9 PASW statistics 18.0,, t,,. -.,,,,. Table 1. t , 23.40, [χ²(2) = 0.5, p =.273]. 11, 9, 11, 9, 8, 12 [t(60) = -.958, p =.537], CARRS-K [t(60) = 107, p =.628]. Table [F(2, 59) = 6.050, p <.01] [F(2, 59) = , p <.01] [F(2, 59) =.880, p =.42] [F(2, 59) =.199, p =.454]..,..,. -, [F(2, 59) = , p <.001] [F(2, 59) = , p <.001], Type Control group (n=20) Smartphone addiction group (n=20) Comorbidity group (n=20) Age 23.95(2.62) 23.40(2.06) 23.22(3.71) Smartphone addiction scale score 23.95(5.47) 42.5(5.91) 44.83(5.34) CAARS-K score 6.85(3.34) 15.35(5.64) 25.22(3.41)
10 Type Control group Smartphone addiction group Comorbidity group F Tukey HSD (n=20) (n=20) (n=20) Indices of the continuous performance tasks with numerical stimuli. mean response time (58.69) (57.13) (59.76) ** 1>2, 1>3 standard deviation 76.03(14.82) 77.74(21.42) 79.74(18.89).199 omission error 1.15(0.81) 2.85(4.88) 3.55(8.91).880 commission errors 7.55(4.44) 21.9(8.48) 30.55(12.15) ** 1<2<3 Indices of the continuous performance tasks with emotional stimuli. mean response time (35.42) (48.20) (60.32) *** 1>2>3 standard deviation (23.91) (24.28) (29.81).868 omission error 3.26(1.69) 8.35(24.28) 13.25(5.93) ** 1<3 commission errors 0.95(1.02) 3.92(6.98) 8.39(8.93) *** 1<2<3 ** p <.01, *** p <.001 Note : 1 = Control group, 2 = Smartphone addiction group, 3 = Comorbidity group [F(2, 59) = 6.500, p <.01] [F(2, 59) =.868, p =.425].,,...,. -. Table 2,,,. - Table 3, Figure 4. [F(2, 59) = 6.685, p <.05], [F(2, 59) = 4.255, p <.05], [F(2, 59) = , p <.001]
11 Type Control Smartphone Comorbidity group addiction group group F Tukey HSD M SD M SD M SD Positive emotion * 1>3, 2>3 Neutral emotion * 1>3 Negative emotion *** 1>2>3 * p <.05, *** p <.001 Note : 1 = Control group, 2 = Smartphone addiction group, 3 = Comorbidity group. Figure 4,..,., 37.29%, 27.91%.,,.,
12 .,. No-Go, [F(2, 59) = , p <.05], [F(2, 59) = , p <.05].,,. Oktan(2011),,.. (trade off). Table 3, Figure 4,. - Table 4, Figure 5. [F(2, 59) = 9.109, p <.05], [F(2, 59) = , p <.05]..,,,,,. [F(2, 59) = , p <.05] [F(2, 59) = , p < 0.01], [F(2, 59) = , p <.05], [F(2, 59) = , p <.05], Type Control Smartphone Comorbidity F Tukey HSD group addiction group group mean response time (170.57) (196.02) (240.82) * 1>3, 2>3 standard deviation (63.70) (91.25) (114.37) correct response rate 93.50(2.15) 88.51(5.52) 82.21(9.45) * 1>2>3 * p <.05 Note : 1 = Control group, 2 = Smartphone addiction group, 3 = Comorbidity group
13 [F(2, 59) = , p <.05].,,,,. Table 2, -, 99%,,.,, [Wilks Lambda=.241, p < 0.5], 80%., Schulz (2007). ADHD. - Schulz (2007) GNO -, Lee (2013).,,,,,,., -,,,.
