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1 Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial coopen Society Vol. 16, No. 4 pp , ISSN / eissn 철도선하역사접속교량의진동전달특성분석 최상현 1, 김진호 2*, 유용 1, 권세곤 3 1 한국교통대철도시설공학과, 2 한국철도기술연구원스마트역사연구팀, 3 한국철도공사연구원 Analysis of Vibn Transfer Characteristics of Approach Bridges for an Elevated Railroad Station Sanghyun Choi 1, Jin-Ho Kim 2*, Yong Yoo 1, Se-Gon Kwon 3 1 Dept. of Railroad Facility Eng., Korea University of Transportation 2 Smart Station Research Tram, Korea Railroad Research Institute 3 Research Institute, Korail 요약선하역사는구조물상부에열차가운행하는구조로서타역사구조물에비하여역사내의소음 진동에취약한구조이다. 선하역사의진동특성을보다정확히파악하기위해서는접속교량에서전달되는진동에대한분석이필요하다. 이논문에서는실험및해석을통하여접속교량에서선하역사로전달되는진동의특성을분석하였다. 대상구조물은경춘선금곡역으로 ABAQUS 3차원수치해석모델을이용하여해석을수행하였다. 받침변화에따른접속교량과역사의전달특성변화를분석하기위하여, 철도교량에적용되어온다양한받침의역학적성질을고려하여해석을수행하였다. 현장진동계측은열차진행방향에따라접속교량및역사구조물에대하여가속도계를이용하여수행하였다. Abstract The elevated railway station, above which a train is passing, is vulnerable to noise and vibn compared to other station types. To better identify the vibn characteristics of the elevated railway station, the transferred vibn from approach bridges should be analyzed. In this paper, through experiments and simulations, the transfer characteristics of the vibn from approach bridges is analyzed. The study structure is Geomgok station and the anaylses are conducted using ABAQUS three dimensional numerical model. To identify the change in the transfer characteristics for various bearing types, the analyses are performed considering mechanical properties of bearing for railway bridges. The measurement is performed using the accelerometers attached to the approach bridges and the station structure along the passing path of trains. Key Words : Approach bridge, Bearing, Elevated railway station, Vibn transfer 1. 서론선하역사는일반적으로노반이고가구조물로건설되는구간에선로하부의유휴공간을활용하여건설하는방식으로부지면적을최소화하고여객동선을단축할수있어경제적이나, 구조물상부로통과하는열차하중으로인한진동이역사내부로직접전달되므로다른역사 형식에비하여소음및진동에취약한특성이있다 [1]. 현재까지선하역사의진동과관련한연구는플로팅슬래브궤도또는진동저감장치적용에따른저감성능에대한비교 검토나 [3-5], 열차통과로인한역사구조물주요부재의진동특성에대한검토 [6-9] 가대부분이며, 접속교량에서전달되는진동에대한연구는거의수행되지않았다. 최근 Choi et al.[2] 이접속교량의받침형식 본연구는국토교통부철도기술연구사업의연구비지원 (14RTRP-B ) 에의해수행되었음. * Corresponding Author : Jin-Ho Kim(Korea Railroad Research Institute) Tel: Received March 25, 2015 Accepted April 9, 2015 Revised April 7, 2015 Published April 30,

