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1 Atmosphere. Korean Meteorological Society Vol. 21, No. 1 (2011) pp w EUV-B p k D w w Á½ y* w»y w ( : , : , y : ) The Radiative Characteristics of EUV-B over the Korean Peninsula and Exposure Time for Synthesizing Adequate Vitamin D Min Kyoung Kwak and Jae Hwan Kim* Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan , Korea (Received : 1 December 2010, Revised : 18 February 2011, Accepted : 19 March 2011) Abstract : In this study, we have analyzed the radiative characteristics of erythemal ultraviolet- B (EUV-B from 1999 to 2005) over the Korean Peninsula. EUV-B measured at Gangneung, Anmyondo, Mokpo, and Gosan represents the measurements from clean areas and that at Seoul represents from a polluted area. The magnitudes of EUV-B increase in proportion to the latitudinal decrease. Monthly mean variation of EUV-B at noon shows the maximum value of mwm -2 in August and the minimum value of 36.4 mwm -2 in December in the clean areas. Seasonal mean diurnal variation of EUV-B shows a peak around noon (12:00 ~ 13:00 hr) and its intensity varies along with a season in order of summer > spring > fall > winter. The maximum value of 56.4 mwm -2 in summer is three times higher than that in winter (14.3 mwm -2 ). The value of EUV-B in the polluted area is lower than that in the clean areas, resulting from the effects of the blocking, reflection, and scattering of EUV-B due to high concentrations of PM10. UV-B is an essential element to synthesize vitamin D in human body. 200 IU(International Unite) of vitamin D can be formed by an exposure of 6-10% of body surface area to 0.5 MED(Minimal Erythemal Dose). In order to form vitamin D, the calculated exposure times to EUV-B are 15 min. in spring, 12 min. in summer, 18 min. in fall, and 37 min. in winter for the clean areas and 16, 16, 24, and 37 min. for the polluted area. Key words : UV, Vitamin-D, Ozone, Health, Atmospheric composition 1. w v w, k l» w. k xk w, Ÿ w q ƒ. ƒ ew 200~400 nm w w UV-A(315~400 nm), UV-B(280~315 nm), UV-C(200- Corresponding Author: Jae Hwan Kim, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan , Korea. Phone : nm). q 310 nm k 98% w w UV-B UV-C w 200~310 nm k 1.75% w (Wallace and Hobbs 1977). ù UV-C ƒ ƒ UV-A w { jš e w e. w w UV-C d«d m w w t w. UV-B š 10~30% ƒ t w (Burk 1998). t d 123

2 124 w EUV-B p k D w w w. k š ƒ j k»» ƒ. w w, ƒ¾ ƒ w (WHO, 2002). š. š ƒ k» m w n ¼ ƒ». š 1000 m 10~12% ƒ ƒwš, 300 m UV-B 3% ƒ ƒw (WHO, 2002: Burk 1998). wr w t ƒ. d 1% t w UV-B 2% ƒ k (Baird 1995). t ƒ w, t t k ƒ j. ( ) 75~95%, ù 25~40%, ( ) 15~25%, š 10~20% (Wallace and Hobbs 1977). wr w», j w w (Eck et al., 1995). r ƒ w (Koepke et al., 2004). v y jš ü v j ù x w y š. ù w w ³, Ÿ z, w yz w. p k D w v ƒ w, w ƒ. k D,, y, š x j w w (Vieth, 1999). x k D x w, y, y ƒ (Holick, 2001),, šx, x ƒw (Glerup et al., 2000). wr k Dƒ w ew Ÿ w w. Garland et al.(1985) w k D3 150IU(International Unite) w w û xš, Janowski et al.(1999) x ü 1α,25-(OH)2D3 y 1α,25-(OH)2D3 û 1/5 ù x. k D y x w w D2 D3. k D2(ergocalciferol) ü w š l (ergosterol), k D3 w» wz» 21«1y (2011) (cholecalciferol) ü w 7- w g l (7-dehydrocholesterol) (UV-B) ( ) w y (EUROPEAN COMMISSION, 2002)., ƒ k D w w» w UV-B ƒ v w. z 25(OH)D3 y š, x kš w y x 1α,25(OH)2D3ƒ ƒ s w (Norman, 1998: Holick, 2001). w wz ¾ d w w 200 IU(5 µg), d, w 400 IU(10 µg) k D «šwš. ù œ,» w w» w w 1,000 IU k Dƒ v w (Glerup et al., 2000: Holick, 2001: Vieth, 1999). UV-B w k D,, v k,,» k, 6~10%ƒ 1 MED(Minimal Erythemal Dose, s w 210 J m -2 ) 600~1,000 IU k D w (Holick, 2001). UV-B w š w k Dƒ w. w, UV-B w w w k D w. UV-B 20~25 k D w ù (Webb et al., 1989). k D t mw ƒ ƒ wù ƒ v w w k D w». k D t w w w t w k D w kw w š x ù y ql š w z». w k D w w wì. w w w k D w w w x w w. š l w j w. ù x v yù v jš, ƒw DNA ¾ w öe š t w, p w ƒ w z y ƒ w š»vx ú y š. ƒ w y t» z v w š,

