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1 ADHD : * ADHD., Conners ADHD 60,, ADHD ( ).,.,,,,,,.,,.,.,., (,, ),.,. ADHD.. * 2014 ( ) (NRF-2014S1A5A2A ). :,, (41566) 80

2 (Goudriaan, Oosterlaan, Beurs, & Brink, 2005). (APA, 2013). (Korea National Information Society Agency, 2011), Cohen(2011). (Hyman & Malenka, 2001; Leshner, 1997), (Cohen, 2011). (Kim et al., 2013; Yen, Ko, Yen, Wu, & Yang, 2007; Yen, Yen, Chen, Tang, & Ko, 2009). (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; ADHD) (inattention), (hyperactivity), (impulsivity) (APA, 2013),. (Oh & Ha, 2014)., (Barkley, Grodzinsky, & DuPaul, 1992), (Lcckwood, Marcottre, & Stern, 2001). Ko, Yen, Chen, Chen Yen(2008) (continuous performance test: CPT). CPT (Rubia et al., 2001). (Lee, Kim, & Kang, 2011; Schulz et al., 2007).. (Jeon, Hyun, & Chun, 2011; Ko et al., 2008; Yen et al., 2009), (Cao, Su, Liu, & Gao, 2007; Dong, Lu, Zhou, & Zhao, 2010). Jones, Jones, Blundell Bruce(2002) (change blindness).

3 (Rensink, 2000), (Levin & Simons, 1997). (Simons, 2000),. (Jones et al., 2002; Jones et al, 2003) (Lee, Kwak, & Jang, 2013). ADHD ADHD. (Kim, 2013; Oh et al, 2014)., ADHD,. (Cho & Kim, 2014; Choi, 2014; Kim et al., 2013; Oh et al., 2014). (Choi, 2014; Kim et al., 2013). (Choi, Shin, Bae, & Kim, 2014; Yoo et al., 2014), (Cho et al., 2014; Hwang, Yoo, & Cho, 2012).. ADHD ADHD. (Jeon et al., 2011; Oh et al., 2014), ADHD (Choi et al., 2014; Hwang et al., 2012)., (Biederman, 2005). Weiss Hechtman(1993),. ADHD, ADHD, (Park, Seo, Sung, & Bae, 2012),,,, (Boakes, Chapman, Houghton, & West, 2009;

4 Pelc, Kornreich, Foisy, & Dan, 2006). Da Fonseca, Seguier, Santos, Poinso Deruelle(2009) ADHD, Maedgen Carlson(2000).,,, (Luszczynska, Diehl, Gutierrez-Dona, Kuusinen, & Schwarzer, 2004). Anderson(2002) (Meesters, Muris, & Rooijen, 2007). Lee (2011) Go/No-Go (GNO). GNO GNO Go( ) No-Go( ) (Rubia et al., 2001). GNO GNO GNO GNO (Bunge, Dudukovic, Thomason, Vaidya, & Gabrielli, 2002; Durston, Thomas, Worden, Yang, & Casey, 2002). (Bechara, Damasio, & Damasio, 2000), (Itami & Uno, 2002). (Lee et al., 2011). ADHD ADHD (Hesslinger et al., 2002), (Boakes et al., 2008; Park et al., 2012; Pelc et al., 2006). (An, Lee, Cho, Chung, & Shin, 2013; Park et al., 2012)...,,, (Philippot et al., 1999), Park, Park, Chang, Koo Bae(2014),,,,., GNO. GNO

5 CPT. (Barkley, 1998), (Weintraub, 2000: Kirmizi-Alsan et al., 2006 ), ADHD (Jeon et al., 2011; Kirmizi-Alsan et al., 2006; Ko et al., 2008; Losier, McGrath, & Klein, 1996; Yen et al., 2009). Schulz (2007) GNO Conners CPT (Barkley, 2006; Epstein, Conners, Sitarenios, & Erhadt, 1998; Riccio, Reynolds, & Lowe, 2001; Solanto, Etefia, & Marks, 2004), 5:5 - (3.5 1). (Barkley, 1998; Kim & Kim, 2004; Lee, Lee, Ko, & Shin, 2000).,,, GNO. ADHD.,, ( ),,. GNO Lee (2013). 1) 2) 3) 4). ADHD. 598 ( 307, 291 ), Conners ADHD -., 67 ( 22, 23, 22 ) -, -, -.,, Korea

