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1 w» wz, 8«3y(2006) Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 8, No. 3, (2006), pp. 125~ û šþ vw k y³á Á ûxáû «Á½» Á½ Á½ š w yû ( ; ) A Survey on Low Temperature Injury of Rice at South-Western Alpine Area of Korea in 2003 H. K. Park, W. Y. Choi, N. H. Back, J. K. Nam, K. Y. Kim, S. S. Kim, and C. K. Kim Honam Agricultural Research Institute, National Institute of Crop Science, Iksan , Korea (Received March 7, 2006; Accepted June 17, 2006) ABSTRACT This survey was carried out to investigate the characteristics of low temperature injury in rice plants at a southwestern alpine area of Korea in During vegetative, reproductive, and ripening stage in a southwestern alpine area, mean air temperature was lower by 0.4, 3.1 and 1.7 o C, respectively, as compared to those of a normal year. Minimum air temperature during the reproductive and ripening stage was lower by 2.6 and 1.7 o C, respectively, as compared to those of a normal year. Sunshine hours during vegetative, reproductive, and ripening stage were lower by 40.6, 81.3 and 8.4 hours, respectively, than those of a normal year. Spikelet-sterility type cold injury occurred from the latter part of June to the middle of July, which is from panicle formation stage to meiosis stage, at temperatures less than 17 o C. Spikelet sterility under normal transplanting (May 20) ranged from 16 to 58%, which was lower than that under early transplanting in the latter part of April (29 to 83%). The total area impacted by cold damage was 2,723ha in Namwon, 510ha in Sunchang, 300ha in Jinan, 250ha in Muju, and 210ha in Jangsu. Average spiklet sterility in these regions was 44%. Rice cultivars Odaebyeo, Unbongbyeo, and Jinbubyeo showed greater tolerance to low temperature than CV, Chugwangbyeo. Key words : Rice, Low temperature injury, South-western alpine area I. û ƒ ú 53 û 40 Ÿ w š. ù w 500m ü šþ ¾ š ù»z w vwƒ w» w.» w, w vw tš 200m, þ t,, þ 239,372ha 20% wš (««, 1986;, 1981) w vwƒ wš. w vw ha, ha, ha, ha 10» š (, 2004) 03 û šþ 3,993ha vwƒ w. þw w üþ t Corresponding Author : H. K. Park

2 126 Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 8, No. 3» š, üþ t w,, x š,,» w ƒ w š. w þw t, (Kim et al., 1981, 1982, 1983, 1995; Lee et al., 1988) w e,»» ƒ j w (Kim et al., 1989; Choi and Lee, 1976). 03 û šþ w vw w p w,»z w wy y wš šw. II vwƒ w û,,, ƒs yû x t s, ƒ ƒ 3~5 w. vw ƒ t,» þw vw» ƒ w w,»k w. vw»k w e w,» yû x e» e(cr 10X, Campbell) l. III. š 3.1.»» », 5 9 ¾»» y Fig. 1. û šþ» 5 ¾ s³» s 0.6 o Cƒ ù 6 l û» w o C s 3.6 o Cƒ û š, o Cƒ û, z 8 w 9 wš.» s³» w w,» 5 ¾ s 0.3 o Cƒ ù 6 l û» w o C s 2.7 o Cƒ û š, o Cƒ û, z 8 w 9 wš û.» 6 l 9 ¾ s p 6 w l 7 ¾ 84.6 s 50%, 8 l 9 ¾ s 57%.» 1,646 mm s 379 mmƒ, p mm s 260 mmƒ (Fig. 2) »» s w s³» Fig. 1. Comparison of the average and minimum air temperature in average year ('98-'02) and 2003 during rice growing period in Unbong.

3 Park et al.: A Survey on Low Temperature Injury of Rice at South-Western Fig. 2. Comparison of the sunshine hour and precipitation in average year ('98-'02) and 2003 during rice growing period in Unbong.» 18.8 o C s 0.4 o C û»» ƒƒ 19.7, 21.8 o C s 3.1, 1.8 o C û.» s³» w w» 16.8æ s 2.6 o Cƒ û.» 226 s 85%» s 160 w s 49% w.»» s ù» s 287 mm w 315 mmƒ (Table 1). w s w ƒ ûš ƒ, p» s w» x ûš ƒ w w» y»¾» p ¾ ù w vw x»» wš, x»» ƒ w» 17 o C w w y y ƒ š, y w w,» 15 o C w w š, w». ƒ w»», p 10~11 s» ƒ w (Matsushima, 1957; Satake and Hayase, 1970, 1974).» wx þw w ƒ, ƒ,, ƒ, ƒ ƒ w k (Satake, 1971). x»»» 17 o C ƒ wù û šþ l 7 5 ¾ 12» 17 o C w wx þwƒ w.»,» 17 o C w , l 7 5 ¾ 91 vw 17 o C w x j vw», p 7 2» 14 o C w o C w w 3 l 8, l 10 Table 1. Meterological data according to rice growth stage in Unbong Division Vegetative stage Reproductive stage Ripening stage 2003 Ave. year Difference 2003 Aver. year Difference 2003 Aver. year Difference Ave. temp.( o C) Min. temp.( o C) Sunshine(hr) Rainfall(mm)

