FACT FILE Edition 2013 European Union- South Korea TRADE AND INVESTMENT RELATIONS 교역및투자관계 Delegation of the European Union to the Republic of Korea 주한

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1 Delegation of the European Union to the Republic of Korea 주한유럽연합대표부 16 TH Floor, S-tower 116 Shinmoonro 1-ka, Chongro-ku, Seoul, Korea 서울특별시종로구신문로가 116번지 S-타워 Tel (82-2) Fax (82-2)

2 FACT FILE Edition 2013 European Union- South Korea TRADE AND INVESTMENT RELATIONS 교역및투자관계 Delegation of the European Union to the Republic of Korea 주한유럽연합대표부

3 FACT FILE Edition 2013 OVERVIEW The European Union is, since July 2013, composed of 28 Member States 1. It is the world s largest economy with a population of 500 million people and an annual Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of 12.9 trillion euro (16.4 trillion USD) representing about 25% of the world economy. The average GDP per capita in the EU is estimated at 35,100 USD 2. The EU is also the world s largest trading block, accounting for 15% of global merchandise trade and 22% of trade in services. With a GDP of over 1,150 billion USD, the South Korean economy ranked at 13 th place in the world in The Korean population reached over 49 million the same year, bringing the GDP per capita to 32,800 USD 3. The Korean economy is one of the fastest growing among the advanced economies, and is particularly open to international trade: Korea ranked as the worlds 7 th largest exporter in EU trade and investment have grown remarkably in South Korea in the last decade, although this growth was interrupted in 2009 by the global economic crisis. With total bilateral merchandise trade exceeding 100 billion USD in 2011, which makes up 10% of Korea's total trade with the world, the EU is Korea's 3 rd export market after China and the USA. Moreover, in the fast growing services area, bilateral trade reached more than 13 billion euro in As for foreign direct investment, the EU is the largest investor in Korea both in cumulative and yearly terms, with FDI flows reaching a cumulative total of more than 44 billion euros by EU companies have put considerable trust and confidence in South Korea and demonstrated an outstanding long-term commitment. EU invested companies are highly respected employers offering attractive job opportunities to many South Koreans. 1 Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Germany, Denmark, Spain, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, United Kingdom. 2 Purchasing power parity 3 Purchasing power parity European Union-South Korea 2

4 3 EU- SOUTH KOREA TRADE IN GOODS: DYNAMIC GROWTH BUT STILL LAGGING BEHIND POTENTIAL The EU-South Korea merchandise trade volume (imports+exports) has been characterized by strong growth during most of the last decade. It has however experienced a contraction in 2009, in line with the slowdown of global trade due to the economic crisis. By 2011 the total volume of bilateral trade between the EU and South Korea amounted to over 75 billion euro (over 110 trillion Korean won) and South Korea was the EU s 8th largest supplier, and its 5 th outside Europe. EU trade with South Korea accounts now for 2.2% of total EU external trade. Korea's exports to the EU increased by 5% in 2012, despite the negative macroeconomic outlook in the euro area, affecting in particular its imports, and the continuing climate of global uncertainty in recent years. As for EU exports to South Korea, although also affected by economic fluctuations, they increased by 16% in 2010 and as a consequence, South Korea's share of EU exports has increased slightly to 2.2%. For over ten years, the EU has been running a structural merchandise trade deficit with Korea, which reached around 20 billion USD in 2008, although in recent years this deficit has been reduced by an asymmetric contraction of import demand in the EU side. In 2012, imports and exports between the EU and Korea have been virtually balanced. The Korea-EU FTA, which entered into force in July 2011, aims at keeping bilateral trade on a growth path and realizing its full potential. The FTA will eliminate virtually all duties for both industry and agriculture within the first five years. Immediately upon its entry into force, some 70% of bilateral trade was already duty free. Cumbersome and expensive double certification requirements and testing have also been eased in particular for automobiles, whereas regulatory transparency and predictability further increased across a range of sectors. Equally, there will be billions of Euros worth of new opportunities in the services industries for both sides, in the medium to long term. FACT FILE Edition 2013

