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1 Trans. Korean Soc. Noise Vib. Eng., 28(4) : 397~402, 2018 한국소음진동공학회논문집제28 권제4 호, pp. 397~402, ISSN (Print), ISSN (Online) 전륜차량의부밍소음연구 Study on the Booming Noise of Front-wheel-drive Vehicle 정인수 한두희 * Insoo Jung and Doohee Han * (Received April 18, 2018 ; Revised June 19, 2018 ; Accepted June 19, 2018) Key Words : Booming Noise( 부밍소음 ), Torque Fluctuation( 토크변동 ), Transfer Path Analysis( 전달경로분석 ) ABSTRACT A significant booming noise was in the low engine speed range of a front-wheel-drive vehicle. For this reason, occurred the engine speed at which the engine and transmission are directly connected could not be reduced as much as desired to improve the fuel economy. The problems of the vehicle related to the booming noise were analyzed using torque fluctuation of the drive shaft, transfer path analysis and operational deflection shape. The simulation was carried out to establish improvement measures for the mechanism of the identified booming noise. 1) 1. 서론전세계적으로환경보전을위한차량배출가스및 CO 2 규제가지속적으로강화되고있다. 이러한규제를달성하기위해엔진의연소효율개선, 마찰저감, 열손실저감같은열효율향상, 차량경량화및차량전동화등의다양한방법들로연비를개선하고있다. 이들중엔진과변속기의직결엔진회전수를최대한낮추어엔진연비를개선하는방법이있는데, 이번연구대상인준중형전륜차량에서는 1200 r/min 영역에서실내부밍소음 (booming noise) 이크게발생하여원하는만큼엔진회전수를하향하지못하는문제점이있었다. 부밍소음은차량가속, 감속혹은정속주행시특정한엔진회전수에도달할때귀를압박하는소음특성을가지고있는데, 일반적으로엔진의연소가진이차량의구조로전달되어발생하는구조기인소음 (structure-borne noise) 과엔진방사음및흡배기소음이공기로전달되어발생하는공기기인 소음 (air-borne noise) 에의해발생한다. 이논문의연구차량에서발생한직결부밍소음은기본적인시험을통해구조기인소음으로조사되었다. 관련연구논문을보면엔진의토크변동에서차량전달경로및차체까지다양한연구 (1~7) 가진행되어왔다. 하지만, 이번논문에서다룰문제의부밍소음에대한개선방향을수립하기위해서는발생원인에대한심층연구가필요하였다. 2. 본론 2.1 부밍소음발생영역과현상 Fig. 1은준중형 5도어차량에서의부밍소음과변속기 output rpm 변동량을함께나타낸것이다. 그림을보면, rpm 변동량이큰 1430 r/min 대역 (2 영역 ) 에서의부밍소음보다는 rpm 변동량이상대적으로적은 1200 r/min 대역 (1 영역 ) 에서의부밍소음이크게발생한다는것을알수있다. 이결과를통해, rpm 변동량의크기보다는변속기와연 Corresponding Author; Member, Hyundai Motor Company * Hyundai Motor Company Recommended by Editor Gi-Woo Kim The Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Trans. Korean Soc. Noise Vib. Eng., 28(4) : 397~402,

2 결되는구동축 (drive shaft) 에서차량전달경로및차체까지어떤문제가존재하고있다고판단하여전달경로조사를진행하였다. 물론가진측면에서 rpm 변동량이적을수록부밍소음이개선될것이다. 이를확인하기위해서엔진에대해두가지원리시험을진행하였다. 첫번째로 Fig. 2에나타나있는것처럼, 엔진토크를베이스대비 10 % 씩저감하면서부밍소음의변화를살펴보았다. 시험결과를보면, 부밍소음저감목표인 4dB를만족하기위해서는엔진토크를베이스대비 40 % 저감해야한다는것을알수있다. 하지만, 차량의동력성능이크게악화되어적용이어렵다. 두번째 로엔진부품의 inertia 증가를통해엔진 rpm 변동량을저감하면어느정도부밍소음이개선될지 Fig. 3과같이크랭크트레인의 inertia 변화에따른 rpm 변동량을해석으로예측해보았다. Inertia를 40 % 증가하면, 베이스대비엔진 rpm 변동량이 24 % 감소하였다. 이때부밍소음의저감량은경험적으로대략 1dB 정도일것으로추정된다. 또한, 이대책은무게증가로인한연비악화의부작용도발생할수있기때문에실제로적용하기어렵다. 그래서변속기에서다이나믹댐퍼튜닝, CPA (centrifugal pendulum absorber) (8) 같은부품을이용해엔진 rpm 변동량을저감할수있으나, 재료비가비싸기때문에시험차량에서는차량전달경로및차체문제점을검토하여부밍소음을개선하는방향이적절해보였다. 그래서토크변동량측정및주행 TPA(transfer path analysis) 평가를실시하였다. Fig. 1 Vehicle booming noise and rpm fluctuation 2.2 토크변동량측정및주행 TPA 평가변속기 output rpm 변동량이구동축에전달되면서나타나는비틀림진동이차량전달경로의입력하중 (input force) 으로작용하기때문에시험차량의구동축에서스트레인게이지 (strain gauge) 와텔레메트리장비를사용해토크변동량을측정하였다. 그결과, Fig. 4와같은엔진회전수에따른토크변동량을측정할수있었다. 결과를보면, 토크변동량의최대값은부밍소음이가장크게발생하는 1200 r/min 대역이아닌 Engine Torque Noise reduction 1 Base Level basis % (20% reduction compared 70% (30% reduction compared 60% (40% reduction compared 50% (50% reduction compared 1.2 db 3dB 4dB 5dB Fig. 2 Changes of the booming noise when the engine torque is reduced Fig. 3 Engine rpm fluctuation in case of engine inertia change Trans. Korean Soc. Noise Vib. Eng., 28(4) : 397~402,

