kwan Ko* Jae-Hoon Choi** 요약 VHF..,,,. VSWR 2:1 9.1 %, 4.24 dbi., (FBR) 15 db. Abstract In this paper, the method to miniaturize the radiating element of a VHF-band active electronically scanned array is proposed. The length of the proposed dipole having trapezoidal shape structure is miniaturized using meander line while the performance degradation is minimized. The grid reflector is used to improve the antenna directivity and insensitivity due to the outer environment. In addition, the antenna is designed to take into account for array application. The fabricated antenna has a 9.1 % fractional bandwidth for the voltage standing wave ratio(vswr) 2:1 and the maximum gain of 4.24 dbi. The front-to-back ratio(fbr) is larger than 15 db. Key words: VHF Band, Active Electronically Scanned Array, Antenna, Radiator, Miniaturization, Meander Line. 서론,,,,,.,, RCS VHF(Very High Frequency). VHF 30 MHz 300 MHz ( ) 2015 ( ). * (Hanwha Systems) ** (Department of Electronics & Computer Engineering, Hanyang University) Manuscript received July 29, 2016 ; Revised September 23, 2016 ; Accepted November 21, (ID No ) Corresponding Author: Jae-Hoon Choi ( c Copyright The Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science. All Rights Reserved. 1027

2 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 27, no. 12, Dec ,. VHF,, [1],[2].,.,,. [3] [9]., VHF.,. VHF.. 안테나설계및특성 2-1 단일복사소자설계 (0.5 λ), [11],[12].,, VHF (L),. 45 mm, 10 db VHF ,., 표 1. Table 1. Performance specification for radiating element. 10 db VHF (5 % ) (FBR) f c 10 db 3 dbi 0.5 그림 1. (L) Fig. 1. The return loss characteristics for various values of the meander length. 34 mm. 3,. 0, , 13.4 % , 0, 30,

3 미엔더 라인을 이용한 사다리꼴 다이폴 구조의 VHF 대역 능동 위상 배열안테나 복사소자 연구 그림 2. 다이폴 안테나의 사다리꼴 윗변 길이(D)에 따른 반사손실 특성 Fig. 2. The return loss characteristics for various values of the upper length of the trapezoid dipole. 미엔더 라인의 벤딩 각도에 따른 복사패턴 특성 그림 4. Fig. 4. The radiation pattern characteristics for various values of the bending angle of meander line 미엔더 라인 벤딩 각도에 따른 반사손실 특성 그림 3. Fig. 3. The return loss characteristics for various values of the meander length. 이다. 이때 이득값은 벤딩 각도가 도일 때 가장 크지만 소형화를 고려하여 벤딩 각 도 도를 선택하였다 또한 그림 9를 보면 그리드 반사 기를 고려한 다이폴 안테나에서 벤딩 각도가 30도일 때 최적의 이득 특성을 얻을 수 있다. 그림 5를 보면 벤딩 각도가 30도일 때 다이폴 안테나 의 길이는 mm(0.26 λ)로 0도일 때의 길이 mm (0.31 λ)보다 약 13.4 % 소형화된다는 것을 알 수 있다. dbi, 0.4 dbi, 0.2 dbi, 0.8 dbi 0, 30., 다양한 파라미터에 대해 최적화된 복사소자의 최종 설 계값은 아래와 같고, 최종 설계된 복사소자의 형상은 그 림 5와 같다. - 미엔더 라인 길이 L=45 mm - 다이폴 안테나 길이 : 0.26 λ - 다이폴 안테나의 사다리꼴 윗면 길이 D=34 mm - 다이폴 벤딩 각도 : 그리드 반사기 설계 설계된 안테나를 능동 위상 배열 안테나의 복사소자로 사용하기 위해서는 적절한 지향성을 갖도록 해야 한다. 이를 위해 복사소자의 후방에 반사기를 0.25 λ 간격으로 배치하여 후방으로 복사되는 필드를 최소화하였다. VHF 대역에서는 안테나의 크기가 물리적으로 크기 때문에 특 [13] 1029

