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1 w y wz, 23«4y, 2009 J. of Korean Institute of Fire Sci. & Eng. [ ] Vol. 23, No. 4, 2009 l f l üy w Study on Fire Performance of Stud Connectors ½ Áw z*á * Sung-Bae Kim Sang-Hoon Han* Seng-Kwan Choi* *FireSERT School the Built Environment University of Ulster, ( ) ( / k) w l f l y w. l f l ƒ s š, gj p y g w y w. l f l w üy yw ƒ, wz v w w. x l f l x t x xw p» w ISO t š» x ww, y q x» w. ABSTRACT This research aims to conduct a pilot study for the in-fire performance of headed studs, commonly used in composite structures over the world. The robustness of the shear studs in fire appears to be a key element to govern the composite behaviour after a sudden local instability developed in structures such as trusses and cellular beams. In order to experimentally evaluate the residual strength of studs in fire, the standard push-out test was modified for a half of the original set-up to be equipped with a furnace. The adjustments allow the steel section to have a 3-sided exposure against fire. Under the Standard ISO fire, the modified push-out tests under loading were conducted to identify the failure mechanism of the studs in relation to temperature developments. Key words : Fire performance, Stud connectors, Composite beam, Push - out test 1. gj p w w ƒ yww». w w ƒw, w x w ƒ. 1,2) w ƒ wù w wù w» w. x, l f l ù, r ü s ƒ l f lƒ š. w üy w üyv v w. x ü š üy ³ mw 36y vùá y» w ³e mw š y üy» w, x ü y e( ) w ³ KS F 2257 üy x w. xw ù,» y ƒ m wš. 3), 1980 z» y w» y» š. 4-6) w w 59

2 60 ½ Áw zá l f l w üy sƒ ww. l f l w sƒ { x t x w. { x yw sƒw ù, x ³ ƒ f. t x x w s š. v š w w sƒ l f l w y w, 7-10) t x mw l f l üy sƒwš w. 2. w 2.1 w w gj p ƒ wù w.», w wù, w w gj p zs ¾ ƒ x w. {ü w z w. gj p w wwš, y w f l. w s (V s ) (1) w, gj p w s (V s2 ) s (V s1 ) j. V s1 =F y A s V s2 = 0.85k b e t c w y wz, 23«4y, 2009 (1a) (1b)», F y : w (N/mm²)», A s : (mm²)», k : gj p (N/mm²)», b e : gj p zs(mm)», t c : gj p z Ì(mm) f l l f l w, l f l (1) w s l f l œe (Q n ) ù (N) p p 0 w. l f l œe (2). 11) Q n = 0.5A sc k E c R g R p A sc F u», A sc : l f l (mm²) (2) R g, R q :, w c : gj p 1.5 E c : gj p k (= 0.043w c ) F u : l f l (MPa) 2.2 ü sƒ l f l w 1950 I.M. Viest w.» ƒ w l f l ü ( ) (3). 12) = 37.5A s z 1971 J. W. Fisher φ19 l f l w t x z w ü (4) w. 13) = 1.106A s E c (3) (kips) (4) w J. W. Fisher (4) yw (5) w. = 0.5A s (kips) (5)» x ƒ x mw l f l ü (6) w. 14) = 100A s E c ( H/D) (kgf) (6) ü l f l sww z š mw ü sƒw (7) w. 15) = 1.38A s E c (kgf) (7) eù» (5)» (8) w l f l ü sƒw. w (8)» (KBC 2009)» ¾ ü». = 0.5A sc E c A sc F u» (8) w g (Eurocode 4) (9) wš. 6) = 0.37A sc k E c 0.8A sc F u l f l w üá ƒ»» w x mw x» wš. w x { x t x, t x x x w (Lehigh) w»» š. k (8) (9)

3 스터드커넥터의 내화성능에 관한 연구 3. 실험계획 및 방법 실험은 스터드커넥터의 온도 특성을 평가하기 위해 상온과 30분 가열 후, 60분 가열 후로 구분하여 재하 하였다. 실험체 형상은 Figure 1과 같다. 실험체는 한쪽 면에 콘크리트 슬래브를 폭 400mm, 두께 150mm, 높이 500mm로 제작하였다. H형강은 (SS400) 길이는 650mm이며, 플랜지에 스터드커넥터 φ19(h = 100 mm) 2개를 설치하였다. H형강과 스터드 커넥터로 구성된 실험체에는 K형 열전대를 Figure 1(b) 와 같이 플랜지와 웨브, 스터드커넥터 축부 등에 설치 하여 열특성을 확인하였다. 실험은 고온조건이 가능하도록 표준화재온도를 구현 할 수 있는 전기가열로를 제작하였다. 전기로는 Figure Figure 1. Specimen for modified push out test. 61 2와 같이 한쪽에 콘크리트 슬래브가 있고, 반대편은 H 형강의 3면을 가열하도록 제작하였다. 가력은 30분 또 는 60분 가열 후 즉시 액추에이터를 이용하여 정적 가 력(1,000kN)하였고, 가력 속도는 1mm/1min 이다. 변형 량은 2개의 변위계(LVDT, 50mm)로 측정하였고 하중 과 온도는 정적변형기(TDS 303)로 측정하였으며 수직 반력 및 회전평형은 발생하지 않도록 하였다. Table 1은 실험체 제작에 사용된 H형강과 스터드커 Figure 2. Proposed slip test set-up in fire. J. of Korean Institute of Fire Sci. & Eng., Vol. 23, No. 4, 2009