14 .,,. Choi(2014),.... (Choi, 2011; Zentall & Zentall, 1983)., -,,,.,,,.,.... (Luszczynska et al., 2004).. (Boakes et al., 2009; Park et al., 2012; Pelc et al., 2006), Meeters (2007).,.,.,,,,. ADHD (An et al., 2013; Boakes et al., 2008; Lee et al., 2011; Park et al., 2012; Pelc et al., 2006). 1/3.,, (Bechara et al., 2000; Itami & Uno, 2002; Lee, Yoo, Kim, & Kim, 2007). (Boakes et al., 2009;
15 Cohen, 2011; Park et al., 2012; Pelc et al., 2006).,,...,. (Boakes et al., 2009; Cohen, 2011; Park et al., 2012; Pelc et al., 2006).,, (trade off).,, ADHD., - -.,,. (,,,, ),,.. Custrin Feldman(1989).., (Choi et al., 2014; Hwang et al., 2012). ADHD., ADHD 7.,,,,,, (Clarke, Hessler, & Kohn, 2005).,
16 . ADHD.,,, ADHD. (Choi et al., 2014; Yoo et al., 2014), (Hwang et al., 2012)...., ADHD. GNO..., (Cho et al., 2014; Korea National Information Society Agenc, 2015)..,., ADHD. ADHD (Kwak et al., 2007),. ADHD, (Barkley, 1997) 20 ( 60 ) (Paul & Scott, 2015). ADHD., 50,.
17 1-2.. American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-V (5th ed). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association. An, N. Y., Lee, J. Y., Cho, S. M., Chung, Y. K., & Shin, Y. M. (2013). Difficulty in Facial Emotion Recognition in Children with ADHD. The Korean Journal of Children and Adolescent Psychiatry, 24, Anderson, P. (2002). Assessment and development of executive function(ef) during childhood. Child Neuropsychology, 8, Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition sustained, attention, and executive function: Constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological Bulletin, 121, Barkley, R. A. (1998). Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Barkley, R. A. (2006). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press. Barkley, R. A., Grodzinsky, G., DuPaul, G. J. (1992). Frontal lobe functions in attention deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity: A review and research report. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 20, Bechara, A., Damasio, H., & Damasio, R. A. (2000). Emotion, Decision Making and the Orbitofrontal Cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 10, Biederman, J. (2005). Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: A Selective Overview. Biological Psychiatry, 57, Boakes, J., Chapman, E., Houghton, S., & West, J. (2008). Facial affect interpretation in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Child Neuropsychology, 14, Bunge, S. A., Dudukovic, N. M., Thomason, M. E., Vaidya, C. J., & Gabrieli, J. D. (2002). Immature frontal lobe contributions to cognitive control in children: Evidence from fmri. Neuron, 33, Cao, F., Su, L., Liu, T., & Gao, X. (2007). The relationship between impulsivity and Internet addiction in a sample of Chinese adolescents. European Psychiatry, 22, Cho, G. Y., & Kim, Y. H. (2014). Factors Affecting Smartphone Addiction among University Students. Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, 15, Choi, E. M., Shin, J. R., Bae, J. H., & Kim, M. S. (2014). The Relationships among Depression, Anxiety, Impulsivity and
18 Aggression and Internet Addiction of College Students - Moderating Effect of Resilience -. Journal of The Contents Association, 14, Choi, J. O. (2011). ICT device addiction and ADHD characteristics of elementary students. The Journal of Special Children Education, 13, Choi, J. O. (2014). Analysis of Influence of Smart Phone Addiction Practice on ADHD Symptoms of Elementary School Students. Korean review of Crisis and Emergency Management, 10, Clarke, S., Heussler, H., & Kohn, M. R. (2005). Attention deficit disorder: not just for children. Internal Medicine Journal, 35, Cohen, E. (2011, June 23). Does life online give you popcorn brain. The CNN Health, Retrieved f r o m h.popcorn.brain.ep/index.html Cohen, A. L., & shapiro, A. K. (2007). Exploring the performance differences on the flicker task and the Conner's Continuous Test in adults with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 11, Conners, C. K., Erhardt, D., & Sparrow, E. P. (1999). Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales, technical manual. New York, NY: Multi-Health Systems. Custrini, R. J., & Feldman, R. S. (1989). Children's social competence and nonverbal encoding and decoding of emotion. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 18, Da Fonseca, D., Seguier, V., Santos, A., Poinso, F., & Deruelle, C. (2009). Emotion understanding in children with ADHD. Child Psychiatry and Human Development. 