5 FACT FILE Edition 2013 EU merchandise trade with South Korea Korea exports to EU Korea imports from EU Trade balance Source: Eurostat EU merchandise trade with main partners in 2012 The Major Imports Partners Rk Partners Mio euro % Extra EU27 1,791, % 1 China 289, % 2 Russia 213, % 3 United States 205, % 4 Switzerland 104, % 5 Norway 100, % 6 Japan 63, % 7 Turkey 47, % 8 South Korea 37, % 9 India 37, % 10 Brazil 37, % 11 Saudi Arabia 34, % 12 Nigeria 32, % 13 Libya 32, % 14 Algeria 32, % 15 Canada 30, % The Major Exports Partners Rk Partners Mio euro % Extra EU27 1,686, % 1 United States 291, % 2 China 143, % 3 Switzerland 133, % 4 Russia 123, % 5 Turkey 75, % 6 Japan 55, % 7 Norway 49, % 8 Brazil 39, % 9 India 38, % 10 South Korea 37, % 11 United Arab Emirates 37, % 12 Australia 33, % 13 Hong Kong 33, % 14 Canada 31, % 15 Singapore 30, % The Major Trade Partners Rk Partners Mio euro % Extra EU27 3,478, % 1 United States 497, % 2 China 433, % 3 Russia 336, % 4 Switzerland 237, % 5 Norway 150, % 6 Turkey 122, % 7 Japan 119, % 8 Brazil 76, % 9 India 75, % 10 South Korea 75, % 11 Saudi Arabia 64, % 12 Canada 61, % 13 Algeria 53, % 14 Singapore 51, % 15 Australia 48, % Source : Eurostat European Union-South Korea 4

6 5 SOUTH KOREA IS THE 8 th MOST IMPORTANT SUPPLIER OF THE EUROPEAN UNION In 2011, the EU s imports of goods from South Korea amounted to 38 billion euro, making South Korea the 8 th supplier of merchandise to the EU with a share of 2.1% of total EU imports from the world. Manufactured products dominated Korean sales to the EU. Machinery and transport equipment (64%, mainly ships and passenger cars), made up the bulk of EU imports representing a total value of over 24 billion euro worth of South Korean exports to the single European market in Korean exports to the EU by product category SITC Product Groups Millions euro % Millions euro % Millions euro % Total 39, % 39, % 37, % Primary products 2, % 1, % 2, % Agricultural products (Food (incl. Fish) & Raw Materials) % % % Fuels and mining products 1, % 1, % 2, % Manufactures 37, % 37, % 34, % Iron and steel 1, % 1, % 1, % Chemicals 1, % 1, % 2, % Other semi-manufactures 1, % 1, % 1, % Machinery and transport equipment 28, % 28, % 24, % Office and telecommunication equipment 13, % 12, % 7, % Transport equipment 10, % 11, % 11, % Other machinery 4, % 4, % 5, % Textiles % % % Clothing % % % Other manufactures 2, % 2, % 3, % Other products % % % Source: Eurostat Korean merchandise exports to the EU by Member State 4 other EU 31.7% Germany 18.7% Slovakia 9.9% Poland 6.8% Italy 7.4% Netherlands 7.4% France 9.0% U. Kingdom 9.2% Source: KITA 4 The geographical breakdown of the import statistics must be taken with caution as often imported products enter through major sea ports in some Member States, but are destined to a different country. FACT FILE Edition 2013

7 FACT FILE Edition 2013 AND THE 10 th LARGEST EXPORT MARKET FOR EU PRODUCTS Exports from the EU to South Korea reached a value of 38 billion euro in 2012, which represents 2.2% of total EU exports, ranking South Korea at 10 th export market for EU products, just after India. Machinery and chemicals are the main EU export categories amounting respectively to 46% and 15% of the total export value. 15% of EU exports are generated by transport equipment and it is worth noting that the EU was also exporting more than 2 billion euro worth of agricultural, food andfisheries products to South Korea SITC Product Groups Millions euro % Millions euro % Millions euro % Total 25, % 27, % 37, % Primary products 2, % 2, % 6, % Agricultural products (Food (incl. Fish) & Raw Materials) 1, % 1, % 2, % Fuels and mining products 1, % 1, % 4, % Manufactures 21, % 24, % 30, % Iron and steel 1, % % 1, % Chemicals 4, % 4, % 5, % Other semi-manufactures 1, % 1, % 1, % Machinery and transport equipment 12, % 14, % 17, % Office and telecommunication equipment 1, % 1, % 1, % Transport equipment 3, % 4, % 5, % Other machinery 7, % 8, % 10, % Textiles % % % Clothing % % % Other manufactures 2, % 2, % 3, % Other products % % % Source: Eurostat EU merchandise exports to Korea by Member State Netherlands 9.0% other EU 22.1% Germany 35.3% Italy 9.2% France 9.8% U. Kingdom 14.6% Source: Eurostat European Union-South Korea 6

