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1 Printed in the Republic of Korea "/"-:5*$"- 4$*&/$& 5&$)/0-0(: Vol. 18, No. 5, , 2005,1"$ w Q) t p z Á 1w w œw 2 w œ yw Effects of surface properties and solution ph on the pollutants removal of K-PAC Won-Chun Oh 1 and Jang-Soon Bae 2 1 Department of Advance Materials Science & Engineering, Hanseo University, Chungnam , Korea 2 Department of Industrial Chemistry, Dankook University, Chungnam , Korea OReceived July 29, 2005, Accepted August 29, 2005) :y k w š w» w e y k w ww. l z w» w e y k w. e sww ü y k l t p y w, š xk, SEM, EDX t»» y w. ph y e y k w, COD, T-N T-P w z w. e y k w w ƒ l, ph 6~8 w w z. l e y k w z p z w. Abstract : A study of physical properties and their application using K-powdered activated carbon system followed powdered carbon dispersion was carried out at laboratory. scale. Two types of K-powdered activated carbon for the dispersion have been used in this study to investigate the catalytic removal efficiency of pollutants from the wastewater. From the surface properties obtained for carbon samples treated with aqueous solutions containing potassium salts, main investigations were subjected to isotherm shape, SEM, EDX and surface functional groups. K-powdered activated carbons were dispersed to wastewater with ph variation to investigate the removal efficiency for the color, COD, T-N and T-P. From these removal results of the piggery waste using K-powdered activated carbon, satisfactory removal performance in the region of ph 6~8 was achieved. The excellent effects for the dispersion of the K-powdered activated carbon were proved by the above mentioned properties of the material for adsorption and trapping of organics, and catalytic effects. Key words : K-powdered activated carbon, isotherm, SEM, EDX, COD, T-N, T-P. Corresponding author Phone : Fax :

2 K-PAC w ph t p z 437 y, y k y w y k y yw. 1 y k k y wù e y k yw,, š y y k y w. y k e w t t w t»»»ƒ w w ƒ w. w w, 2,3 e y k w y k w t œp û y w p ùkü š. y y k t w. t y yw w y ü y t w. e y k œ v w w j w ƒ. œ v wì e y w w. k, p ƒ»» w š. y k ü t y œ ü, e y yw yw y yw» k., yw, w z w. yw w k t p w, yw w yw w w w ù y w ƒ k. w, 3-5 y k z x w w w. e y k yw ùkù p y e ùkù š x k, k ƒ œ t p w w. w e y k g ü ph y y p w yw z w p q w. e w y k p y p š w» w», SEM-EDX, UV/VIS COD, T- N, T-P yw w ù kü. x y k k (Powdered activated carbon, PAC) w gg Ë w w p w. 1 ky gg Ë 500 w ww š, 750~800» w y y w w. y k 300 mesh w w y k w. w KCl K 2 CO 3 e w. û» w 2 w. e 500 g y k 0.01 M e w 1 L e w, 12 ew. w z e y k 105» w. e y k Table 1 w ùkü. p y w s w BOD COD» w ƒƒ 50,000 ppm w w w. ƒ w Table Table 1. Nomenclatures of activated carbon treated with potassium salts Sample Nomenclature 0.01 M KCl + Activated Carbon K M K 2 CO 3 + Activated Carbon K2 Table 2. The analytical results for the primitive piggery waste Step CDO(mg/L) BOD(mg/L) T-N(mg/L) T-P(mg/L) Original Waste Over 50,000 Over 50,000 Over 500 Over 150 Vol. 18, No. 5, 2005