2 한국산학기술학회논문지제 16 권제 4 호, 2015 변화에따른진동특성변화에대한연구를수행하였으나, 접속교량에서전달되는진동특성에대한검토는수행하지않았다. 이연구에서는수치해석및실험을통하여접속교량에서선하역사에전달되는진동의특성을분석하였다. 실제진동전달특성분석을위하여경춘선금곡역사에대하여접속교량및역사구조물의가속도를측정하였다. 수치해석은금곡역사에대한 3차원해석모델을이용하여수행하였다. 해석프로그램은 ABAQUS를이용하였으며, 다양한접속형식에따른진동특성변화를접속교량, 교량- 역사연결부및역사구조물의주요부분에서비교검토하였다. SB(Spherical Bearing, 스페리컬받침 ); LRB(Lead Rubber Bearing); (h) HDRB(High Damping Rubber Bearing). (a) Rahmen type (b) Bridge type Fig. 1. Approach bridge-station connection types 2. 선하역사현황및교량받침 2.1 선하역사현황국내에는약 98개의선하역사가있으며대표적인구조형식으로는 TBS(Track on Building System) 와 TPS( on Pier System) 가있다. TBS는건물형식의역사구조물위에궤도가부설된형태이며, TPS는교량형식의노반구조물좌우로역사구조물이존재하는형태이다. 참고로국내선하역사의대부분은 TBS형식이다. 또한역사의층수로는 2층이 53%, 3층및 4층이각각 35% 와 11% 를차지하고있으며, 접속교량은콘크리트거더교가 51%, 강합성교및토공이각각 20% 와 16% 이다. 그밖에궤도형식은 74% 가자갈, 26% 가콘크리트이며, 선하역사의 91% 는도시철도역사이다 [10]. (a) Hinge (c) FPB (e) FDB (b) PB (d) EQS (f) SB 2.2 철도교량의받침선하역사와접속교량의연결형식은 Fig. 1과같이별도의받침이없이역사구조물과강절되어있는라멘식과받침이있는교량식으로분류할수있다. 과거철도용교량받침으로가장널리사용되어온형식은선받침과고력황동받침이다. 최근에는교량상부구조의자중이무거워짐에따라내진받침또는면진받침등이적용되고있다 [11]. Fig. 2는철도교량에적용가능한받침의종류이다 : (a) 힌지받침 ; (b) PB(Plate Bearing, 고력황동받침 ); (c) FPB(Friction Port Bearing, 마찰형포트받침 ); (d) EQS(EradiQuake System, 스프링복원형디스크받침 ); (e) FDB(Friction Disk Bearing, 마찰형디스크받침 ); (f) LRB (h) HDRB Fig. 2. Bearings applicable to a railroad bridge 3. 진동측정및전달특성검토 3.1 계측대상역사의구조적특징계측이수행된금곡역사는선로구조물하부에지상 4 층, 지하 1층의건축물로구성된 TBS 구조의선하역사 2912

3 철도선하역사접속교량의진동전달특성분석 이다. 역사구조물은라멘형식이며승강장의길이는 180m, 폭은 22.5m 이다. 접속교량은콘크리트거더교이며, 자갈궤도와상대식승강장이설치되어있다. Fig. 3 은금곡역의전경이다. 였으며, 응답샘플링은 0.001초간격으로하였다. 참고로 Fig 4. 의 Sensor 1, 2, 3은교량부의경간중앙에부착한센서이며, Sensor 4는교량과역사의접속부에서가장인접한역사구조물에부착한센서이다. Table 2. comparison results (stopping) (a) General view Fig. 3. Geomgok station Table 1. Equipment and sensors (b) Bridge connection Equip./sensor Specfication Image Accelerometer Data logger Speed gun Manufacturer : Tokyo Sokki Sensitivity : 10g Range : ±1.02g Frequency : 200Hz Temp. Range : -10~50 Manufacturer : KYOWA Resoluiton : 0.031mV Channel : 32 Temp. range : -20~80 Manufacturer : Bushnell Accuracy : ±2km/h Fig. 4. Sensor arrangement 3.2 계측장비및센서배치 진동측정을위한장비는 Table 1에정리하였다. 접속교량에서전달되는진동을측정하기위한가속도배치는 Fig. 4와같이열차의진행경로를따라배치하였다. 그림과같이총 4개의가속도계를이용하여측정을수행하 Sensor No E E E E % 28% 7% 3% E E E E % 100% 19% 4% E E E E % 166% 100% 5% Table 3. comparison results (passing) Sensor No E E E E % 30% 6% 1% E E E E % 100% 13% 1% E E E E % 238% 100% 2% 3.3 계측결과분석 계측한가속도는열차정차시와열차통과시로구분하였으며, 측정된가속도의 (Root Mean Square) 값을이용하여크기변화를비교하였다. 비교결과는 Table 2( 열차정차시 ) 와 3( 열차통과시 ) 에제시하였다. 표에서노란색으로채색된칸은열차선 2913