3 , š p w ƒ w e w z d«w. (2000) l ¾ Nimbus-7 TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) w y w š ƒw 50 N 55 S ƒƒ 4%/decade, 5.5%/ decade w þ. wr w ü, ƒ (2001) xš, w œ d 10 s³ 4% (1994). ù ½ (2005) (1997~2004 ) d y š. d«w t ƒx wš. x (2005)» d d w mw 6~8 ƒ wš w ƒ v w v w. y» y(2007)» d w vš ƒ ú w y 30 ü y šw. ù ùe wƒ w w k D w ù w w j. ƒ w ƒ w, wš w. w ü EUV-B p wš, m ƒ k D w w» w w w w UV-B x ù» t EUV-B d,, sw, s, š š 5. UV-Biometer d y ƒ (erythemally weighted ultraviolet B radiation) (Dose rate) t w. 316mm 280mm (Doserate)= E( λ)w( λ)dλ (1)» E(λ) q»(wm -2 nm -1 ) š, W(λ) UV-Biometer v q Á½ y 125 ƒ (action spectrum in weight), (1) Wm -2. wr d (Dose), w w v ƒ k. t 1 t 2 ¾ w w š, Jm mm 280mm (Doserate)= E( λ)w( λ)dλ (2) w EUV-B d (2) w, y wš, MED. 1MED k z 24 ü v y k w, s w 210 Jm -2 (Solar Light, 1993: WMO, 1994).» w 5 d EUV-B dw. wr (UVI; UltraViolet Index) w ùkü» w, k û dwš w z w. (3). 316mm 280mm UVI = K E( λ)w( λ)dλ», K = 40., û 10 s³ (mwm ) 1 w w mwm ù MED t w 14 w š, 5 MED t w 28 w.» w 5 sw. sw UV-Biometer»»š w ƒ û w». wr EUV-B w w e UV-Biometer l d. d» w 5 ù, 5 dw. sww 6 d N, (#105) N, (#132) N, s(#165) N, š (#185) N š, w ú kw w. 2.2.»» EUV-B s r» w ƒ PM10 w. PM10 ù ƒ (3) Atmosphere, Vol. 21, No. 1. (2011)

4 126 w EUV-B p k D w w ü e 221» d d. (N37 45 E ) 27 w ƒ w (N37 33 E ), s (N37 33 E ), ûƒ (N37 34 E ) 3 w. EUV-B w» š, µgm w ü EUV-B p 3.1.1» 5 EUV-B d,, s, š š» ü EUV-B w (Fig. 1). ùkù k š ƒ ƒ ƒ k w w. 8 š, 12 sw, ƒƒ 141.3/ 32.1 mwm -2, 158.3/35.8 mwm -2, s 137.6/ 39.1 mwm -2, š 196.6/38.6 mwm -2 ùkû. 7 s³ 90.5 mwm -2, mwm -2, s 93.6 mwm -2, š mwm -2 s w ù ƒ w eƒ ƒw w. k ƒ w ew w. wr sƒ wš EUV-B ƒ û s û w š û yƒ ewš» œ t w (½, 2006) j s p» w ,, s, š d EUV-B w. ù» EUV-B s³ ù tw w. Fig. 2 ƒ s³ X 5 ƒ l ¾, EUV-B k û š ƒ ƒ ùkù ƒ s. ƒƒ mwm -2, mwm -2, ƒ 93.6 mwm -2, š 47.5 mwm -2, w 3 w. ƒ EUV-B s³ ƒ ƒƒ 40.0 mwm -2, 56.4 mwm -2, 30.8 mwm -2, 14.3 mwm -2, - -ƒ - EUV-B ƒ w ùkû. p s³ EUV-B 4 w. k ƒ y» w. k ƒ ƒ š ƒ j, k ƒ ƒw. k ƒ EUV-B, k ƒ j EUV-B ùkù. Fig. 1. Monthly mean variation of EUV-B at noon at four different locations. (i.e., Gangneung, Anmyondo, Mokpo, and Gosan) w» wz» 21«1y (2011)