4 128 Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 8, No. 3 Fig. 3. Daily change of low temperature from panicle formation to heading stage according to the transplanting time in Unbong. A : Farmer field (early transplanting) B : Experiment field (optimum transplanting) : Panicle formation stage, : Booting stage, : Heading stage 17 o C w (Fig. 3) û šþ vw ƒ xs vw û šþ» s³» 17 o C ü 5 ù ƒ» w 4 w» wš.» w x» 6 w 7,» 17~19 o C w þwƒ š. þ wƒ w w '93 7» 13.5 o C¾ û» vw ƒ. p» w vwƒ w»» w w l 7 ¾» w 17 o C w, 6 w» t ƒ w» x», w t» 7 w wx þwƒ (Fig. 4). wx þw y w y þw w»» Fig. 4. Diurnal change of air temperature during panicle initiation stage in Unbong.

5 Park et al.: A Survey on Low Temperature Injury of Rice at South-Western w» vwƒ j.» w þw» š w» w þw w. 5 20» w x y xs y»ƒ ƒ w w l vw w. Ÿ þw t þw ww t» yw ywš, k üþ t» wù ùe» w vw w w., w» t p w w. ƒ t» þwvw Ÿ k 7 25~ % ù, w» w vwƒ z w vw ƒ w. š 23y 7 28 z w, (Table 1). Satake and Hayase(1970) 40% 20% 50% 30% ƒw, t,, š w w x s t vw» 7 27 l 7 30 w ü,, k,, û,, û üþ t sƒ (Table 2). x y xs t» Table 3 s w» 4 š, 75.2% s 92.7% w 17.5%ƒ û, t s,,,. û šþ w vw t,» w vw, ƒ w» ü w j w š. û šþ» ƒ ƒ û» 6 w 7, 6 w» w x» w w 7 7 w t s» w.» t þw 4 w» w Table 2. Relationship between sterile percentage and heading date according to rice varieties in farmer's field (Unbong) Varieties Heading date(month/date) 7/24 7/25 7/26 7/27 7/28 7/29 7/30 7/31 8/1 8/2 8/3 Odaebyeo ú ú ø ø ø ø ø Taebongbyeo Chugwangbyeo Sobackbyeo Jinbubyeo Samcheonbyeo Unbong23# Juongwhabyeo ø * : Below 30%, : 30~50%, : Above 50% in sterility Table 3. Percent sterility according to heading date in experiment field of Unbong Heading date July 26 July 27 July 28 July 29 July 30 July 31 Aug. 1 Aug. 2 Variety Undu -byeo Sobaek -byeo Percent sterility *Transplanting date : May 20 Dunnebyeo Samcheonbyeo Taebongbyeo Namweonbyeo Saesangjubyeo Odaebyeo

