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1 J. Korean. Soc. Living. Environ. Sys. Vol. 12, No. 2, pp 106~111(2005) w y y w z œ k üœ» p ½ Á Á Á ³ Á Á½Ÿ w w w, *g», ** w w Effects of Strategies to Improve Indoor Air Quality at Pre-occupancy Stage in New Apartment Buildings Sun-Sook Kim, Dong-Hee Choi, Young-Seok Park, Gyu-Dong Lee, Myoung-Souk Yeo and Kwang-Woo Kim Department of Architecture, Graduate School, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea *Kolon Research and Development Institute, Yongin, Korea **Department of Architecture, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea Abstract : The indoor air quality of new apartment buildings, which is known to cause sick housing syndrome, has become a major concern among apartment residents as well as construction companies in Korea. In this study, the effects of natural ventilation and air cleaning control are evaluated to compare the strategies applied to improve indoor air quality at the pre-occupancy stage. Six residential units are tested under three conditions : one units is shut tightly, another unit is naturally ventilated, and the other four units are exposed to different types of decomposing substances. Key words : Indoor air quality, IAQ strategy, New apartment building, Natural ventilation, Air cleaning 1. œ k üœ» z ƒ, h w y w ƒ ƒ š. œ k üœ» y ww wyw ƒ š» y y». üœ» w t, y»» y» w y ü œ» k û y», w w yw ù œ»» vl w üœ» w» (US EPA 1995, CDHS : ( ) 9 w y y: ). ƒ z (Guo 2003), ü üœ» e «š w. ù, w ù œ œ k w w w ƒ. w» œ k üœ» w» w š y» w œ z sƒ w š w. 2. š 2.1. üœ»» š ü wáxz üœ» x w» w wwš. ü y üœ» mw 106

2 œ k üœ» p 107 Table 1. Guidelines for formaldehyde concentration level Country Organization Concentration (µg/m 3 ) Korea Minisrty of Environment 120 USA ASHRAE 120 Canada Health Canada 60/120 Finland Minisrty of Environment 50 Finland FiSIAQ 30/50/100 Japan Minisrty of Health, Labour, and Welfare 100 Intl. WHO 100 Table 3. Available IAQ control strategy Type Source Control Ventilation Air Cleaning IAQ Control Strategy Low emission materials Building location and quality of outside air Bake out Natural ventilation Mechanical ventilation Air Cleaner Decomposing substances Process D C O Table 2. Guidelines for VOCs concentrationlevel Country Organization VOCs Concentration (µg/m 3 ) Minisrty of Korea TVOC 400/500 Environment Finland FiSIAQ TVOC 200/300/600 Japan Intl. Minisrty of Health, Labour, and Welfare WHO TVOC toluene xylene p-diclolobenzene ethylbenzene styrene , styrene 260 toluene 260 w w «š» wš,, v, ƒ ƒ x» wš., s {»yw ü» Table 1 Table üœ» š üœ» ƒ l s VOCs, œ» y, w w.» š üœ», y»,». s VOCs üœ» j w»,, ƒ, j sw. y» š w,» w ù w y w ü j.» y» y yw» w x k zás zá z, y» e, w» y» l z. y œ» Ávl Á j ù w w k w.» œ»»» e w yw/ w w ww sw. w œ w Table 3.» D z (Design), C œ(construction), O (Occupancy) ƒƒ ùkü. œ z œ k üœ» û» w Table 3 j, /» y», œ»» ƒ w œ e w. w,» y» eƒ e q x œ k y» w œ üœ» z q wš w. 3. œ k üœ» d 3.1. d œ k üœ» xy q wš

3 108 ½ Á Á Á ³ Á Á½Ÿ ww üœ»» w œ k x ww. üœ» d Á w üœ» xy q w, s y» w üœ» w y» w üœ» z q w., œ»» w sƒ w œ z q w d œ k üœ» d ~21 y üœ» œ x œ k üœ» x w. d œ z œ k 34 sx( m 2 ) w sx 6 w, s ü œ» d Fig. 1. p d Á œ Á z» yw» w 20d w e 5~7d w. w tw w Fig. 1. Floor plan of the test unit measuring pointtest. Table 5. Measurement schedule Test No. Schedule T1 One day before application - T2 T3 T4 Application of ventilation and decomposing substances 1st day after application 3rd day after application 7th day after application k x s š w, yw y»ƒ. Table 4 ùkù 6 1 s k e» y»ƒ w š, 1 mt w y» k w w. ù 4 ƒƒ w œw z s k w w œ w. w j ƒ w w ƒ 2 w, ƒ t œ. üœ» s VOCs d Table 5 y» w œ» 1, 1 z, 3 z, 7 z üœ» d š 4.1. ü d üœ» d ƒ d Table 6. ü ü 21.0 o C~ 27.0 o C, 56.0~71.0%. 9 d, þù ü Table 4. Experimental cases Case Test condition Type 1 Shut tightly - 2 Under natural cross-ventilation - 3 A 4 Applied with B Catalyst 5 decomposing substances C Natural 6 D ingredient Table 6. Temperature and relative humidity conditions Test0 T1 T2 T3 T4 Case o C % o C % o C % o C % w yy wz