4 한국산학기술학회논문지제 16 권제 4 호, 2015 두부의위치를나타낸다. 즉, Table 2의 2번째행, 3번째열은열차의선두부가 Fig. 4의 Sensor 1의위치에도달했다는의미이며, 5번째행, 3번째열과 4번째열은열차의선두부가 Sensor 2의위치에도달했다는의미이다. 또한각 Table은열차가 Sensor 1에서 3으로이동함에따라각 Sensor 위치에서측정한진동의 값과열차의선두부가위치한 Sensor의 값과의비율 ( ) 을포함하고있다. Table 2와 3에서열차가역사구조물에접근할수록전달되는진동량이점차증가하는경향을보이나, 최대값은정차시 5%, 통과시 2% 로매우작음을알수있다. 또한열차정차시보다통과시의가속도응답이크게나타나, 열차의속도가진동가속도에영향을미치고있다는것을알수있다. 므로이때의진동값만을비교에고려하였다. 참고로 Sensor A는 Fig. 4의 Sensor 3, Sensor B는 Fig. 4의 Sensor 4의위치와일치한다. (a) FE model for Geomgok station 4. 수치해석을통한전달특성검토 4.1 수치해석모델다양한받침에대한진동전달특성의변동성은수치해석을통하여검토하였다. 수치해석프로그램은 ABAQUS를이용하였다. 수치해석은금곡역사를대상을수행하였으며, 유한요소해석모델은보 (beam) 와판 (plate) 요소를이용하여 Fig. 5(a) 와같이구성하였다. 궤도부의경우레일은보요소, 레일하부체결구, 패드및자갈도상은등가선형스프링으로모델링하였다. 등가선형스프링값은 Cho et al.[12] 의계산값을참고하여산정하였다 (Table 4). 역사구조물은기둥과보를보요소, 슬래브와벽체를판요소로모델링하였다. 수치해석에적용한열차하중및속도는실제금곡역사의상황과측정결과를고려하여 ITX-청춘열차가 100km/h의속도로통과하는경우만을고려하였다. (b) Assumed sensor s Fig. 5. FE model and assumed sensor s (a) Rigid (b) Hinge (c) Spring (d) Spring+damper Table 4. Properties used for the FE model (N/m) Direction Stiffness per one rail Damping coefficient per one rail Axial Lateral Vertical (e) Spring+friction (f) Spring+damper+friction Fig 5(b) 는가상의센서위치를나타낸다. 참고로 Table 2와 3에나타난바와같이교량에서전달되는진동의최대값은열차가 Fig. 4의 Sensor 3에위치할때이 Spring+damper-friction Fig. 6. Bridge bearing models 2914

5 철도선하역사접속교량의진동전달특성분석 4.2 받침의역학적특성 열차통과로인하여발생하는교량의진동은받침을통하여역사구조물로전달되므로받침의역학적특성변화에따라전달되는진동의특성도바뀔수있다. 이논문에서는강절형식과함께 2.2절에제시된받침들의역학적특성을모두고려할수있도록 Fig. 6과같이 7가지받침모델을해석에적용하여진동전달특성을비교하였다 [12]. 4.3 해석결과수치해석결과는 Table 5에정리하였다. Table 5에서첫번째열은 Fig. 6의받침모델과일치하며, 첫번째행은 Fig. 5(b) 의 Sensor 위치를나타낸다. 또한노란색으로채색된칸은열차선두부의위치를나타낸다. Table 5. FE analysis results a b c d e f g Sensor A B C D 3.56E E E E % 6% 2% 2% 3.49E E E E % 7% 2% 2% 3.26E E E E % 4% 1% 2% 3.25E E E E % 4% 1% 1% 3.25E E E E % 4% 1% 2% 3.24E E E E % 5% 1% 1% 5.68E E E E % 1% 0% 1% Table 5에서전달되는진동은강절 (a) 과힌지 (b) 의경우가가장큰것으로나타났다. 가장작은경우는스프링과댐퍼를병렬로연결하고마찰요소를직렬로연결한받침 으로나타났다. 모든경우에서접속교량으로부터역사로전해지는진동의크기는상당히작은수준으로확인하였다. 5. 결론이연구에서는수치해석및실험을통하여접속교량에서선하역사에전달되는진동의특성을분석하였다. 수치해석은경춘선금곡역사에대한 3차원해석모델을이용하여수행하였다. 분석결과다음과같은결론을도출하였다. 1) 금곡역사와접속교량에서측정한진동값으로부터전달특성을분석한결과역사구조물에전달되는진동은교량진동 값의 5% 이하로나타났다. 2) 여러가지접속형식을고려하여수치해석을수행한결과강절과힌지의경우가전달진동이가장큰것으로나타났으며, 스프링과댐퍼를병렬로연결하고마찰요소를직렬로연결한받침모델에서진동의감소가가장큰것으로나타났다. 3) 현장측정및수치해석결과를종합할때접속교량에서역사구조물로전달되는진동의크기는어떠한연결형식에서도 10% 미만으로나타나크지않은것으로나타났다. References [1] J.H. Kim, S.H. Youn. "The Review of Floating Slab Tracks for Vibn Reduction of Railway Station." Korean Journal of Environmental Engineers, Vol. 30, No. 6, pp [2] S. Choi, S. Kwon. "Vibn Analysis of an Elevated Railroad Station Considering Station-Bridge Connection Characteristics." Journal of Korea Society of Disaster Information, Vol.10, No.2, pp [3] Y.