4 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 27, no. 12, Dec 그림 5. Fig. 5. The structure of the trapezoidal meander line.,. 6.,. VHF,. 7 (f c ). 7(a), 7(b),,., 7(c). 8 그림 6. Fig. 6. The gain and FBR characteristics for PEC plate reflector and grid reflector. 그림 7. Fig. 7. The electric field for various values of the length of reflector at center frequency. (L 1). 5 dbi 10 db (L 1) 610 mm. 5.1 dbi, 11.3 db ,

5 VHF 그림 8. Fig. 8. The gain and FBR characteristicsfor various values of the length of reflector. (a) Gain. 30,, dbi, db. 4 (0.3 λ ), 10 db ,. N,, 1, N+2., 3 (b) FBR 그림 9. Fig. 9. The gain and FBR characteristics for various bending angles with grid reflector (x ) (Antenna 2), Antenna 1 45 (Antenna 3) Antenna 1. Antenna 3, Antenna 3 9 %

6 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 27, no. 12, Dec 반사기 개수에 따른 이득 및 전후방비 특성 그림 10. Fig. 10. The gain and FBR characteristics of for various values of the numbers of reflector. 설계된 안테나의 제작 형상 그림 12. Fig. 12. The fabricated structure of the designed antenna. 지지대 형태에 따른 반사손실 특성 그림 11. Fig. 11. The return loss characteristics for various types of the support structure. Ⅲ. 제작 및 측정 결과 제작된 단일 안테나의 형상 및 반사 손실의 측정 환경 은 그림 13과 같다. 다이폴 재질은 알루미늄을 이용하였 으며, 다이폴의 직경은 외부 환경의 바람 영향을 고려하 여 5.2 mm로 제작하였다. 다이폴을 지지하기 위한 구조 물은 안테나의 복사 패턴에 대한 영향을 최소화하도록 폴리스타이렌(Polystyrene, =2.6) 재질을 사용하였으며, 1032 제작된 안테나의 반사손실 측정 그림 13. Fig. 13. The measurement of return loss of the fabricated antenna. 급전 포트는 N-type 커넥터를 사용하였다. VHF 대역은 파장이 길기 때문에 배열 안테나의 배열 간격이 반파장일 경우 약 60 cm 이상에 이르러 부피가 매 우 커지게 된다. 따라서, 현 연구단계에서는 배열 안테나 를 구성하는데 있어 제작 여건의 한계와 측정의 어려움 으로 인하여 단일 안테나를 제작하고, 그 특성을 검증하 였다. 제작된 안테나의 반사손실은 외부 환경의 영향을

7 미엔더 라인을 이용한 사다리꼴 다이폴 구조의 VHF 대역 능동 위상 배열안테나 복사소자 연구 제작된 안테나의 반사손실 측정 결과 그림 14. Fig. 14. The measured return loss of the fabricated antenna. 최소화하도록 전자파 무반사실 내에서 측정하였다. 그림 4는 제작된 안테나의 반사손실 측정 결과를 보여 준다. 측정 결과의 공진주파수가 시뮬레이션 결과보다 다 소 낮아지는 경향을 나타내었으며, 정재파비 2:1 기준으 로 약 9.1 %의 대역폭을 얻었다. 이것은 제작시 N-type 커 넥터를 다이폴과 연결하기 위한 구조의 불완전성, 다이폴 소자의 지지구조물 영향에 인한 것으로 사료된다. 그림 15는 복사패턴 측정 모습이다. 제작된 안테나의 VHF 대역 복사패턴을 측정하기 위해 이천 소재 국립전 파연구원의 전파 인증 시험 센터의 도움을 받아 오픈사 이트 원거리장 방사패턴 측정 시설을 이용하였다. 그림 16은 제작된 안테나의 복사패턴 측정 결과를 나 타낸다. 제작된 안테나는 중심주파수에서 4.24 dbi의 최 대 이득을 얻었다. 또한, XY 평면 및 YZ 평면에서 각각 제작된 안테나의 복사패턴 측정 결과 그림 16. Fig. 16. The measured radiation patterns of the fabricated antenna. 의 반전력 빔폭(HPBW)의 특성을 나타내었으며, 측정된 전후방비는 15.5 db 이상의 매우 양호한 특성을 나타내었다. 시뮬레이션 이득값 7.3 dbi와 측정 이득값의 차이는 약 3 db 정도이며, 이는 급전 커넥터와 케이블의 제작 오차에 의한 손실 및 VHF 대역의 야외 측정 환경 등의 요인 때문인 것으로 여겨진다. 그러나 전체적인 복 사패턴 특성은 유사한 경향을 나타내었다 Ⅳ. 결 복사패턴 측정 모습 그림 15. Fig. 15. The measurement setup of the radiation pattern. 론 본 논문에서는 VHF 대역 능동 위상 배열 안테나에 적 용하기 위한 복사소자의 소형화 구조를 제안하였다. 미엔 더 라인과 사다리꼴 형태 구조를 이용하여 다이폴 안테 나의 길이를 약 0.29 λ로 소형화하였으며, 이득 및 전후 1033