3 1430 r/min 대역에서나타난다. 즉, 부밍소음최대값과토크변동량최대값이서로다른엔진회전수에서발생한다는것을알수있다. 이는부밍소음이구동계토크변동량의크기에의해서만발생하지않는다는것을의미한다. 따라서부밍소음에영향을주는인자와차체에입력되는실차입력하중의관계를알아내기위해차량 TPA를실시하였다. 여기서부밍소음은실차입력하중과차량의음향전달함수의곱으로표현된다. Fig. 5의시험결과를보면, 문제의부밍소음이발생하는영역인 1232 r/min(41 Hz) 에서샤시계로입력되는실차입력하중이크게발생하는것을알수있다. 또한차량음향전달함수 (NTF, noise transfer function) 를보면 41 Hz에서의전달함수감도가 38 Hz보다작다는것을알수있다. 이결과를통해차량음향전달함수보다는샤시계로입력되는 실차입력하중이부밍소음에더큰영향을끼친다는것을알수있다. 이것은 Fig. 6에나타나있는샤시계의모드 (mode) 특성에의한것으로보인다. 즉, 41 Hz 대역의토크변동량이샤시계의모드에영향을받아차체에크게입력되고, 그것이부밍소음을유발한것으로판단된다. 2.3 부밍소음발생메커니즘샤시계의입력하중으로인해어떻게차량에서부밍소음이발생했는지를확인하기위해실차 EMA (experimental modal analysis) 및 ODS(operational Fig. 6 Input force and torque fluctuation Fig. 4 Torque fluctuation measure during acceleration Fig. 5 Input force and noise transfer function Fig. 7 EMA and ODS results Trans. Korean Soc. Noise Vib. Eng., 28(4) : 397~402,

4 deflection shape) 평가를통해차량거동을분석하였다. Fig. 7에간략하게표시된차량거동을보면, 부밍소음발생시샤시계및테일케이트 (tailgate) 가차량전후방향으로움직이는것을알수있다. 샤시계는 39 Hz, 41 Hz에서불리한진동감도를가지고있고, 이모드는샤시계로입력되는구동축의토크변동량을차량전후방향으로증폭시켜차체에전달하는역할을하고있는것으로확인되었다. 테일게이트는차량전후방향으로입력되는구동축의토크변동량에의해펌핑 (pumping) 모드로움직이며부밍을발생시키고있었다. 또한엔진폭발력으로발생한입력하중은차체의사이드멤버에의해증폭되고, 그것은윈드쉴드 (windshield) 의펌핑모드를유발하여부밍을발생시키고있었다. 이렇게규명된발생메커니즘에대한개선방향을찾아내기위해해석을진행하였다. (a) Test ODS 2.4 해석기반개선방향검토구동축토크변동량과파워트레인마운트측실차입력하중등의데이터를활용하여시험과해석의상관성을확보해차량의전체거동및전달함수의피크발생지점이동일한것을확인하였다. Fig. 8은시험과해석의 ODS를비교한것이고, Fig. 9는전달함수를비교한것이다. 해석의신뢰성을확보한후해석기반원리시험을진행하였다. 먼저샤시계의모드를제어하기위해 Fig. 10과 Fig. 11에나타나있는것처럼타이어중량변화와스트러트부시 (strut bush) 의강성을증대하여보았다. 타이어중량감소 / 증대에따라 39 Hz ~41Hz 대역의공진주파수가하향 / 상향되었으며, 부밍소음은 7.4 db ~ 9.3 db 개선되었다. 또한스트러트상단부시의강성증대의경우공진주파수가 44 Hz로상향되면서진동감도가 10 db 이상개선되어부밍소음이 11 db 개선되었다. 이를통해샤시계의스트러트거동제어가중요하다는것을확인할수있었다. 그다음은차체해석을진행하였다. 프런트사이드멤버의강성을증대한경우부밍소음이 0.6 db 밖에개선되지않지만, 언더플로워사이드멤버강성부재, 에이프론 (apron) 멤버및사이드아웃터레인포스강성을함께증대시키면부밍소음이 4.2 db 개선되는것을알수있었다. (b) Simulation ODS Fig. 8 ODS comparison Fig. 9 Transfer function comparison Trans. Korean Soc. Noise Vib. Eng., 28(4) : 397~402,