-C. Kweon, Noise and Vibn Solutions Considering Satbility Effects for High-Speed rail Chonan Station in Korea. Proceedings of Korea Society for Railway,2005. [4] S.Y. Jang, H.-H. Cho, S.C. Yang. "Vibn Analysis of Station under Railway Lines with Floating Slab Track." Proceedings of 2010 Spring Conference, Korean Society for Railway, pp , 2010 [5] T.-H. Park, H.-S. Park, H.-B. Kim, J.-H. Choi. A Study on the Characteristics of Vibn Reduction Type Disk Bearing in Station of Rapid Transit Railway. Proceedings of Korea Society for Railway,2011 [6] Ju, S.H., Lin, H.T., Huang, J.Y.. Dominant frequencies 2915

6 한국산학기술학회논문지제 16 권제 4 호, 2015 of train-induced vibns. Journal of Sound and Vibn, Vol.319, pp , [7] Wang, T., Wei, Q. Vibn characteristics of the platform in high-speed railway elevated station. Telkomnika, Vol.11, No.3, pp , [8] Yang, N., Guo, T., Sun G. -induced vibn on elevated railway station. Journal of Central South University, Vol.20, pp , [9] Zhang, N., Xia, H. Comfort analysis of the new Guangzhou Railway Station. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Structural Condition Assessment, Monitoring and Improvement, pp , [10] S. Choi, Y. Yoo, J.H. Kim, S.-G. Kwon Experimental Analysis of Vibn Transfer Characteristics of an Elevated Railroad Station. Journal of Korea Society of Disaster Information, In Press, [11] J. Lee, Improvement of Vibn mitigation Efficiency for an Elevated Railroad Station Considering Transfer Characteristics. Master s Thesis, Korea National University of Transportation, [12] J.-R. Cho, D.-S. Kim, Y. J. Kim, J.-W. Kwark, S. Y. Jang, Three Dimensional Model for Dynamic Moving Load Analysis of a PSC-I Girder Railway Bridge. Journal of the Korean Society for Railway, 16(4), pp , [13] K.-S. Park, H.-J. Jung, I.-W. Lee A Comparative Body on Aseismic Performance of Base Isolation Systems for Multi-Span Continuous Bridge. Engineering Structures, Vol. 24, pp , 김진호 (Jin-Ho Kim) [ 정회원 ] 철도토목, 소음 진동 1993 년 2 월 : 서울시립대학교대학원구조공학 ( 공학석사 ) 2003 년 9 월 : UC Davis 토목공학과 ( 공학박사 ) 2001 년 5 월 ~ 2003 년 2 월 : California D.O.T. 연구원 2003 년 9 월 ~ 현재 : 한국철도기술연구원책임연구원 유용 (Yong Yoo) [ 정회원 ] 철도토목, 구조공학 2012 년 2 월 : 한국철도대학철도시설토목과전문학사 2012 년 9 월 ~ 현재 : 한국교통대학교철도시설공학과 ( 공학석사 ) 권세곤 (Se-Gon Kwon) [ 정회원 ] 최상현 (Sanghyun Choi) [ 정회원 ] 구조공학 1992 년 2 월 : 고려대학교대학원토목환경공학과 ( 공학석사 ) 1999 년 5 월 : Texas A&M 토목공학과 ( 공학박사 ) 2002 년 12 월 ~ 2006 년 7 월 : 한국원자력안전기술원선임연구원 2006 년 8 월 ~ 현재 : 철도대 / 교통대철도시설공학과교수 철도토목, 구조공학 2007 년 8 월 : 군산대학교대학원구조공학 ( 공학석사 ) 2013 년 8 월 : 군산대학교대학원구조공학 ( 공학박사 ) 2005 년 3 월 ~ 현재 : 한국철도공사연구원 2916

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