8 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 27, no. 12, Dec λ. 9.1 %, 4.24 dbi, 15.5 db. 3, VHF. References [1] Constantine A. Balanis, Antenna Theory, John Wiley & Sons, Singapore, [2] J. A. Tirado-Mendez, H. Jardon-Aguilar, R. Flores-Leal, M. Reyes-Ayalas, and F. Iturbide-Sanchez, "Inductivelyloaded Yagi-Uda antenna with cylindrical cover for size reduction at VHF/UHF bands", IEEE Trans on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 59, no. 2, pp , Feb [3] X. Gao, Z. Shen, and C. Hua, "Conformal VHF log-periodic balloon antenna", IEEE Trans on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 63, no. 6, pp , [4] K. Byers, A. R. Harish, S. A. Seguin, C. J. Leuschen, F. R. Morales, J. Paden, E. J. Paden, E. J. Arnold, and R. D. Hale, "A modified wideband dipole antenna for an airbone ice-penetrating radar", IEEE Trans on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 61, no. 5, pp , May [5] J. B. Yan, R. D. Hale, A. Muhmood, F. R. Morales, C. J. Leuschen, and S. Gogineni, "A polarization reconfigurable low-profile ultrawideband VHF/UHF airbone array for fine-resolution sounding of polar ice sheets", IEEE Trans on Antennas and Propagation., vol. 63, no. 10, pp , Oct [6] H. Moon, G. Y. Lee, C. C. Chen, and J. L. Valakis, "An extremely low-profile ferrite-loaded wideband VHF antenna design", IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Lett., vol. 11, pp , [7] R. S. Kildal, "Radiation characteristics of the EISCAT VHF parabolic cylindrical reflector antenna", IEEE Trans on Antennas and Propagation., vol. ap-32, no. 6, pp , Jun [8] Olusola O. Olaode, W. Devereux Plamer, and William T. Joiones, "Effects of meandering on dipole antenna resonant frequency", IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Lett., vol. 11, pp , [9] Olusola O. Olaode, W. Devereux Plamer, and William T. Joiones, "Characterization of meander dipole antennas with a geometry-based, freqeuency-independant lumped element model", IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Lett., vol. 11, pp , [10] F. Kuroki, H. Ohta, "Operational frequency tuning for meander-line antenna fed by coplanar waveguide with finite ground plane", Proceedings of Asia-Pacific Microwave Conference, pp , [11],,,,,, " ",, 25(7), , [12] A. Loutridis, M. John, and A. J. Ammann, "Folded meander line antenna for wireless M-Bus in the VHF and UHF bands", IET Electronics Lett., vol. 51, no. 15, pp , Jul [13] R. C. Hansen, Phased Array Antennas, John Wiley & Sons, USA,

9 VHF : ( ) : ( ) : ( ) : ( ) : ( ) : ( ) : [ 주관심분야 ],, 1980 : ( ) 1986 : Ohio State University ( ) 1989 : Ohio State University ( ) : Arizona State University : 1995 : [ 주관심분야 ] /,, WBAN, EMC : ( ) : ( ) : ( ) : ( ) : ( ) [ 주관심분야 ] 1035

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