40, Dong, G., Lu, Q., Zhou, H., & Zhao, X. (2010). Impulse inhibition in people with Internet addiction disorder: Electrophysiological evidence from a Go/NoGo study. Neuroscience Letters, 485, Drewe, E. A., (1975). Go no go learning after frontal lobe lesions in humans. Cortex, 11, Durston, S., Thomas, K. M., Yang, Y., Ulug, A. M., Zimmerman, R. D., & Casey, B. J. (2002). A neural basis for the development of inhibitory control. Developmental Science, 5, F9-F16. Kirmizi-Alsan, E., Bayraktaroglu, Z., Gurvit, H., Keskin, Y. H., Emre, M., & Demiralp, T. (2006). Comparative analysis of event-related potentials during Go/NoGo and CPT: Decomposition of electrophysiological markers of response inhibition and sustained attention. Brain Research, 1104, Epstein, J. N., Conners, C. K., Sitarenios, G., & Erhadt, D. (1998). Continuous performance test results of adult with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 12, Goudriaan, A. E, Oosterlaan, J., Beurs, E., & Brink, W. (2006). Psychophysiological
19 determinants and concomitants of deficient decision making in pathological gamblers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 84, Hesslinger, B., Tebartz van Elst, L., Nyberg, E., Dykierek, P., Richter, H., Berner, M. & Ebert, D. (2002). Psychotherapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults-a pilot study using a structured skills training program. European Archives of Psychiatry Clinical Neuroscience, 252, Hwang, K. H., Yoo, Y. S., & Cho, O. H. (2012). Smartphone Overuse and Upper Extremity Pain, Anxiety, Depression, and Interpersonal Relationships among College Students. Journal of The Contents Association, 12, Hyman, S. E., & Malenka, R. C. (2001). Addiction and the brain: The neurobiology of compulsion and its persistence. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, Itami, S., & Uno, H. (2002). Orbitofrontal cortex dysfunction in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder revealed by reversal and extinction tasks. NeuroReport, 13, Jeon, H. Y., Hyun, M. H., & Chun, Y. M. (2011). The Characteristic of Frontal Lobe s Executive Function in Internet Addiction. The Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 16, Jones, B. C., Jones, B. T., Blundell, L., & Bruce, G. (2002). Social users of alcohol and cannabis who detect substance-related changes in a change blindness paradigm report higher levels of use than those detecting substance-neutral changes. Psychopharmacology, 165, Jones, B. T., Jones, B. C., Smith, H., & Copley, N. (2003). A flicker paradigm for inducing change blindness reveals alcohol and cannabis information processing biases in social users. Addiction, 98, Kim, D. H., Lee, K. E., Lee, Y. J., Cha, S. H., Lim, S. H., Won, C. Y., Kwon, H, M., & Han, M, A. (2013). The Association between Smart Phone Addiction and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Some College Students. The Korean Society of Maternal and Child Health, 17, Kim, H. B. (2013). Research Trends in Smart Phone Addiction. Korean Association of Crime Review, 3, Kim, H. Y., Lee, J. Y., Cho, S. S., Lee, I. S., & Kim, J. H. (2005). A Preliminary Study on Reliability and Validity of the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales-Korean version in College Students. The Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 24, Kim, M. Y., & Kim, E. J. (2004). Attention deficits in ADHD by trial order and difficulty of attention test. The Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 23, Ko, C. H., Yen, J. Y., Chen, C. S., Chen, C. C., & Yen, C. F. (2008). Psychiatric comorbidity of internet addiction in college students: an interview study. CNS Spectrums, 13, Korea National Information Society Agency (2012, March 30). Development of Korean
20 Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale For Youth and Adults: 2011 year version. Korea National Information Society Agency, Retrieved from Korea National Information Society Agency (2015, June 24) Internet Addiction Research on the actual condition. Korea National Information Society Agency, Retrieved from D= &id=15626&Order= &search_target=&keyword=&Flag= &nowpage=1&objpage=0 Kwak, H. W., & Chang, M. S. (2007). Web-based Neuropsychological Experiments in Adults with ADHD Tendency: Inhibition of Return, Stroop, and Endogenous-Exogenous Attention Tasks. The Korean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 