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1 w» wz, 14«4y(2012) (ISSN ) Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 14, No. 4, (2012), pp. 260~264 DOI: /KJAFM Author(s) CC Attribution 3.0 License. MT-CLIM v w ü m *Á½ Á Á» Á ³y w y»z y k ( ; ; ) Applicability of Daily Solar Radiation Estimated by Mountain Microclimate Simulation Model (MT-CLIM) in Korea Kyo Moon Shim*, Yong Seok Kim, Deog Bae Lee, Ki Keong Kang and Kyo-Ho So Climate Change & Agroecology Division, National Academy of Agricultural Science (Received October 25, 2012; Revised November 7, 2012; Accepted November 8, 2012) ABSTRACT Accuracy of daily solar radiation estimated from a Mountain Microclimate Simulation Model (MT- CLIM) was assessed for seven observation sites with complex topography in Uiseong County. The coefficient of determination (R 2 ) between the observed and the estimated daily solar radiation was 0.52 for 7 sites for the study period from 1 August to 30 September Overall, the MT-CLIM overestimated the solar radiation with root mean square error (RMSE) of 3.83MJ m 2 which is about 25% of the mean daily solar radiation (15.27MJ m 2 ) for the study period. Considering that the pyranometer s tolerance is ±5% of standard sensor, the RMSE of MT-CLIM was too large to accept for a direct application for agricultural sector. The reliability of solar radiation estimated by MT- CLIM must be improved by considering additional ways such as using a topography correction coefficient. Key words : MT-CLIM, Root mean square error, Solar radiation, Complex topography I. w ƒ» (y ), k v ƒ w ( ) w. w Ÿw yw y š, ª k y xk ü. w š, w w (, 2009). k d w»,»» dw œ ù d z û. x, ù» w» (45 ) d (34 )» d (470 ) 4.4% 24 dwš (KMA, 2012a; KMA, 2012b). ù x w m w š»z ƒ w.,» w w t w, e, d y š w» d y w ù,» yw * Corresponding Author : Kyo Moon Shim

2 Shim et al.: Applicability of Daily Solar Radiation Estimated by Mountain Microclimate Simulation ƒ w w. ü w Yun(2009)»» d w s m ywš rw ý x š w x w šw., d» d w ful v k lr y w ww (Running and Hungerford, 1983; Running et al., 1987) lù w w MTCLIM(A Mountain Microclimate Simulation Model) ful v w (Hungerford et al., 1989) ü x wš, d Á mw MT-CLIM v ü x ƒ mw. II (û 37km, 54km), x š, j w (ƒ). w ƒ, ƒ š, s ƒ (Uiseong, 2012). x š, MT-CLIM v ü ƒ m ww q. 2.2.» d MT-CLIM v w w» w d w» w w š w š w 7 w z(fig. 1, Table 1), Á,,» sw» d ew. Á (Model HOBO H8 Pro RH/Temp, Onset Computer Corporation, USA) x 10 d w w š, (Model 3554WD, Spectrum Technologies, Fig. 1. Locations of the 7 observation sites (quadrangle) on the elevation map of Uiseong County. Table 1. Geographical features at 7 observation sites over Uiseong County Site # Elevation (m) Slope (deg) Aspect (deg) Remark US_ Mountain US_ Mountain US_ Upland(Soybean) US_ Middle school US_ Elementary school US_ Flat Paddy(Rice) US_ Flat Paddy(Rice) Inc., USA) p d w 1» w, (Model 3670I, Spectrum Technologies, Inc., USA) 1 d w» w MT-CLIM v y w MT-CLIM ful v» š, d w,, w v» y,,, w (William, 2003).» 7 d w» w š, d d (Model GeoExplorer Pathfinder 2.80, Trimble Inc, USA) w d w. š m l 1:5000 e x w š l TIN(triangulated irregular network) t wš, w 30m eš x(dem; digital elevation model) yw. DEM» d ƒ e 7

