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1 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE Dec.; 26(12), ISSN (Print) ISSN X (Online) An Algorithm for De-Interleaving of Wobble and Sinusoidal PRIs for Unidentified Radar Signals 이용식 임중수 임재성 Yongsik Lee Joongsoo Lim* Jaesung Lim 요약,. Wobble PRI Sinusoidal PRI DTOA(Difference Time Of Arrival). PRI, PRI. 40 PRI, PRI. ESM ELINT. Abstract In this paper, we propose an algorithm to identify Wobble PRI and Sinusoidal PRI among Radar pulses. We applied not only the DTOA(Difference Time Of Arrival) concept of radar pulse signals incoming to antennas but also a rising and falling cub characteristic of those PRIs. After making a program by such algorithm, we input each 40 data to Wobble PRI's and Sinusoidal PRI's identification programs and in result, those programs fully processed the data the according to expectations. In the future, those programs can be applied to the ESM, ELINT system. Key words: PRI(Pulse Repetition Interval), Wobble PRI, Sinusoidal PRI, De-Interleaving, PDW(Pulse Description Word). 서론 NCW, ES (Electronic Support) EA(Electronic Attack), EP(Electronic Protection)., [1]. EA EP. NCW (Department of Network Centric Warfare, Ajou University) * (Division of Information & Communication, Baekseok University) Manuscript received November 6, 2015 ; Revised December 15, 2015 ; Accepted December 21, (ID No ) Corresponding Author: Jaesung Lim ( c Copyright The Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science. All Rights Reserved.

2 (PRI: Pulse Repetition Interval), (Intra-Pulse). EP SDIF(Sequential Difference Histogram) CDIF(Cumulative Difference Histogram),,, [2]. (PRI), (TOA: Time of Arrival) 1, 2 [3], TOA 1 2 EP Wobble PRI Sinusoidal PRI PRI.. ELINT(ELectronic INTelligence) 시스템구조및 Inter-Pulse 종류 2-1 Inter-Pulse 신호의파라미터 1, (DF: Direction Finding), (PD: Pulse Duration),, (Pulse Amplitude) [4]. 2-2 펄스반복간격식별시스템구성및신호처리 ELINT ESM 2 6., LPA(Log Periodic Antenna), Parabola, (Horne) Spiral. Filtering IF. Detection / Measurement., Raw PDW., PDW ( 3 ). Raw PDW,. (AOA: Angle Of Arrival),. De- Interleaving. De-interleaving 그림 1. Fig. 1. Radar electromagnetic waves parameters. 그림 2. Fig. 2. Signal processing for PRI identification. 1101

3 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 26, no. 12, Dec 그림 3. Raw PDW Segment SDW Fig. 3. Raw PDW data and Segmented SDW data.. SDW (Segmented Description Words) Clustering Inter-Pulse 종류 4 Inter-Pulse PRI(Steady, Constant PRI),. Random Jitter PRI 5(b). Pseudo Random Jitter PRI 5(c) Random PRI ( Set), 5(d) Stagger PRI. Dwell & Switch PRI 5(e) PRI,, PRI 그림 4. PRI Fig. 4. Steady PRI. 그림 5. PRI Fig. 5. A variety of PRI. [5]. Sliding PRI (f) Linear Non-Linear, PRI Linear Up Sliding, Linear Down Sliding., PRI, Non-Linear Up Sliding Non-Linear Down Sliding. 5(g) Wobble PRI,,. Sinusoidal PRI (h) sine. 2-4 PDW(Pulse Description Word) 구성 PDW 1102

4 PRI. 1, dtoa, 1 2, diff_dtoa., dtoa, diff_dtoa. (1) dtoa = toa(i+1) toa(i) (2) diff_dtoa = dtoa(i+1) dtoa(i) 그림 6. 1 PDW Fig. 6. PDW formation relative to each pulse. DB. PDW 2 3,. 4 6 DB. PDW TOA, PD, PA, AOA,, PDW PDW DB, [6]. 2-5 동일방사체펄스신호그룹화,,. Raw PDW, PRI Raw PDW., Sensor TOA, ANT PDW [7]. PDW PRI (Clustering).. TOA 를이용한 Wobble, Sinusoidal PRI 분석 3-1 Wobble PRI 분석알고리즘 Wobble PRI 4(g) PRI, Sinusodal PRI, PRI. 5(g) 1, dtoa 7(a). 7(a) Wobble PRI dtoa (3) Peak : y 1 y 2 y 3 (4) Bottom : z 1 z 2 (5) : h 1 > h 2 > h 3. PRI Wobble PRI. Wobble PRI 30, y 1, y 2, y 3 Slope Slope 3 dtoa, Top Bottom 1 μs., PDW Peak dtoa dtoa 70%, Peak Top Bottom, Wobble PRI 7(b). 3-2 Sinusoidal PRI 분석알고리즘 Sinusoidal PRI 5(h) Sine. 5(h) 1, dtoa 8(a) toa- 1103