5 Á½ y 127 Fig. 2. Seasonal mean diurnal variation of EUV-B » p Robaa(2004) p e y, z w yƒ t UV-B w w w w. y z t UV-B ƒ w, w ƒ w ù kû. ƒw w ü» EUV-B ƒ š w. tw œ 1,000, w mw 3,100 ù, kw. w» w 5 EUV-B d ƒ ƒ kw. t EUV-B Fig. 3. w ƒ EUV-B ƒ w w ùkû. EUV-B mwm -2, mwm -2, š s³ 84.3 mwm -2, w 13 mwm -2 ƒ û. j ƒ wš t EUV-B w w š PM10 d w» k w.» 37 45'N d w š, 27 d UV-Biometerƒ w ƒ w 3 (, s, ûƒ ) s³w w. PM10 s w (Fig. 3). ùkùš ùkù wù, ƒ j. PM µgm -3, µgm -3, s³ 70.0 µgm -3 š, v µgm -3, µgm -3, s³ 51.0 µgm -3., s³ PM10 19 µgm -3 y w.» ƒ k Fig. 3. Values of EUV-B and PM10 in a polluted area (Seoul) and a clean area (Gangneung) Atmosphere, Vol. 21, No. 1. (2011)

6 128 w EUV-B p k D w w j w¾ w t w UV-B k. š PM10 t w UV-B j» w š (UVI) w» w t (UVI; UltraViolet Index) w. UVI w w j y w w. y v ù k, wù, v ƒ m w KMAƒ w y» Table 1. UVIƒ 5.0~ 6.9 Moderate w w 60 ƒ y w. w UVI w (Fig. 4). w EUV-Bƒ ƒ w kw» ü w s³ w s³w, w t EUV-B ƒ w, UVIƒ 7.0 w. UVIƒ w w Moderate 16 w Table 1. Categories of Ultra Violet Index (UVI) determined by Korea Meteorological Administration. UV Categories UV Index Range Average Time to Burn Extremely High 9.0 Less Than 20 Min. High 7.0~8.9 Around 30 Min. Moderate 5.0~6.9 Around 60 Min. Low 3.0~4.9 Around 100 Min. Very Low <3.0 2~3 Hr. or More 4.4%. wr UVI 9.0 Extremely High ù w w High 14, 3.8% w. 13 w,» 14% w w. Moderate w w % w. UVIƒ 3.0, Very Low w w», ƒ l w ¾ š, ƒ l ¾.» 2-3, y w. 3.2 k D w v w Holick(2001) 6~10%(,, q, ) 1MED j 600-1,000IU k D w. ù s³ w ù û ( š, 1991) š w, 6-10% 0.5MED j w wzƒ 1 ««šw 200IU k D w w» w ƒ ù. m w ƒƒ EUV-B w ü k D w wš w v w w. EUV-B w,, s, š s³w w š, EUV-B w. 0.5MED s w 105 Jm -2. (Dose), (Dose Rate) w w w. w ü EUV-B x w ƒ ù w Fig. 4. Variation of Ultra Violet Index (UVI) in a polluted area (Seoul) and a clean area (Gangneung). w» wz» 21«1y (2011)