6 National Information Society Agency(2011) (5 ), (2 ), (4 ), (4 ). 44 (T =71), (T =66).. (Cronbach's α).82. Conners (CAARS-K). ADHD Conners, Erhardt Sparrow(1999) ADHD Kim, Lee, Lee Kim(2005). Conners (1999) ( /,, /, ) DSM-IV 2, ADHD 7, (Conners et al., 1999), 8. Lee, Chang Kwak(2012) Lee, Byoun, Chang Kwak(2015) ADHD DSM-IV (DSM-IV / ) 21 (T =62.73 ), DSM-IV 12 (T =50.23), DSM-IV 5 (T =41.76 ). (Cronbach's α).85,.71,.85,.76, DSM-IV.76, ADHD.92, ~9. (The Korea University Facial Expression Collection, KUFEC; Lee, Lee, Lee, Choi, & Kim, 2006).,,,,,, 7,,..,,,,. 20 LCD, - ( 15 ), - ( 10 ), - ( 25 ).,. 50,

7 -, -, -. 1~2. -. Conners Kwak (2007) ( knu.ac.kr/). 0~ % 0~9 (5 ), 25% ms 400ms. 77, 8. 15,,,,. -. Schulz (2007) GNO Conners Python 3.4. (No-Go, ), (Go, ). Lee (2001). - (3.5 1) KUEFC,,,,,,,,. KUEFC ( ), ( ), (,,,, ). 1000ms, 400ms. 101, 3 10.

8 ,,,,. -. Rensink Kwak (2007) ( (+) 500ms, ( 4, 4 ) 8.. KUEFC,,,,,,., ( ), ( ). 149, 3 1~2. 25,,.

9 PASW statistics 18.0,, t,,. -.,,,,. Table 1. t , 23.40, [χ²(2) = 0.5, p =.273]. 11, 9, 11, 9, 8, 12 [t(60) = -.958, p =.537], CARRS-K [t(60) = 107, p =.628]. Table [F(2, 59) = 6.050, p <.01] [F(2, 59) = , p <.01] [F(2, 59) =.880, p =.42] [F(2, 59) =.199, p =.454]..,..,. -, [F(2, 59) = , p <.001] [F(2, 59) = , p <.001], Type Control group (n=20) Smartphone addiction group (n=20) Comorbidity group (n=20) Age 23.95(2.62) 23.40(2.06) 23.22(3.71) Smartphone addiction scale score 23.95(5.47) 42.5(5.91) 44.83(5.34) CAARS-K score 6.85(3.34) 15.35(5.64) 25.22(3.41)

10 Type Control group Smartphone addiction group Comorbidity group F Tukey HSD (n=20) (n=20) (n=20) Indices of the continuous performance tasks with numerical stimuli. mean response time (58.69) (57.13) (59.76) ** 1>2, 1>3 standard deviation 76.03(14.82) 77.74(21.42) 79.74(18.89).199 omission error 1.15(0.81) 2.85(4.88) 3.55(8.91).880 commission errors 7.55(4.44) 21.9(8.48) 30.55(12.15) ** 1<2<3 Indices of the continuous performance tasks with emotional stimuli. mean response time (35.42) (48.20) (60.32) *** 1>2>3 standard deviation (23.91) (24.28) (29.81).868 omission error 3.26(1.69) 8.35(24.28) 13.25(5.93) ** 1<3 commission errors 0.95(1.02) 3.92(6.98) 8.39(8.93) *** 1<2<3 ** p <.01, *** p <.001 Note : 1 = Control group, 2 = Smartphone addiction group, 3 = Comorbidity group [F(2, 59) = 6.500, p <.01] [F(2, 59) =.868, p =.425].,,...,. -. Table 2,,,. - Table 3, Figure 4. [F(2, 59) = 6.685, p <.05], [F(2, 59) = 4.255, p <.05], [F(2, 59) = , p <.001]

11 Type Control Smartphone Comorbidity group addiction group group F Tukey HSD M SD M SD M SD Positive emotion * 1>3, 2>3 Neutral emotion * 1>3 Negative emotion *** 1>2>3 * p <.05, *** p <.001 Note : 1 = Control group, 2 = Smartphone addiction group, 3 = Comorbidity group. Figure 4,..,., 37.29%, 27.91%.,,.,