5 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 26, no. 12, Dec (a) Wobble PRI 1 (dtoa) (a) Wobble PRI's first difference (a) Sinusoidal PRI 1 (dtoa) (a) Sinusoidal PRI's first difference (b) Sinusoidal PRI (b) Sinusoidal PRI's decision algorithm (b) Wobble PRI (b) Wobble PRI's decision algorithm 그림 7. Wobble PRI 1 Fig. 7. Wobble PRI's first difference and decision algorithm. (i+1) toa(i) Peak Bottom Sine. Sinusoidal PRI Wobble PRI. y 1, y 2, y 3, Peak x 1, x 2. Sinusoidal PRI dtoa (1) Peak : y 1 =y 2 =y 3 (2) Bottom : z 1 =z 2 그림 8. Sinusoidal PRI 1 그림 8. Sinusoidal PRI's first difference and decision algorithm. (3) Peak(Bottom), : x 1 =x 2, Wobble PRI 3 dtoa, Top Bottom, Top Bottom. Sinusoidal PRI 8(b), Sinusoidal PRI. Wobble PRI Sinusoidal PRI, dtoa Peak Bottom,. 1104

6 . PRI 분석알고리즘적용결과 7(b) Wobble PRI 1 TOA 40 PRI. 1 dtoa diff_dtoa. 1 dtoa, TOA PRI y 1, y 2, y 3 Bottom z 1, z 2, z 3 2. PRI dtoa y 1 > y 2 > y 3 z 1 > z 2 > z 3, dtoa Wobble. 표 1. Wobble PRI dtoa, diff_dtoa Table 1. Wobble PRI input and dtoa, diff_dtoa data. 표 2. Wobble PRI peak, bottom Table 2. Peak's and bottom's value for Wobble PRI input data. Peak dtoa Bottom dtoa y 1 8,000 z y 2 7,000 z 2 2,000 y 3 6,000 z 3 1,000 그림 9. Wobble PRI dtoa Fig. 9. dtoa graph of Wobble PRI decision algorithm application. Elements( y ) Positions( y ) 9 12 (4000, 8000, 2500, 3000, 3500, 7000, 4500, 2000, 3300, 6000, 3700, 1000) 12 Elements PRI (b) Sinusoidal PRI 3 TOA 40 PRI. 3 dtoa diff_dtoa Wobble PRI. dtoa 10 ( Sine ) dtoa PRI, Peak 2035, Bottom Sine Peak Bottom TOA ( ) 8,102 us., y 1, y 2, y 3 z 1, z 2, z

7 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 26, no. 12, Dec 표 3. Sinusoidal PRI dtoa, diff_dtoa Table 3. Sinusoidal PRI input and dtoa, diff_dtoa data. 표 4. Sinusoidal PRI peak, bottom 표 4. Peak's and bottom's value for Sinusoidal PRI input data Peak dtoa Bottom dtoa y 1 2,035 z 1 2,017 y 2 2,035 z 2 2,017 y 3 2,035 z 3 2,017. 결론 PRI, Sinusoidal PRI, Wobble PRI. Sinusoidal PRI, Wobble PRI, TOA 1 2 Sinusoidal PRI, Wobble PRI., Sinusoidal PRI, Wobble PRI 40,, Wobble Sinusoidal PRI,.,. Sinusoidal PRI, Wobble PRI, Sinusoidal PRI, Wobble PRI ELINT ESM. References 그림 10. Sinusoidal PRI dtoa Fig. 10. dtoa graph of Sinusoidal PRI decision algorithm application. PRI dtoa Sinusoidal Sinusoidal PRI. [1] 2, " ", NSDC , pp. 1-46, [2],, "TOA 2 Dual & Switch ",, pp , [3],,,,, "

8 2 stagger ",, 10(7), pp , [4],,,,, "PRI ",, 10(8), pp , [5],, "EP D&S PRI Stagger PRI ", Journal of the Korea Academia- Industrial Cooperation Society, vol. 13, no. 11, pp , [6],,,,,, " 2 PRI ",, 8(4), pp , [7], " Stagger PRI ",, 8(4), pp , [8],,, " ",, pp , [9], " ",, 7(5), pp , [10] Mehmet Kadir Aslan, "Emitter identification techniques in electronic warfare", The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Science of Middle East Technical University, Sep [11] Z. Matousek, P. Buck, "Detection area analysis in the ELINT system", AiMT, vol. 5, no. 2, pp , Dec : ( ) : Florida Institute of Technology E.E. ( ) : : : : SEC : : [ 주관심분야 ] ELINT, ESM(ES, EA, EP) : ( ) : ( ) : ( ) : : [ 주관심분야 ],, ( ) : Auburn E.E ( ) : : : : [ 주관심분야 ] 1107

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