8 7 SOUTH KOREAN MERCHANDISE TRADE Having reached for the first time 1 trillion USD in 2011, and coming back from a low of under 700 million USD in 2009, Korea s external trade experienced a small decline in 2012 due to renewed macroeconomic uncertainties in its main partners, not least the EU. As in other countries, the impact of the global economic fluctuations is particularly strong on international trade flows. The Korean trade balance reached record surpluses in 2009 and However, in this trade surplus had decreased somewhat, due to a deterioration of the economic situation of Korea's export markets, including the EU. The EU is now Korea's fourth largest trade partner and its third largest export market (representing 8.6% of total exports) after China (23.3%) and the US (10.2%) but ahead of Japan. This is in spite of the fact that exports from Korea to the EU in 2012 have been strongly affected by the macroeconomic situation, and the demand contraction in the euro area and other European countries. On the import side, China maintained its position as South Korea s biggest supplier (63 billion euro). The EU s is now the fourth supplier after China and Japan, with a share of 7.9% of Korean imports. South Korea TRADE WITH MAIN PARTNERS (2012) The Major Imports Partners Rk Partners Mio euro % World (all countries) 496, % 1 China 62, % 2 Japan 50, % 3 EU27 39, % 4 United States 33, % 5 Saudi Arabia 30, % 6 Qatar 19, % 7 Australia 17, % 8 Kuwait 14, % 9 Indonesia 12, % 10 United Arab Emirates 11, % 11 Russia 8, % 12 Iraq 7, % 13 Malaysia 7, % 14 Singapore 7, % 15 Iran 6, % The Major Exports Partners Rk Partners Mio euro % World (all countries) 449, % 1 China 104, % 2 United States 45, % 3 EU27 38, % 4 Japan 30, % 5 Hong Kong 25, % 6 Singapore 17, % 7 Vietnam 12, % 8 Indonesia 10, % 9 India 9, % 10 Russia 8, % 11 Brazil 7, % 12 Australia 7, % 13 Saudi Arabia 7, % 14 Mexico 7, % 15 Thailand 6, % The Major Trade Partners Rk Partners Mio euro % World (all countries) 945, % 1 China 167, % 2 Japan 80, % 3 United States 79, % 4 EU27 77, % 5 Saudi Arabia 37, % 6 Hong Kong 26, % 7 Singapore 25, % 8 Australia 25, % 9 Indonesia 23, % 10 Qatar 20, % 11 Russia 17, % 12 United Arab Emirates 17, % 13 Vietnam 16, % 14 Kuwait 15, % 15 India 14, % Source : IMF FACT FILE Edition 2013

9 FACT FILE Edition 2013 COMMERCIAL SERVICES: A GROWING MARKET FOR BILATERAL EXCHANGES In the services area, total bilateral trade has reached 12 billion euro in , representing around 1.2% of the EU s total trade in services with the rest of the world. EU sales to Korea amounted to more than 9 billion euro and EU purchases from Korea reached 4.5 billion euro. In contrast to the trend in bilateral merchandise trade, the EU shows a structural surplus with Korea in the services sector, totaling 4.5 billion euro in On the EU import side, transport was the main component representing 1.8 % of the EU imports in this sector. The largest item of EU exports in 2011 was also the transport sector, and sea transport in particular, with 2.3 billion Euros in exports. Business services follow in importance with nearly 3 billion Euros, including legal, accounting, consulting and other services. These have all been growing fast, as they include areas where EU companies are strongly specialised. EU trade in services with South Korea (million euro) % extra-eu Debits (EU Imports) Current account, Services 4,376 5,013 3,808 4,619 4, % Branding, Quasi-transit adjustment 0.0% Transportation 2,515 2,433 1,601 2,244 2, % Sea transport 1,431 1, ,169 1,044 Air transport Other transport Travel % Other services 1,689 2,407 2,028 2,253 2, % Communications services % Construction services % Insurance services % Financial services % Computer and information services % Royalties and license fees % Other business services 802 1,503 1,154 1,171 1, % Personal, cultural and recreational services % Government services, n.i.e % Services not allocated % Commercial services 4,345 4,985 3,784 4,592 4, % 5 Eurostat data. Figures for the year 2012 were not available at the time of publishing. European Union-South Korea 8

10 9 Credits (EU Exports) Current account, Services 7,527 8,088 6,568 8,291 9, % Branding, Quasi-transit adjustment Transportation 3,334 3,598 2,476 3,125 3, % Sea transport 2,630 2,857 1,931 2,409 2,337 Air transport Other transport Travel % Other services 3,597 3,944 3,617 4,649 5, % Communications services % Construction services % Insurance services % Financial services % Computer and information services % Royalties and license fees ,109 1, % Other business services 1,883 2,174 1,914 2,479 2, % Personal, cultural and recreational services % Government services, n.i.e % Services not allocated % Commercial services 7,507 8,069 6,479 8,261 9, % Source : Eurostat Services are one of the domains expected to benefit the most, in relative terms, from the new Free Trade Agreement between Korea and the EU. Market access conditions should improve in a number of service sectors, with potential benefits for industry and other economic sectors which will benefit from a wider range of competitive and high-quality business services. FACT FILE Edition 2013