3 438 Á 2 ùkü. w w e y k p y w. d š ASAP 2010(Micrometrics, USA) w š 77K d w. d 10 torr œ 473K 5 k»w. š BET t, œ v œ ü w. x (SEM, JSM-5200 JOEL, Japan) y k e xk y k t k œ w» w. y k sw e sww w» w SEM t EDX w. y w w Ÿ (Beer-Lambert s Law) w w. w» w UV/VIS Ÿ»(Genspec III(Hitachi), Japan) w.»» wù, FT-IR (FTS 3000MX, Biored Co.) e y k p y. KBr w, 600 mg KBr 1 mg e y k š w 450 kg/cm 2 10 mm ƒ jx w. rp» w cm d 1 w. yw d t e d w. BOD t 300 ml BOD d š 20 C 5 o j w z d w. w w d t š w. e 6 y k w (T-N) z d w» w UV Ÿ w. 220 nm Ÿ d w š l z d w. d g y w 880 nm q Ÿ d w š w. d x t š w ww. 6,7 wš w ƒ ww. #PFIN Boehm 8 y k t t» y w» w w. e z y k 1 g 50 ml 0.05 M yùp, k ùp, k ùp ƒƒ w. ƒ v j w w š ww z 24. š ü y k w w z vr 5 ml w 0.05 M yùp w. ƒ xk w» w, yùp e», r», m» y j, k ùp e» m» y j k ùp m» y k š ƒ w ƒƒ»» w. w k t w» w y l w. š p e sww w y k y k sww y k w, e y k 3,10 t p w ùk ü. e y k š Fig. 1 ùkü. š l, w š xk. z y k t x wù w e sw w w e y k w š û s w ùkû. w š x k œ ƒ š ùkù t Fig. 1. Nitrogen adsorption isotherms obtained from powdered activated carbons treated with potassium salts. Analytical Science & Technology

4 K-PAC w ph t p z 439 Table 3. Comparison of physical parameters of K-powdered activated carbon Sample S BET (m 2 /g) Micropore Volume (cm 3 /g) Parameter External Surface Area (m 2 /g) Average Pore Diameter (Å) As-received K K Type I xk ùkü š, š w knee ƒ š œ sw xk ùkû. e w w š. l e w» x œ j» z e w œ ù œ w œ y œ yw. ù w knee ùkü j» œ xk œ x. Table 3 BET t, œ v œ w ù kü. e y k w t m 2 /g ùkü, y k 1592 m 2 /g w { û ùkü. s³ œ 17.33~17.61ç w ù j ùkü. œ v œ j, w e sƒ t œ sw wš. e œ œ w w. t y k t e s k t Fig. 2. SEM images obtained from powdered activated carbons treated with potassium salts; (a) K1 ( 400), (b) K1 ( 3000), (c) K2 ( 400) and (d) K2 ( 2000). Vol. 18, No. 5, 2005

5 440 Á Fig. 3. Typical EDX microanalysis for the powdered activated carbons treated with potassium salts; (a) K1 and (b) K2. x (SEM) w. w y k x 9 ùkû, Fig. 2 t e w y k t ù küš. e y k SEM l e s x w ù, œ t w x k w œw š. w w 2 e KMnO 4 w w t k, l k t ³ w s e y w w» w wš ùküš. e y k œ jš ù,» w x w œ ƒ œ ƒ x w. w w w y ƒ š, w w w., e wì t wš œ j»ƒ x w, wš w w y e y k y l x w w y. 10 e w y k w w w EDX w ƒƒ w. e y k w EDX Table 4. EDX Elemental micro-analysis of K-PACs Sample Elements C O S Cl K K K Analytical Science & Technology

6 K-PAC w ph t p z 441 w Fig. 3 ùkü, Table 4 w ùkü. l, w e sww k wš Cl, Fe Cu. w w. w e w ùk ù, k ƒ ƒ j ùküš. t»» p e y k yw w œw ƒ xk»» y w» w FT-IR w w Fig. 4 ùkü cm (assigned to phenolic õoh) wš f OH». hexagonal»» OH p e ü w dw. û q e w ùk ü cm» yw. w cm δcn sww» ùkü. ù ùkù NH cm e δ as NH 3 and δ sym NH 3»» sww p ùkù.» δch+δnh x 1399 cm ùkù. K cm vj fm,, m e» w C=O p e ùkü. rp ùkù w vj e y k»» swš ù küš. m»ƒ υ (C-O) ùküš. υ (C-O) m» yw x w w. FT-IR w p y C-O w ù w p y j. 12 w yk ƒ υ (C-O ) q f g p yw t. š t w k y w. sww»» s» w Boehm w e», m» r» w» d w.»» w, K1 ƒƒ»» K2 w ùkû,» û ùkü. ù e w, k t w m» x ƒw ƒw ùkü. k e w y e w ù kû, ùkü. e y k» w e w ¾ z ùkù. Q) ùkù ƒ j š. e y k w Fig. 4. Infrared spectra recorded from the powdered activated carbon loaded with potassium salts. Fig. 5. Variation of UV/VIS spectra depending on ph from wastewater purified with the powdered activated carbons treated with potassium salts (K1). Vol. 18, No. 5, 2005