6 130 Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, Vol. 8, No. 3 Table 4. Heading date and percent of fertile grain by rice varieties in Unbong experimental field Varieties Heading date Fertile grain(%) Ripened grain(%) 2003 Aver. year 2003 Aver. year 2003 Aver. year Odaebyeo Aug. 5 Aug Jinbyeo July 31 July Unbongbyeo July 31 July Samcheonbyeo Aug. 2 July Mean Aug. 2 July » 7 21 l 25, 29% 83%, 5 20» w» 7 27 l % 58%» w t w û (Table 5) vw vwƒ w ƒ vw vw (Table 6) û šþ 3,164ha 86% 2,723ha vwƒ w, 1,430ha vw ƒ,. vw 7% š 95% s³ 42.7% > >. 3,500ha 8% 300ha vwƒ w. v w vw ƒ s³ 58.9% 63.7%, 54% ùkþ. 4,000ha 5% 210ha vwƒ w. vw vwƒ w s³ 52.1%. þ w ƒ x þwƒ w. 6,900ha ew Table 5. Differences in percent sterility and heading date according to transplanting date in experiment field of Unbong and farmer's field Transplanting date Heading date Percent sterility Early transplanting (Apr. 21~27) July 21~25 29~83 Optimum transplanting (May 15~20) JulyG27~Aug. 3 16~58 e vwƒ w. vw 510ha s³ 35.1%.»z w wy y wš 2003 û šþ w vw w p w. û šþ ( )» s³» 19.7 o C s 3.1 o C û š, 79 s 49%, þwƒ w» x» 6 w l» 7 ¾»» 17 o C w w w þwƒ w. vw û 2,723ha, 510ha, 300ha, 210ha, s³ Table 6. Low temperature damaged area and percent sterility in Southern Alpine area Division Namwon* Jinan Jangsu Sunchang Muju Total Cultivated area(ha) 3,164 3,554 4,015 6,940 3,062 20,735 Damage area(ha) 2,723 (86%) 300 (8%) 210 (5%) 510 (7%) 250 (8%) 3,993 (19%) Range of sterility(%) 7~95 8~100 10~100 11~57 5~45 - Aver. of sterility(%) *Latitude, Longitude, Altitude : 35 o 26' 05" N, 127 o 31' 50" E, 350 m(namwon), 35 o 52' 33" N, 127 o 33' 35" E, 264 m(jinan), 35 o 39' 38" N, 127 o 31' 35" E, 397 m(jangsu), 35 o 29' 35" N, 127 o 03' 40" E, 252 m(sunchang), 35 o 59' 35" N, 127 o 38' 15" E, 181(Muju)

7 Park et al.: A Survey on Low Temperature Injury of Rice at South-Western %.» 5 20» w 16%~58%, 4 w» 29%~83% w û,, t vw ƒ. þwƒ» w» š wš, ƒ ùe» w, üþ w t w w ƒ. REFERENCES «, «, 1986: w w Workshop. w» wz , 2004: m. 246p., 1981: þw k w» Choi, H. O. and J. H. Lee, 1976: Studies on low temperature injury at each growth stage in rice plant. Korean Journal of Crop Science 21(2), (in Korean with English abstract) Kim, D. K., Y. T. Jung, and R. K. Park, 1981: Effect of nitrogen and balanced application of NPK on the low temperature injury of paddy rice. Korea Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer 14(4), (in Korean with English abstract) Kim, H. D., S. H. Kwon, T. Satake, B. H. Kim, and D. W. Ree, 1989: Influence of water temperature and depths on the occurrence of the sterile-type cold damage and growth in rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). Research Report of Rural Development Administration(rice) 31(2), (in Korean with English abstract) Kim, K. S., J. R. Kim, H. S. Ji, J. H. Ko, M. A. Lee, D. Y. Kim, Y. B. Shin, and S. U. Park, 1995: A Survey on cool weather injury of rice at alpine area of kangwon provence in Rural Development Administration Journal of agricultural Science 37(2), (in Korean with English abstract) Kim, Y. J., S. I. Choi, J. S. Ra, and J. H. Lee, 1982: Studies on the growth and nutrient uptake of flag leaf and chaff of rice plant in cold injury location. II. Influence of different transplanting date on nutrient uptake of flag leaf and chaff of rice plant. Korean Journal of Crop Science 27(3), (in Korean with English abstract) Kim, Y. J., S. I. Choi, J. S. Ra, and J. H. Lee, 1983: Studies on the growth and nutrient uptake of flag leaf and chaff of rice plant in cold injury location. III. Influence of different nitrogen and silicate application on nutrient uptake of flag leaf and chaff of rice plant. Korean Journal of Crop Science 28(1), (in Korean with English abstract) Lee, S. Y., S. S. Kim, J. S. Choi, Y. K. Choi, K. Y. Lee, M. S. Lee, and T. Murakami, 1988: Influence of cultural methods and climatic condition on rice yield in the southern plain area and alpine area. Research Report of Rural Development Administration(rice) 30(2), (in Korean with English abstract) Matsushima, S., 1957: Analysis of development factors determining yield and predication in lowland rice. Bulletin of the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences. Series A 5, Satake, D. O., 1971: Sterility of rice in sterile-type cold damage. Agriculture and Horticulture 46(11), Satake, T. and H. Hayase, 1970: Male sterility caused by cooling treatment at the young microspore stage in rice plants. V. Estimations of pollen developmental stage and the most sensitive stage to coolness. Proceeding of Crop Science Society of Japan 39(4), Satake, T. and H. Hayase, 1974: Male sterility caused by cooling treatment at the young microspore stage in rice plants. X. A secondary sensitive stage at the beginning of meiosis. Proceeding of Crop Science Society of Japan 43(1),

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