26, Lee, I. H., Kim, Y. J., & Kang, S. G. (2011). Deficiency on Inhibition and Gambling Addiction: The Cognitive, Emotional, and Behavioral Inhibitory Function of Pathological Casino Gamblers. The Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 16, Lee, S. I., Byoun, S. C., Chang, M. S., & Kwak, H. W. (2015). Characteristics of post-error behavior in adult ADHD tendency. The Korean Journal of Cognitive and Biological Psychology, 27, Lee, S. I., Chang, M. S., & Kwak, H. W. (2012). The development of tasks for discriminating ADHD tendencies using eye-tracker and neuropsychological attention tests. Korean Journal of Psychology: General, 31, Lee, S. J. (2001). Development of An Emotional Awareness Test Consisting of Problem Solving Tasks. Korean Journal of Social and Personality Psychology, 15, Lee, S. J., Kwak, H. W., & Jang, M. S. (2013). Study of Emotion Processing with Suicide Ideation Tendency Group. The Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 25, Lee, S. J., Lee, H. R., Ko, R. W., & Shin, Y. J. (2000). T. O. V. A. Profiles of Clinically Referred Children with Symptoms of Inattention. The Korean Journal of Children and Adolescent Psychiatry, 11, Lee, S. S., Yoo, B. K., Kim, Y. T., & Kim, H. S. (2007). Functions of Orbitofrontal Cortex. Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Therapies in Psychiatry, 13, Lee, T. H., Lee, K., Lee, K. Y., Choi, J. S., & Kim, H. T. (2006). The Korea University Facial Expression Collection: KUEFC. Lab of Behavioral Neuroscience. Department of Psychology, Korea University, Seoul, Korea. Leppanen, J. M., & Hietanen, J. K. (2001). Emotion recognition and social adjustment in school-aged girls and boys. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 42, Levin, D. T., & Simons, D. J. (1997). Failure to detect changes to attended objects in motion pictures. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 4, Losier, B. J., McGrath, P. J., & Klein R. M. (1996). Error Patterns on the Continuous
21 Performance Test in Non-Medicated and Medicated Samples of children With and Without ADHD: A Meta-Analytic Review. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 37, Luszczynska, A., Diehl, M., Gutierrez-Dona, B., Kuusinen, P., & Schwarzer, R. (2004). Measuring one component of dispositional selfregulation: Attention control in goal pursuit. Personality and Individual Differences, 37, Maedgen, J. T. & Carlson, C. I. (2000). Social functioning and emotional regulation in the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 29, Meesters, C., Muris, P., & van Rooijen, B. (2007). Relations of neuroticism and attentional control with symptoms of anxiety and aggression in non-clinical children. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavior Assessment, 29, Oh, S. H., & Ha, E. H. (2014). The Effects of Children s Executive Function Impairments and ADHD Symptoms on the Issue of Smart Phone Addiction. Korean Journal of Play Therapy, 17, Oktan, V. (2011). The predictive relationship between emotion management skills and internet addiction. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 39, Park, B. W., & Lee, K. G. (2011). A Pilot to Analysis the Effects of User Experience and Device Characteristics on the Customer Satisfaction of Smartphone Users. Communications in Computer and Information Science, 151, Park, H. I., Park, H. J., Chang, M. S., Koo, B. H., & Bae, D. S. (2014). The Relationship between Three Factors: Alcoholic's Emotional Recognition, Self-conception, and Interpersonal Problems. The Korean Journal of Health Psychology, 19, Park, H. J., Seo, W. S., Sung, H. M., & Bai, D. S. (2012). Emotional Recognition Defects in Boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Type. Journal of the Korean Society of Biological Therapies in Psychiatry, 18, Paul, C. C., & Scott, C. B. (2015). Methods in Behavioral Research. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education. Philippot, P., Kornreich, C., Blairt, S., Baert, I., Dulk, A. D., Bon, O. L., Streel, E., Hess, U., Pelc, I., & Verbanck, P. (1999). Alcoholics' deficit in the decoding of emotional facial expression. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 23, Pelc, K., Kornreich, C., Foisy, M. L., & Dan, B. (2006). Recognition of emotional facial expressions in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pediatric Neurology, 35, Rensink, R. A. (2000). When good observers go bad. Change blindness, inattentional blindness, and visual experience. Psyche, 6(9).