3 262 Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 14, No. 4 Fig. 2. Initialization file (left fig.) of US_1 site and output file (right fig.) calculated by MT-CLIM. w w., US_1 d»y q MT- CLIM v w q Fig. 2 ùkü. q š» (Tmax),» (Tmin), s³» (Tday), (Prcp), s (VPD; Vapor Pressure Deficit), (srad), û ¼ (daylength).», û ¼ w w, (Model 3670I) w d w w. III. š 3.1.» d » (s³, š, ) l 9 30 ¾ 61 7 d s³» 19.3~21.6 o C (Table 2). s³» ƒ d y US_ o C, ƒ û d w l ew US_ o C. s³» 2.3 o C.,» š» s³ 25.5~28.3 o C (Table 2), ƒ û d s³» ƒ, w š ƒ ƒ œ e US_1 (25.5 o C), ƒ d s w e w US_4 (28.3 o C). š» s³ 2.7 o C. s³» ƒ d US_6 š» s³ 27.5 o C US_4 û d, US_6 w û» þƒz q., 7 d»» s³ 15.6~17.1 o C (Table 2).» s³ ƒ d ew US_ o C, ƒ Table 2. Averaged temperature at 7 observation sites for 61 days from 1 August through 30 September 2009 Observed elements US_1 US_2 US_3 US_4 US_5 US_6 US_7 Mean air temp. ( o C) Maximum air temp. ( o C) Minimum air temp. ( o C) Table 3. Accumulated precipitation and solar radiation at 7 observation sites for 61 days from 1 August through 30 September 2009 Observed elements US_1 US_2 US_3 US_4 US_5 US_6 US_7 Precipitation (mm) Solar radiation (MJ m 2 )

4 Shim et al.: Applicability of Daily Solar Radiation Estimated by Mountain Microclimate Simulation US_2, US_ o C.» s³ š 1.5 o C, s³» š» s³ l 9 30 ¾ ~181.6mm d š 53.3mm ùkü (Table 3). ƒ d w» d ew US_ mm š, w š ƒ ew US_1 (179.6mm). ƒ d US_2» 128.3mm. 7» w 854.9~1,017.3MJ m d š MJ m 2 ùkü (Table 3). ƒ d s w e US_4 1,017.3MJ m 2 š, ƒ d w š l ew US_2 (854.9MJ m 2 ).» 162.4MJ m ƒ dw» (», š», ) y (,,, w) w, MT-CLIM ful v g ƒ y Fig. 3 ùkü. MT-CLIM ful v w» 998.0~ Fig. 3. Diurnal variation of the estimated solar radiation at 7 sites from 1 August to 30 September Fig. 4. Relationship between the observed and the estimated daily solar radiation at 7 sites for 61 days from 1 August through 30 September MJ m 2 d 7.0~23.9%. 7 US_4 d ƒ ƒ, ƒ û US_3 d ùkþ., d US_2 ƒ û š, US_3 US_2 û d d l 9 30 ¾ 61 d w MT-CLIM ful v w w w Fig. 4. MT-CLIM v w š(us_6 w»»ƒ 1.0 ), (R 2 ) d y w 2œ(US_4, US_5) w ƒ d 0.6 ùkþ. US_4 US_5 ƒƒ 0.23, 0.52 û., w š ƒ ƒ œ US_1 ƒ û œ US_7 d y ùkü Fig. 5, ƒ ù, d y w w. û w š, w, w.

5 264 Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 14, No. 4 d w, 0.52 x ƒ y š,. MT-CLIM v w RMSE s³ 3.83MJ m 2, s ³ 15.27MJ m 2 25% w š, w x ƒ t ±5% w 25% RMSE š q w. MT-CLIM v ü w» w x k ƒ w q. w w» ( y: PJ ) w. Fig. 5. Diurnal variation of the observed and estimated solar radiation, and precipitation at US_1 (up fig.) and US_7 (down fig.) sites from 1 August through 30 September MT-CLIM v ü m 7» r s (RMSE) 3.02~4.74MJ m 2 š s³ 3.83MJ m 2.» s³ 15.27MJ m 2 y 3.83 s³ 25% w w š. w x ƒ t ±5% w 25% RMSE š q w. MT-CLIM ful v w» w Yun(2009) w x, k e x w z š w ƒ ƒ w w. MT-CLIM ful v w ü m w 7 d wš d v w w. REFERENCES Hungerford, R. D., R. R. Nemani, S. W. Running, and J. C. Coughlan, 1989: MTCLIM: A mountain microclimate extrapolation model. USDA Forest Service. Research Paper INT-414, 52pp. Korea Meteorological Administration, 2012a: 2011 Annual Climatological Report. Government Publication Number , 314pp. Korea Meteorological Administration, 2012b: 2011 Annual Report of Automatic Weather System Data. Government Publication Number , 968pp. Running, S. W. and R. D. Hungerford, 1983: Spatial extrapolation of meteorological data for ecosystem modeling applications. Proceeding of 16 th Conference on Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Boston, MA, American Meteorological Society, Running, S. W., R. Nemani, and R. D. Hungerford, 1987: Extrapolation of synoptic meteorological data in mountainous terrain and its use for simulating forest evapotranspiration and photosynthesis. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 17, Uiseong County, 2012: 2011 Statistical year book, 551pp. William, M. J., 2003: MT-CLIM for Excel, University of Montana, 9pp. Yun, J. I., 2009: A simple method using a topography correction coefficient for estimating daily distribution of solar irradiance in complex terrain, Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 11(1), , 1999:» w. q f, ISBN , 337pp.

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