5 마지막으로테일게이트의해석을진행하였다. 테일게이트의모드를분석해보면, Fig. 12와같이래치 (latch) 의상하거동및전후거동을볼수있다. 스트라이커샤프트가세워져있어래치가스트라이커샤프트와결합후상하거동이발생하고, 전후거동은래치마운팅강성부족으로발생하는것이다. 따라서스트라이커샤프트를 90 회전시켜가로형태로변경하고래치마운팅부분의강성을올려해석을수행한결과, 2.2 db가개선되는것을알수있었다. Fig. 10 Change of the transfer function according to sample types 3. 결론 Fig. 11 Change of the booming noise according to sample types 연비개선을위해엔진과변속기의직결엔진회전수를하향하는데문제가된차량부밍소음에대한원인분석과개선방향에대한연구를진행하였다. 이연구를통해얻어진결론은다음과같다. (1) 부밍소음의메커니즘은다음과같이규명되었다. 첫째, 구동축토크변동량이샤시계모드에의해증폭되어테일게이트를가진하여부밍소음을발생시킨다. 둘째, 엔진폭발력에의한입력하중이차체비틀림모드에의한프런트사이드멤버상하거동으로증폭되어윈드쉴드를가진하게되고그것이부밍소음을발생시킨다. (2) 기존단위입력하중해석으로는예측하지못했던직결부밍소음을예측할수있는해석프로세스를확립하였고, 이를통해아래와같은개선방향을검토하였다. 첫째, 구동축토크변동량을증폭시키는샤시계모드제어를통한실차입력하중저감방안, 둘째로사이드멤버강성증대를통한윈드쉴드기인부밍소음저감방안, 마지막으로스트라이커-래치개선안으로테일게이트기인부밍소음저감방안이다. References Fig. 12 Tailgate (1) Jeong, M., Kook, H., Ko, K., Heo, S. and Kim, C. M., 2003, A Study on the Test Procedure to Identify the Noise Sources and the Design Improvements for the Reduction of the Interior Noise of Passenger Vehicles, Proceedings of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers Annual Autumn Conference, pp. 786~791. (2) Yoon, K. and Kwak, B., 2006, Improvement Techniques For Low Frequency Boom Noise of Sports Trans. Korean Soc. Noise Vib. Eng., 28(4) : 397~402,

6 Utility Vehicles, Proceedings of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers Annual Autumn Conference, pp. 977~982. (3) Sun, J., Kim, Y. and Kim, I., 2007, Experimental Verification for the Cause of Lockup Booming Noise, Proceedings of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers Annual Autumn Conference, pp. 840~845. (4) Kim, K., Kang, C. and Jung, S., 2005, Refinement of the Interior Booming Noise Caused by the Lock-up Clutch in Automatic Transmission Vehicle, SAE Technical Paper , DOI: / (5) Sung, S., Chao, S., Lingala, H. and Mundy, L., 2011, Structural-acoustic Analysis of Vehicle Body Panel Participation to Interior Acoustic Boom Noise, SAE Technical Paper , DOI: / (6) Schulze-Fehrenbach, D., Rumpel, T. and Spengler, R., 2012, Low-speed Boom Noise -Escalating Relevance According to CO 2- Targets and High Torque Engines, SAE Technical Paper , DOI: / (7) Gupta, G., Gautam, R. and Jain, C. P., 2014, Study of Coupling Behavior of Acoustic Cavity Modes to Improve Booming Noise in Passenger Vehicles, SAE Technical Paper , DOI: / (8) Swank, M. and Lindemann, P., 2011, Dynamic Absorbers for Modern Powertrains, SAE Technical Paper , DOI: / Insoo Jung studied mechanical engineering at Busan National University for Master of Science. Since 1993 he has been working for Hyundai Motor Company. He became a research fellow in He is working on sound quality, engine condition diagnosis and NVH control. Trans. Korean Soc. Noise Vib. Eng., 28(4) : 397~402,

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