11 FACT FILE Edition 2013 EU-SOUTH KOREA FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT RELATIONS Inflows of foreign investment into South Korea have increased remarkably since the liberalization of the FDI regime after the financial crisis in After a slowdown in 2007, FDI flows in South Korea were quick to recover in the following years, and have benefited from Korea's policy of concluding FTAs with major trade partners. European Union companies were the largest contributors to inflows into the country in the last five years with investments totalling 22 bn USD. European companies are consistently the largest investors in Korea, representing a more than 40% of the cumulative total since 1962 (when records became available) a trend which has been maintained in the recent past. The two other main sources of foreign investment in the country are the US, followed by Japan. FDI into Korea 1000 USD %total Total 11,710,519 11,483,991 13,070,169 13,669,418 12,866,354 62,800, % EU 6,338,618 5,296,641 3,195,616 5,032,416 2,611,324 22,474,615 36% Japan 1,422,717 1,934,253 2,083,233 2,284,287 4,541,484 12,265,974 20% USA 1,328,187 1,486,456 1,974,448 2,372,008 3,674,194 10,835,293 17% Singapore 915, , , ,306 1,206,203 3,942,708 6% HongKong 242, ,486 91, ,573 1,669,800 3,349,668 5% China 336, , , , ,145 2,279,228 4% Canada 89, , , , ,769 2,005,869 3% Malaysia 53,028 84, ,822 93, , ,912 1% Australia 68, ,515 7,009 90, , ,530 1% Source: MOTIE. Notification basis. In terms of sectoral breakdown, in the past five years 62.3% of EU investment in South Korea has been undertaken in the services sector, 33.6% in the manufacturing sector, and 4.1% in the utilities and construction sectors. European Union-South Korea 10

12 11 Within the services sector the main target has been the finance, banking and insurance industry, amounting to 26.7% of the total, as well as the wholesale and retail sector (18.3%). The largest part of investment in the manufacturing sector went to electrical and electronic equipment (8.9%) and chemicals (7.7%). FDI from EU into South Korea, USD % Manufacturing Food products 351, % Fibers, textiles, clothing 344, % Paper & Wood 8, % Chemicals 1,737, % Medicaments 693, % Non-metallic minerals 73, % Metals 796, % Machinery & equipments 559, % Electrical & Electronics 2,004, % Transportation machinery 754, % Other 259, % TOTAL Manufacturing 7,583, % Services Wholesale & Retail 4,122, % Accommodation & Food services 154, % Transport & Logistics 282, % Communications 14, % Finance, Banking & Insurance 6,039, % Real Estate & Leasing 803, % Business Services 2,337, % Culture, Entertainment 181, % Public, Other Services 130, % TOTAL Services 14,065, % Electricity, Gas, Water supply & Construction 931, % Agriculture, Fisheries, Mining % Grand total 22,581, % Source: MOTIE FACT FILE Edition 2013

13 FACT FILE Edition 2013 Looking at the FDI by Member States 6, out of the total amount of 22 billion USD of EU foreign direct investment into Korea for the past five years, the Netherlands (a country where many European companies' holdings are located) was the largest source of investment with a 26.5% share, followed by the U.K. and Germany with 22.8% and 15% respectively. EU FDI into South Korea, Sweden 2.9% Ireland 3.5% Spain 2.9% Others 7.0% Netherlands 26.5% France 5.3% Malta 14.1% Source: MOTIE Germany 15.0% UK 22.8% Korean companies invested a total of 24.2billion USD in the EU between When looking at a country-by-country breakdown of investment made by South Korean firms, the Netherlands has attracted the largest amount of arrived investment (31.7%), followed by the UK and Germany. 7 South Korea FDI into the EU, Belgium 3.8% France 4.1% Ireland 10.2% other 10.0% Netherlands 31.7% Source: Korea Eximbank Germany 8.7% UK 31.4% 6 In a globalised world, companies establish themselves according to strategic and legal considerations. For this reasons FDI statistics must be treated with caution as to the actual geographical origin. 7 Source: The Export-Import Bank of Korea. Notification basis. European Union-South Korea 12