4 œ k üœ» p 109 œ» œ x 20 o C ƒ ƒ w üœ»» d 4 s s VOCs üœ» œ x HPLC TD/GC/MS w w. y» w œ 1 d (T1)w 6 d Fig. 2~Fig. 4. ƒ s 209~457 µg/m 3 Fig. 2. Formaldehyde concentration levels of T1. Fig. 3. TVOC concentration levels of T1. Fig VOCs concentration levels of T1. s, s³ 327 µg/m 3 ùkû. 2.1 w üœ»» WHO z x 100 µg/m 3 y wš ASHRAE» 120 µg/m 3 3 w. w œ wš, ƒ j ùkù» e 2 w ù 4 w. TVOC 517~1920 µg/m 3 s³ 1062 µg/m 3, z x 400 µg/m 3, ü TVOC «š» 500 µg/m 3 zw. d» e w» w ù, 4 w s ƒ r ƒ. s TVOC e ü x» w, d w d ƒ ý ƒ. y üœ» d w 6 VOCs w, m ƒ, p,, p û ùkû. p p- j ( w PDB). Fig. 4 ùkù ƒ m 158~ 416 µg/m 3, s³ 212 µg/m 3, z x» 260 µg/m 3 w w û š ù p 1» e zw š. œ k œ œ ƒ ù, ew ù w œ ƒ ƒ w š, d w œ ƒ w p ƒ d d., p,, p 4 VOCs ƒ w s, ƒƒ s³ 12, 25, 34, 31 µg/m 3 w x» w ùkû., 6 d 2 6 VOCs»k VOCs TVOC wš.

5 110 ½ Á Á Á ³ Á Á½Ÿ 4.3. üœ» y y e» y» w s w y» w œ d y r. y» w œ Áz ƒ s TVOC y Fig. 5 Fig. 6. ƒ v y» w œ 1 d (T1) s 100 w ƒ d y ùkü. r, s 7 z s y +123% w y» y 11%, w œ y +33%, +54%, 64% ùkû. p w œw 1 œ w œ z ƒ w 1 3 z ƒ» e w y w. ƒ TVOC y r, s 7 z y +109% w y» y +16%, w/ œ y 15%, 4%, 8% ùkû. s» 1 d e w ƒw w, y» ù w/ œ w ù s w y w. ù s w ƒ û» w ù, TVOC x» e j ƒ û š Fig. 5 Fig. 6 r, s w y» w, ƒ 2/3 û ùkû. y» yw y» d w ù, w y» w s p ƒ û q. wz yw y» z sƒ w Fig. 5. Formaldehyde concentration ratios of 6 test units. Fig. 6. TVOC concentration ratios of 6 test units. w yy wz

6 œ k üœ» p 111 y» d w q. wr, w œw s w s TVOC ƒ û ùkû. p w D œ, s ƒ d ƒ œ w û, p 1 z 3 z» e w. TVOC ƒ s w û» wù, TVOC» e w û. 7 e y e s û ù, üœ» ƒ Á w d Á š w VOCs ƒ š w» ƒ. w ƒ y f w yáy mw œ» w q w (Zhao, 2003; Fujishima, 2001), p s y w w w z ƒ VOCs w q. w VOCs ƒ, TVOC z w ƒ. 5. œ z œ k üœ» y» w œ z sƒw, w. 1) üœ» d w, s x 6 s s 209~ 457 µg/m 3 š, TVOC s 517~1920 µg/m 3 ü» e zw ùk ù w w v w q. 2) 6 VOCs m» e zw ƒ ù,, p,, p, PDB x» w ù kû. 3) s w y» d y r, ƒ 2/3 û ùkû. 4) w œ d y r, 4 ƒ s ü ƒ û, 1 œ w d ƒ û üœ» z. 5) œ z œ k w œ w, s VOCs z ƒ q. wz» y» j, œ»» ƒ z œ z w üœ» w sƒƒ w q. z» y ƒ wš w y» k ww 2004 w» ( ) w,. x Fujishima, A., Hashimoto, K. and Watanabe, T., ½ (2001) Ÿ.,, Alevantis, L.E. (1996) Reducing occupant exposure to VOCs from office building construction materials : Non-binding guidelines, California Department of Health Services, Guo, H., Murray, F. and Lee, S.C. (2003) The development of low volatile organic compound emission house - a case study. Building and Environment, 38, US EPA (1995) The inside story-a guide to indoor air quality, National Center for Environmental Publications, Cincinnati, 5-6. Zhao, J. and Yang, X. (2003) Photocatalytic oxidation for indoor air purification : a literature review. Building and Environment, 38, (n š: : ( : )

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