7 442 Á Fig. 6. Variation of UV/VIS spectra depending on ph from wastewater purified with the powdered activated carbons treated with potassium salts (K2). Fig. 8. Results of T-N removal effect depending on ph by potassium-powdered activated carbon for the piggery waste. Table 5. Number of Surface Species (meq/g) Obtained from Boehm Titration Functional Group (meg/g) Sample Carboxylic Lactonic Phenolic Acidic Basic K K Fig. 9. Results of T-P removal effect depending on ph by potassium-powdered activated carbon for the piggery waste. Fig. 7. Results of COD removal effect depending on ph by potassium-powdered activated carbon for the piggery waste. ph y z w w w, Fig. 5 6 ùkü. UV/ VIS Ÿ» w ƒ w ƒ Ÿ ƒ x p ùkû. ph y z w» ùkü. K1 K2 ƒ, ph 8 10» ƒ z. y e z w ùkù. w s COD BOD s ³ 50,000 ppm w w. w ü Table 2 w ùkü. ù e w 1 yw w COD BOD s³ 1,500 ppm w. e y k z w jš. COD, T-N T-P z w Fig. 7, 8 9 ùkü. COD Analytical Science & Technology

8 K-PAC w ph t p z 443 z e w y k w K1 K2 ph 6~10 d ƒ z. K1 K2 w e z. 4.3~7.4 ppm ƒ ùkû, e y k e 8~10 w ùkü. w y k K2 65~125 ppm ƒ ùkû, K1 w ùkü p e z. e sww ü y k l t p y w, š xk, SEM, EDX t»» y w. ph y e y k w, COD, T-N T-P w z w. e y k w t m /g 2 ùkü, s³ œ 17.33~17.61 ç w. SEM w, e y k e s x w ù, œ t w x k w œw š. e y k»» swš FT-IR Boehm w y w. UV/VIS Ÿ» w w K1 K2 ƒ, ph 8 10» ƒ z. COD, T- N T-P z w» w z ùkü. š x 1. W.G C. Oh, H.G J. Lee, J.G S. Bae, J. Korean Ind. Eng. Chem., 15, 4, (2004). 2. W.G C. Oh, H.G J. Lee, J.G S. Bae, Environ. Eng. Res., 9, 5, (2004). 3. W.G C. Oh, J.G S. Bae, J. Korean Ind. Eng. Chem, 14, 1, 29-37(2003). 4. W.GC. Oh, H.GJ. Lee, M.GH. Yum, Y.GS. Lee, Proceeding of 31 carbon material annual meeting in Japan, 270- st 271(2004). 5. W.G C. Oh, H.G J. Lee, H.G T. Kim, M.G H. Yum, H.G S. Yoon, J.G S. Bae, An international conf. on carbon (CARBON 2004), U.S.A. 2004, Choi, K.G C., Gyoun, O.G A., Kim, Y.G D., Kim, Y.G H., Lee, U.G S., Lee, Z.G Y., Chon, S.G J., Chung, S.G K., Anotation for Standard Methods of Water Quality, Donghwa Technology Publishing Co., (2002). 7 APHA, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 16th Ed. APHA, Washington DC (1982). 8. H.G P. Boehm, Advances in catalysis, Academic press, New York, W.GC. Oh, W.GC. Jang, B.GS. Kim, Journal of the Korean Society of Analytical Science, 14, (2001). 10. C. Moreno-Castilla, Carbon, 42, (2004)U 11. Zawadzki J., Infrared spectroscopy in the surface chemistry of the carbons, In: Thrower PA, editor. Chemistry and physics of carbon, Vol 21, New York: Marcel DekkerS p (1989). 12. J. Zawadzki, B. Azambre, O. Heintz, A. Krzton, J. Weber, Carbon, 38, (2000). Vol. 18, No. 5, 2005

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