14 13 개요 유럽연합 (EU) 은 2013년 7월이후 28개회원국으로구성되어있다 1. 유럽연합은인구 5억명, 연간 GDP 12.9조유로 (US$ 16.4조 ) 의세계최대경제권으로세계경제의약 25% 를차지한다. 유럽연합의 1인당평균 GDP는미화 35,100달러로추정된다 2. 유럽연합은세계최대의교역권이기도하다. 세계상품무역의 15%, 서비스무역의 22% 를차지한다. 2012년한국은 GDP가미화1.15조달러를넘어서면서세계제 13대경제국가가되었다. 같은해, 한국의인구는 4,900만명을넘어섰으며 1인당 GDP가미화 35,800달러에도달했다 3. 한국경제는선진국중에서도가장빠른성장속도를보이고있으며특히국제무역문호가열려있다. 2012년기준, 한국은세계제 7대수출국이다. 지난 10년간유럽연합의대한국교역및투자규모는대폭적인성장을이루었지만 2009년세계경제위기로잠시위축되었다. 2011년한-EU 양자간의총상품교역규모는미화 1천억달러를넘어섰고, 이는한국의전체대외교역규모의 10% 에달하는것이다. 유럽연합은한국에게중국과미국다음으로큰제 3대교역상대국이다. 또한빠른성장을보이고있는서비스부문의양자교역은 2011년 130억유로를넘어섰다. 외국인직접투자 (FDI) 의경우유럽연합은누적규모로보나, 연간규모로보나한국의최대투자자로 2011년외국인직접투자의누적총액은 440억유로에달하였다. 유럽연합의기업은한국을신뢰하고, 한국시장에대한장기적인의지를보여주었다. 유럽연합이투자한기업은한국에서매력적인일자리기회를창출하고있다. 1 오스트리아, 벨기에, 불가리아, 크로아티아, 키프로스, 체코공화국, 독일, 덴마크, 스페인, 에스토니아, 핀란드, 프랑스, 그리스, 헝가리, 아일랜드, 이탈리아, 라트비아, 리투아니아, 룩셈부르크, 몰타, 네덜란드, 폴란드, 포르투갈, 루마니아, 슬로바키아, 슬로베니아, 스웨덴, 영국 2 구매력평가 3 구매력평가 FACT FILE Edition 2013

15 FACT FILE Edition 2013 EU- 한국상품교역 : 빠른성장세를보이고있지만여전히잠재수준대비격차존재 유럽연합-한국의상품교역규모 ( 수입 + 수출 ) 는 2000년대초반견실한성장을거두었다. 하지만 2009 년에는경제위기로인해세계교역이감소하면서유럽연합-한국의상품교역도감소하였다. 2011년유럽연합-한국의양자교역규모는 750억유로 (110조원이상) 를넘어섰다. 한국은유럽연합의 8대수입상대국이고비유럽국가중에는 5대교역상대국이다. 한 EU의교역은유럽연합의전체대외교역중 2.2% 를차지한다. 한국의대유럽연합수출은수입감소로이어진유로존의부정적인경제전망과최근몇년동안의경제적불확실성에도불구하고 2012년 5% 증가했다. 유럽연합의대한국수출도경제적변동의영향을받기는했지만 2010년에 16% 증가해서결과적으로유럽연합의수출에서한국이차지하는비중이 2.2% 로약간올랐다.10년넘게유럽연합은한국에대해구조적인상품교역적자를유지하여 2008년에는약미화 200억달러에달하였다. 다만최근들어서는유럽연합의수입수요가비대칭적으로감소하면서이러한적자폭이줄어들고있다. 2012년에는유럽연합과한국사이의수출과수입은거시적인균형을이뤘다. 2011년 7월발효된한-유럽연합자유무역협정 (FTA) 은양자무역이성장세를유지하며, 잠재력을최대한발현할수있게하는것을목표로하고있다. 한-유럽연합자유무역협정은협정발효이후 5년동안산업과농업분야에서사실상모든관세를철폐한다. 협정발효직후양자무역의약 70% 에대해이미관세가철폐되었다. 까다롭고비용이많이드는이중인가및중복시험규제가완화되었으며다양한분야에서규제적투명성과예측가능성이증가하였다. 중장기적으로한국과유럽연합의서비스산업에서수십억유로에달하는새로운기회가생길것이다. European Union-South Korea 14

16 15 EU 의對한국상품교역 ( ) Korea exports to EU Korea imports from EU Trade balance 출처 : Eurostat ( 유럽연합통계청 ) 2012 년 EU 와주요교역국의상품교역 주요수입상대국 순위국가 백만유로 % 유럽연합 27개국 1,791, % 1 중국 289, % 2 러시아 213, % 3 미국 205, % 4 스위스 104, % 5 노르웨이 100, % 6 일본 63, % 7 터키 47, % 8 한국 37, % 9 인도 37, % 10 브라질 37, % 11 사우디아라비아 34, % 12 나이지리아 32, % 13 리비아 32, % 14 알제리 32, % 15 캐나다 30, % 주요수출대상국 순위국가 백만유로 % 유럽연합 27개국 1,686, % 1 미국 291, % 2 중국 143, % 3 스위스 133, % 4 러시아 123, % 5 터키 75, % 6 일본 55, % 7 노르웨이 49, % 8 브라질 39, % 9 인도 38, % 10 한국 37, % 11 아랍에미리트연합국 37, % 12 호주 33, % 13 홍콩 33, % 14 캐나다 31, % 15 싱가포르 30, % 주요교역상대국 순위국가 백만유로 % 유럽연합 27개국 3,478, % 1 미국 497, % 2 중국 433, % 3 러시아 336, % 4 스위스 237, % 5 노르웨이 150, % 6 터키 122, % 7 일본 119, % 8 브라질 76, % 9 인도 75, % 10 한국 75, % 11 사우디아라비아 64, % 12 캐나다 61, % 13 알제리 53, % 14 싱가포르 51, % 15 호주 48, % Source : Eurostat FACT FILE Edition 2013