12 .,. No-Go, [F(2, 59) = , p <.05], [F(2, 59) = , p <.05].,,. Oktan(2011),,.. (trade off). Table 3, Figure 4,. - Table 4, Figure 5. [F(2, 59) = 9.109, p <.05], [F(2, 59) = , p <.05]..,,,,,. [F(2, 59) = , p <.05] [F(2, 59) = , p < 0.01], [F(2, 59) = , p <.05], [F(2, 59) = , p <.05], Type Control Smartphone Comorbidity F Tukey HSD group addiction group group mean response time (170.57) (196.02) (240.82) * 1>3, 2>3 standard deviation (63.70) (91.25) (114.37) correct response rate 93.50(2.15) 88.51(5.52) 82.21(9.45) * 1>2>3 * p <.05 Note : 1 = Control group, 2 = Smartphone addiction group, 3 = Comorbidity group

13 [F(2, 59) = , p <.05].,,,,. Table 2, -, 99%,,.,, [Wilks Lambda=.241, p < 0.5], 80%., Schulz (2007). ADHD. - Schulz (2007) GNO -, Lee (2013).,,,,,,., -,,,.

14 .,,. Choi(2014),.... (Choi, 2011; Zentall & Zentall, 1983)., -,,,.,,,.,.... (Luszczynska et al., 2004).. (Boakes et al., 2009; Park et al., 2012; Pelc et al., 2006), Meeters (2007).,.,.,,,,. ADHD (An et al., 2013; Boakes et al., 2008; Lee et al., 2011; Park et al., 2012; Pelc et al., 2006). 1/3.,, (Bechara et al., 2000; Itami & Uno, 2002; Lee, Yoo, Kim, & Kim, 2007). (Boakes et al., 2009;

15 Cohen, 2011; Park et al., 2012; Pelc et al., 2006).,,...,. (Boakes et al., 2009; Cohen, 2011; Park et al., 2012; Pelc et al., 2006).,, (trade off).,, ADHD., - -.,,. (,,,, ),,.. Custrin Feldman(1989).., (Choi et al., 2014; Hwang et al., 2012). ADHD., ADHD 7.,,,,,, (Clarke, Hessler, & Kohn, 2005).,

16 . ADHD.,,, ADHD. (Choi et al., 2014; Yoo et al., 2014), (Hwang et al., 2012)...., ADHD. GNO..., (Cho et al., 2014; Korea National Information Society Agenc, 2015)..,., ADHD. ADHD (Kwak et al., 2007),. ADHD, (Barkley, 1997) 20 ( 60 ) (Paul & Scott, 2015). ADHD., 50,.

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23 The Association Between ADHD Tendency and the Deficit of Attention and Inhibition of a Group with Smartphone Addiction Tendency - An Analysis Focusing on Emotional cue - Ran Jung Hyeonggyu Park Mun-Seon Chang Ho-Wan Kwak Kyungpook National University This research is to confirm if ADHD affects attention and inhibition deficits of a smartphone addiction tendency group about emotional cues. 60 subjects went through a diagnostic scale for smartphone addiction and Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) in total and have been categorized into a few groups - a control group, smartphone addiction tendency group and comorbidity group(adhd and smartphone addiction). The subjects participated in tasks - the continuous performance task with numerical stimuli; and the continuous performance task with emotional stimuli and change blindness task with emotional stimuli. Emotional types are composed of positive, neutral and negative ones and mean-response time. Commission error, forward reaction, and omission error have been measured for the three groups. In the research result, first, the comorbidity group showed the shortest mean-response time followed by the smartphone addiction tendency group. Second, the comorbidity group displayed the biggest number of commission errors and the rate of omission error followed by the smartphone addiction tendency group. Third, the comorbidity group had the lowest rate of forward reaction also followed the smartphone addiction tendency group. Fourth, the comorbidity group was of the lowest forward reaction rate among the three groups and each group showed a significant difference. At a post hoc analysis, however, the smartphone addiction group showed lower forward-reaction rate to a several specific negatives(anger, sadness and surprise) than the control group and had no significant difference in positive and neutral stimuli. The result of the study implies that each group reacts differently to emotional stimuli about their attention and inhibition deficit and ADHD could aggravate the deficits. The difference, however, of positive and neutral forward-reaction wasn t significant between the smartphone addiction tendency group and the control group. Based on this results, the importances and limits of this study are discussed in the body part. Key words : ADHD, Smartphone addiction, Emotion, Attention, Impulsivity