22 Riccio, C. A., Reynolds, C. R., & Lowe, P. A. (2001). Clinical applications of continuous performance tests: Measuring attention and impulsive responding in children and adults. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons. Rubia, K., Russell, T., Overmeyer, S., Brammer, M. J., Bullmore, E. T., Sharma, T., Simmons, A., Williams, S. C., Giampietro, V., Andrew, C. M., & Taylor, E. (2001). Mapping motor inhibition: conjunctive brain activations across different versions of go/no-go and stop tasks. Neuroimage. 13, Schulz, K. P., Fan, J., Magidina, O., Marks, D. J., Hahn, B., & Halperin, J. M. (2007). Does the emotional go/no-go task really measure behavioral inhibition?: Convergence with measures on a non-emotional analog. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 22, Simons, D. J. (2000). Current approaches to change blindness. Visual Cognition, 7, Solanto, M. V., Etefia, K., & Marks, D. J. (2004). The utility of self report measures and the continuous performance test in the diagnosis of ADHD in adult. CNS Spectrums, 9, Weiss, G., & Hechtman, L. T. (1993). Hyperactive children grown up: ADHD in children, adolescents, and adults. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Yen, J. Y., Ko, C. H., Yen, C. F., Wu, H. Y., & Yang, M. J. (2007). The Comorbid Psychiatric Symptoms of Internet Addiction: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Depression, Social Phobia, and Hostility. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, Yen, J. Y., Yen, C. F., Chen, C. S., Tang, T. C., & Ko, C. H. (2009). The association between adult ADHD symptoms and internet addiction among college students: the gender difference. Cyberpsychology Behavior, 12, Yoo, H. J., Wo, S. I., Kim, J. W., Ha, J. H., Lee, C. S., Sohn, J. W. (2003). Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Internet Addiction in High School Students. The Korean Journal of Psychopathology, 12, Zentall, S. S., & Zentall, T. R. (1983). Optimal Stimulation: A model of Disordered activity and performance in normal and deviant children. Psychological Bulletin, 94, : : :
23 The Association Between ADHD Tendency and the Deficit of Attention and Inhibition of a Group with Smartphone Addiction Tendency - An Analysis Focusing on Emotional cue - Ran Jung Hyeonggyu Park Mun-Seon Chang Ho-Wan Kwak Kyungpook National University This research is to confirm if ADHD affects attention and inhibition deficits of a smartphone addiction tendency group about emotional cues. 60 subjects went through a diagnostic scale for smartphone addiction and Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) in total and have been categorized into a few groups - a control group, smartphone addiction tendency group and comorbidity group(adhd and smartphone addiction). The subjects participated in tasks - the continuous performance task with numerical stimuli; and the continuous performance task with emotional stimuli and change blindness task with emotional stimuli. Emotional types are composed of positive, neutral and negative ones and mean-response time. Commission error, forward reaction, and omission error have been measured for the three groups. In the research result, first, the comorbidity group showed the shortest mean-response time followed by the smartphone addiction tendency group. Second, the comorbidity group displayed the biggest number of commission errors and the rate of omission error followed by the smartphone addiction tendency group. Third, the comorbidity group had the lowest rate of forward reaction also followed the smartphone addiction tendency group. Fourth, the comorbidity group was of the lowest forward reaction rate among the three groups and each group showed a significant difference. At a post hoc analysis, however, the smartphone addiction group showed lower forward-reaction rate to a several specific negatives(anger, sadness and surprise) than the control group and had no significant difference in positive and neutral stimuli. The result of the study implies that each group reacts differently to emotional stimuli about their attention and inhibition deficit and ADHD could aggravate the deficits. The difference, however, of positive and neutral forward-reaction wasn t significant between the smartphone addiction tendency group and the control group. Based on this results, the importances and limits of this study are discussed in the body part. Key words : ADHD, Smartphone addiction, Emotion, Attention, Impulsivity