17 FACT FILE Edition 2013 한국은 EU 의제 8 위수입대상국 2011년유럽연합은한국으로부터 380억유로에달하는상품을수입하였다. 이는 EU총수입액의 2.1% 에달하는것으로한국은 EU의제8위수입대상국이되었다. EU의대한국수입품은제조업제품이주류를이루고있다. 이중기계류와운송장비 (64%, 주로선박과승용차 ) 가가장큰비중을차지하였다. 2012년한국은유럽단일시장에 240억유로가넘는기계류와운송장비를수출하였다. 한국의對 EU 수출품의제품분류 표준국제무역분류에따른제품분류 백만유로 % 백만유로 % 백만유로 % 전체 39, % 39, % 37, % 차생산물 2, % 1, % 2, % 농작물 ( 음식 ( 생선포함 ) & 원자재 ) % % % 연료와광물 1, % 1, % 2, % 제조품 37, % 37, % 34, % 철과금속 1, % 1, % 1, % 화학물질 1, % 1, % 2, % 기타반제조품 1, % 1, % 1, % 기계와수송장비 28, % 28, % 24, % 사무 / 전기통신장비 13, % 12, % 7, % 수송장비 10, % 11, % 11, % 기타기계 4, % 4, % 5, % 옷감 % % % 옷 % % % 기타제조품 2, % 2, % 3, % 기타물품 % % % 출처 : Eurostat ( 유럽연합통계청 ) EU 회원국별對한국수입 4 다른 EU 국가 31.7% 독일 18.7% 슬로바키아 9.9% 폴란드 6.8% 이탈리아 7.4% 네덜란드 7.4% 프랑스 9.0% 영국 9.2% Source: KITA 4 수입품은일부회원국의주요항구를통해통관된뒤회원국각국으로유통되기때문에수입통계자료의지리적분류를파악할때는신중해야한다. European Union-South Korea 16

18 17 한국은 EU 의제 10 위수출대상국 2012년 EU의대한국수출은 380억유로로 EU 총수출의 2.2% 에달하였다. 이로써한국은인도를제치고 EU의제 10위수출대상국이되었다. EU의주요수출품목은기계류와화학제품으로이들은총수출액중각각 46% 와 15% 를차지하고있다. 운송장비분야가총 15% 를점하고있으며, 농수산물의수출도 20억유로를넘어섰다 표준국제무역분류에따른제품분류 백만유로 % 백만유로 % 백만유로 % 전체 25, % 27, % 37, % 차생산물 2, % 2, % 6, % 농작물 ( 음식 ( 생선포함 ) & 원자재 ) 1, % 1, % 2, % 연료와광물 1, % 1, % 4, % 제조품 21, % 24, % 30, % 철과금속 1, % % 1, % 화학물질 4, % 4, % 5, % 기타반제조사 1, % 1, % 1, % 기계와수송장비 12, % 14, % 17, % 사무실과전기통신장비 1, % 1, % 1, % 수송장비 3, % 4, % 5, % 기타기계 7, % 8, % 10, % 옷감 % % % 옷 % % % 기타제조사 2, % 2, % 3, % 기타물품 % % % 출처 : Eurostat ( 유럽연합통계청 ) EU 회원국별對한국수출 다른 EU 국가 22.1% 네덜란드 9.0% 독일 35.3% 이탈리아 9.2% 프랑스 9.8% 영국 14.6% Source: Eurostat FACT FILE Edition 2013