7 Á½ y 129 Table 2. The calculated times to EUV-B for form vitamin D. Unpolluted Area Polluted Area Spring Summer Fall Winter Spring Summer Fall Winter UV_B(mWm -2 ) Exposure Time (min.) w. s³ EUV-B w w Table 2 ùkü. w j ù, ƒ w ƒƒ 4 6 ¼. ƒ UVI 4.5, 5.9, ƒ 3.7, 1.9 ùkûš, 4.4, 4.3, ƒ 2.8, 2.1 ùkû., UVIƒ ƒ w y w» ¾ 60 ƒ wš, w ù w w 100 w y w. 2~3,. w KMA w y» ü, v ƒ m y v w k D w w w. w, v w öe w ü k D w ƒ w. 4. (UV-B) x šw UV-B š ww. p UV-Bƒ k D w w m, k D w w w j.,, s, š mw w ü EUV-B p w, 8, 12 ùkù ql š, s w ù ƒ w EUV-B ƒ ƒw w. 4 s³w w, EUV-B s³ w 4 e ùkþ. wr 4» s³ w tw š w EUV-B w, w s³ EUV-B ƒ û. š ùkù PM10 w z. w» ü EUV-B UVI y w,» High w w ƒ 3.8% wš Moderate w w ƒ 20.5% w w, High w w x š Moderate w w 4.4% ù. EUV-B ƒ w û w w w. w EUV-B s³ m, w v w k D ƒ w w» w w. 15, 12, ƒ 18, 37 ùkûš, w ƒƒ 16, 16, 24, 37 ùkû. KMA ƒ w y ü, w 20~40 Ÿ v y j v w k D w w w. ù w ƒ w w w, ¾ k Ÿ ƒ wš. y k Ÿ. Ÿ ¼ w w š w j w. x v w. v x j w w. š ƒ ƒ w. UVIƒ š, UVIƒ û. p,, j t ƒw» Ÿ w y mw v w UV-B». w Atmosphere, Vol. 21, No. 1. (2011)

8 130 w EUV-B p k D w w w v ƒ w. p w w k Ÿ w v t w w ƒ v w. w w (2 ) w. š x ½,, ½, k, y, 2006: s p w. w y wz, 15(7), ½,, š, û, ³, 2005: œ d«y w. w» wz», 15(2), x, y»,,, 2005:» d EUV-B d. w» wz, 41(3), š, 1991: w v SPF d e e w. wy twz, 17(1), 1-17., «,, 2000: y. w» wz 2000 w tz, , «z, e, 1998: d t y ƒ. w» wz, 34(2), ,,,, 2001: w t y»z. w» wz, 37(5), y», y, 2007:» d dw w, 2007 y œ w z, Baird, C. 1995: Environmental Chemistry. Freeman, p22. Burk, R.J.1998: Ultraviolet Radiation and Public Health. Health Physics Society. Eck, T. F., P. K. Bhartia and J. B. Kerr, 1995: Satellite estimation of spectral UVB irradiance using TOMS derived total ozone and UV reflectivity. Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, EUROPEAN COMMISSION, editor. SCF/CS/NUT/ UPPLEV/38 Final, 2002: HEALTH & CONSUMER PROTECTION DIRECTORATE-GENERAL. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of Vitamin D. Brussels, Belgium, Garland, C.F., R.B. Shekelle, E. Barrett-Connor et al., 1985: Dietary vitamin D and calcium and risk of colorectal cancer: a 19-year prospective study in men. Lancet, 1, Glerup H., K. Mikkelsen, L. Poulsen, E. Hass, S. Overbeck, J. Thomsen et al, 2000: Commonly recommended daily intake of vitamin D is not sufficient if sunlight exposure is limited. J Intern Med, 247, Holick, M.F. 2001: Sunlight D ilemma: risk of skin cancer or bone disease and muscle weakness. Lancet, 357, 4-6. Janowski, E.C., G.E. Lester, C.R. Weinberg et al., 1999: Association between low levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and breast cancer risk. Public Health Nutr, 2, Koepke, P., J. Reuder and J. Schween, 2004: UV RADIATION IN PAST AND FUTURE-Modelling with all atmospheric parameters including clouds. Proceedings of International Radiation Symposium (IRS 2004), Norman, A. W. 1998: Sunlight, season, skin pigmentation, vitamin D, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D: integral components of the vitamin D endocrine system. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition(Am J Clin Nutr.), 67, Robaa, S.M. 2004: A study of ultraviolet solar radiation at Cairo urban area, Egypt. Solar Energy, 77, Solar Light, 1993: UV-Biometer User's Manual, Solar Light Co., p459 Vieth, R. 1999: Vitamin D supplementation, 25-hydroxyvitmin D concentrations, and safety. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition(Am J Clin Nutr.), 69, Wallace, J.M. and P. V. Hobbs. 1977: Atmospheric Science: An Introductory Survey. Academic Press, p328, p295. Webb, A.R., B.R. DeCosta, and M.F. Holick. 1989: Sunlight regulates the cutaneous production of vitamin D 3 by causing its photodegradation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 68, WHO, 2002: GLOBAL SOLAR UV INDEX. A Practical Guide. WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data, p2. WMO, 1994: Report of the WMO meeting of experts on UV-B measurements, data quality and standardization of UV-indices. WMO report, 25. w» wz» 21«1y (2011)

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