19 FACT FILE Edition 2013 대한민국의상품교역 한국의대외교역규모는 2009년미화7억달러이하로감소한이후 2011년최초로미화 1조달러를넘어섰다. 한국의국제교역은수치는 2012년주요교역국가들의유럽 (EU) 을포함한거시경제적불확실성으로인해약간의감소치를보였다. 다른여러국가에서처럼, 국제적경제위기는특히나한국의국제교역흐름에큰영향을미쳤다. 한국의무역수지는 2009년과 2010년에흑자를기록하였다. 하지만 2012년에는무역흑자규모가유럽연합을포함한한국의수출시장의경제상황악화로인해감소하였다. 현재 EU는한국의제4위교역상대국이며, 중국 (23.3%), 미국 (10.2%) 에이어 3위로큰수출시장 ( 총수출액의 8.6%) 으로, 일본이그뒤를따르고있다. 이는 2012년한국의대 EU수출이유로존및유럽국가들의거시경제상황과수요감소에큰영향을받았음에도불구하고나온결과라더욱고무적이다. 대한민국의수입을살펴보면중국이대한민국의최대수입대상국의위치를고수하고있다.(630억유로 ) EU는한국수입시장점유율 7.9% 로중국, 일본에이어한국의제 3위수입대상국이다. 대한민국의주요상대국과의교역 (2012) 주요수입상대국 순위국가 백만유로 % 전체국가 496, % 1 중국 62, % 2 일본 50, % 3 EU27 39, % 4 미국 33, % 5 사우디아라비아 30, % 6 카타르 19, % 7 호주 17, % 8 쿠웨이트 14, % 9 인도네시아 12, % 10 아랍에미리트연합국 11, % 11 러시아 8, % 12 이라크 7, % 13 말레이시아 7, % 14 싱가포르 7, % 15 이란 6, % 주요수출대상국 순위국가 백만유로 % 전체국가 449, % 1 중국 104, % 2 미국 45, % 3 EU27 38, % 4 일본 30, % 5 홍콩 25, % 6 싱가포르 17, % 7 베트남 12, % 8 인도네시아 10, % 9 인도 9, % 10 러시아 8, % 11 브라질 7, % 12 호주 7, % 13 사우디아라비아 7, % 14 멕시코 7, % 15 태국 6, % 주요교역상대국 순위국가 백만유로 % 전체국가 945, % 1 중국 167, % 2 일본 80, % 3 미국 79, % 4 EU27 77, % 5 사우디아라비아 37, % 6 홍콩 26, % 7 싱가포르 25, % 8 호주 25, % 9 인도네시아 23, % 10 카타르 20, % 11 러시아 17, % 12 아랍에미리트연합국 17, % 13 베트남 16, % 14 쿠웨이트 15, % 15 인도 14, % 출처 : IMF European Union-South Korea 18

20 19 상업서비스 : 양자교류를위한성장시장 2011년양국의서비스부문교역은 120억유로를기록 5 하였고, 이는 EU의전체서비스교역중약 1.2% 를차지한다. EU의대한국서비스수출규모는 90억유로를넘어섰고, EU의대한국서비스수입은 45억유로에달하였다. 양자간의상품교역추세와는달리서비스분야에서는 EU가구조적흑자를기록하고있으며, 2011년흑자규모는 45억유로에달했다. EU의대한국수입중운송이가장주요분야로이부문은 EU 전체수입량의 1.8% 를차지했다. 2011년 EU의최대수출부문은운송부문으로, 특히해상운송의수출규모는 23억유로에달했다. 법률, 회계, 컨설팅, 기타서비스등비즈니스서비스가거의 30억유로로그뒤를바짝뒤쫓고있다. 이들분야는 EU 기업이전문성을확보하고있는분야인만큼빠른성장세를보이고있다. 서비스부문의대한민국과 EU 와의교역 회원국의수입 ( 백만유로 ) 2011 EU 총수입량중 % Debits (EU 수입 ) 4,376 5,013 3,808 4,619 4, % 경상수지, 서비스 4, % 운송 2,515 2,433 1,601 2,244 2, % 해양운송 1,431 1, ,169 1,044 항공운송 기타운송 여행 % 기타서비스 1,689 2,407 2,028 2,253 2, % 통신서비스 % 건설서비스 % 보험서비스 % 금융서비스 % 컴퓨터와정보서비스 % 사용료와면허세 % 기타비즈니스서비스 802 1,503 1,154 1,171 1, % 개인, 문화및레저서비스 % 정부서비스, n.i.e % 명시되어있지않은서비스 % 상업적서비스 4,345 4,985 3,784 4,592 4, % 5 Eurostat 데이터. 출반당시 2012 년수치는이용불가였다. FACT FILE Edition 2013

21 FACT FILE Edition 2013 Credits (EU Exports) 경상수지, 서비스 7,527 8,088 6,568 8,291 9, % 운송 3,334 3,598 2,476 3,125 3, % 해양운송 2,630 2,857 1,931 2,409 2,337 항공운송 기타운송 여행 % 기타서비스 3,597 3,944 3,617 4,649 5, % 통신서비스 % 건설서비스 % 보험서비스 % 금융서비스 % 컴퓨터및정보서비스 % 사용료와면허세 ,109 1, % 기타비즈니스서비스 1,883 2,174 1,914 2,479 2, % 개인, 문화및레저서비스 % 정부서비스, n.i.e % 명시되어있지않은서비스 % 통신 7,507 8,069 6,479 8,261 9, % 출처 : Eurostatt 서비스는한국-EU 간에체결된자유무역협정의가장큰수혜자가될것으로기대되는분야중하나이다. 다수의서비스분야에서시장접근성이개선되면서산업과기타경제부문에잠재적인혜택을제공할것으로기대된다. 또한경쟁력높은질좋은비즈니스서비스를폭넓게선택할수있게됨으로써보다많은혜택이주어질것이다. European Union-South Korea 20

22 21 EU- 대한민국의 FDI( 외국인직접투자 ) 관계 대한민국으로유입되는외국인직접투자규모는 1997년금융위기이후도입된외국인직접투자 (FDI) 자유화조치이후크게증가하였다. 대한민국으로유입되는 FDI 규모는 2007년잠시주춤하였다가이후빠르게회복하였다. 이는주요무역상대국과자유무역협정을타결하는등의한국의정책적결정덕분이었다. EU 기업은지난 5년동안한국에미화 220억달러규모의 FDI를유치, 한국의 FDI 유입에큰기여를하였다. EU기업은한국에서 1962년 ( 관련기록이존재한이래 ) 이후누적투자규모의 40% 이상을차지하는한국의최대투자자이며이러한추세는최근까지도유지되었다그밖에도미국다음으로일본이한국내 FDI에중요한비중을차지하고있다. 한국내 FDI ( 단위, USD 1000) %total 함계 11,710,519 11,483,991 13,070,169 13,669,418 12,866,354 62,800, % EU 6,338,618 5,296,641 3,195,616 5,032,416 2,611,324 22,474,615 36% 일본 1,422,717 1,934,253 2,083,233 2,284,287 4,541,484 12,265,974 20% 미국 1,328,187 1,486,456 1,974,448 2,372,008 3,674,194 10,835,293 17% 싱가포르 915, , , ,306 1,206,203 3,942,708 6% 홍콩 242, ,486 91, ,573 1,669,800 3,349,668 5% 중국 336, , , , ,145 2,279,228 4% 캐나다 89, , , , ,769 2,005,869 3% 말레이시아 53,028 84, ,822 93, , ,912 1% 호주 68, ,515 7,009 90, , ,530 1% 출처 : MOTIE. Notification basis. 산업부문별분류를보면지난 5년간대한민국내 EU의투자중 62.3% 는서비스부문, 33.6% 는제조업부문, 4.1% 는유틸리티와건설부문에서이루어졌다. FACT FILE Edition 2013

23 FACT FILE Edition 2013 서비스부문내에서는금융, 은행, 보험업이주요투자대상으로투자총액의 26.7% 를차지하며, 도소매업 (18.3%) 도큰비중을차지한다. 제조업부문에서는전기및전자장비 (8.9%) 와화학 (7.7%) 이가장큰비중을차지했다. 대한민국내 EU 로부터의 FDI USD % 제조업 식품 351, % 섬유, 직물, 의류 344, % 종이및목재 8, % 화학 1,737, % 약품 693, % 비금속광물 73, % 금속 796, % 기계및장비 559, % 전자및전기 2,004, % 운송기계 754, % 기타 259, % 제조업합계 7,583, % 서비스 도매및소매 4,122, % 숙박및식품서비스 154, % 교통및물류 282, % 통신 14, % 금융, 은행및보험 6,039, % 부동산및임대 803, % 비즈니스서비스 2,337, % 문화, 엔터테인먼트 181, % 공공, 기타서비스 130, % 서비스합계 14,065, % 전기, 가스, 급수및건설 931, % 농업, 수산업, 광업 % 전체합계 22,581, % 출처 : MOTIE European Union-South Korea 22

24 23 EU 회원국별 FDI를살펴보면 6, 지난 5년동안 EU의대한국 FDI 전체규모인미화 220억달러중에다수의유럽기업의지주회사가위치한네덜란드가최대투자국으로 26.5% 를차지하며, 영국과독일이각각 22.8%, 15% 로그뒤를이었다. 대한민국내 EU로부터의 FDI, 스웨덴 2.9% 아일랜드 3.5% 스페인 2.9% 프랑스 5.3% 기타 7.0% 네덜란드 26.5% 몰타 14.1% 출처 : MOTIE 독일 15.0% 영국 22.8% 년사이한국기업은 EU에총미화 242억달러를투자했다. 대한민국기업의 EU회원국별투자율을살펴보면네덜란드가 31.7% 로가장높았으며영국과독일이그뒤를이었다. 7 EU 내대한민국으로부터의 FDI, 벨기에 3.8% 프랑스 4.1% 아일랜드 10.2% 기타 10.0% 네덜란드 31.7% 독일 8.7% 출처 : Korea Eximbank 영국 31.4% 6 세계화시대에서는기업들은전략적이고법적인근거로확립된다. 이때문에 FDI 수치들은지리학적기원에근거하여신중하게기록되어야한다. 7 출처 : 한국수출입은행. Notification basis. FACT FILE Edition 2013