4 62 ½ Áw zá Table 1. Properties of Steel Stud Connector Yield Strength (MPa) Tensile Strength (MPa) Elongation (%) Shear Stud (φ19) H-beam Table 2. Properties of Concrete Slump W/C (%) S/a (%) Unit Weight (kg/m³) l». l f l t ³ 379.5MPa ù, x ³ e zw. Table 2 gj p x. gj p 28MPa. 4. x Design Strength (MPa) 18cm , x Table 3 x w. ƒ x w w w x, Hx v l f l 10mm e w. w 30, 60 ƒ z w ƒ w ü wƒ y. w 60 ƒ z w, x ü r ƒ j. Figure 3 x w w» t ƒ š t x s. t š (10) w, t x s gj p Hx w v w. 10 ü t ƒ š w v sƒ Figure 3. Temperature-time curves compared with ISO standard curve and bottom flange of 60minute specimen number 2. Figure 4. Load-displacement curves for push out test. wù z t ƒ š w s. T = 345log 10 (8t + 1) + 20 (10)», T: ü s³, t: Table 3. Summary of Test Results Specimen Name & Classification Max. Load (kn) w y wz, 23«4y, 2009 Max. Displacement at Max. Load (mm) Top Flange Temperature ( o C) 10mm at Stud RT Room Temperature M 30minute M-1 60minute M-2 60minute

5 스터드커넥터의 내화성능에 관한 연구 63 Figure 4는 푸시아웃실험의 하중 변위관계이다. 전반 적으로 안정적인 변형거동을 확인할 수 있다. 그러나 60-1 실험체는 상대적으로 초기 최대하중이후 하중이 간별 온도분포는 세 실험체 모두 동일하여 온도 편차 가 크지 않음도 확인할 수 있다. Figure 8은 60-1 실험체의 실험 종료 후 스터드커넥 증가하지 않고 계속 저하하며 타 실험체와 다소 상이 터 파괴양상이다. Figure 8(b)를 보면 스터드커넥터가 한 경향을 보이고, 최대하중도 60-2 실험체 보다 적게 충분히 연성적인 거동을 한 후 파단되어, 고온 시 내 나타나고 있다. Figure 5~Figure 7은 30분 및 60분 가열 후 재하 한 각 실험체의 열전대에서 측정한 온도와 시간 그래프이 다. 전기로에 노출된 정도에 따라 하부 플랜지에서부 터 슬래브 콘크리트에 묻힌 스터드 상부로 올라갈수록 현저한 온도저감을 보인다. 특히 보 하부 플랜지는 Figure 3과 같이 표준가열곡선의 온도분포와 거의 동 일하나 온도가 다소 편차를 보인다. 또한 각 위치별 시 Temperature-time curves in steel and stud connector of 60minute specimen number 2. Figure 7. Temperature-time curves in steel and stud connector of 30minute specimen. Figure 5. Temperature-time curves in steel and stud connector of 60minute specimen number 1. Figure 6. Failure of shear connector after push-out test in fire (60M-1). Figure 8. J. of Korean Institute of Fire Sci. & Eng., Vol. 23, No. 4, 2009

6 64 ½ Áw zá gj p l f l š p» sƒw w q. 4.2 l f l s Table 4 x üy l f l. Hx v l f l s 20, 30, 60 w ƒ s³ w. x d e w ƒ j y w. Figure 9, Figure 10 Table 4 ƒ w s ³. ü t». d e ƒ w z Table 4. Time and Temperature of Stud Connectors and Top Flange Fire Time 20minute 30minute 60minute Specimen Name Top Flange ( o C) 10mm ( o C) 30mm ( o C) 50mm ( o C) 30M M M Average M M M Average M M Average Figure 10. Average temperature-thermocouples location in top flange and stud connectors. w (r)ƒ 0.9. gj p š w, g j p ü l f l e p w w sƒw. 4.3 l f l š ü sƒ š k w ww, w ƒ sƒ. (11) wz, (12) 16) sƒ. t ƒ š w y 17) (10) w ù, ü l f l p gj p w sƒ y w w sƒ w. σ y (T) = Fκ(T) (11) κ( T) = 1 : T R T 300 o C 750 T : 300 T 750 o C 450 σ r = T ( 100) 690 (12) Figure 9. Average temperature-time curves of top flange and stud connectors in furnace.», T: ( o C) T R : ( o C) σ y (T): T( C) w o F:» κ(t): w σ r : w Table 5 Table 3 t x sƒw w y wz, 23«4y, 2009

7 l f l üy w 65 Table 5. Test result and evaluation of shear force of stud connector Specimen Test Result (kn) Evaluation (kn) RT Equation 20 30M M (2) w sƒw š, š (11) (12) ü w l f l š sƒ w. x (2) sƒ wš. š, sƒ Table 4 w ƒ (30, 60 ) w l f l 10mm d w s³ ( o C)» 2 w» ü e w. Figure 1(b) l f l 10mm e Hx l f l d e, Hx ƒ w œ. œ d s³» ü w, x ew. 60 x x s³e w. 60 x r ƒ w š w, (11) sƒ š sƒƒ w, (12) sƒ š x w w sƒ q. x ƒ w ww sƒ w». ù l f l 10mm d w s³ ü k z l f l ü w, š ü sƒw. l f l e 4.2 l f l s sƒƒ ƒ w. w š l f l ü, l f l e s y w Equation Equation Equation Equation l f l š ü l f l 10mm d w ü sƒw x ew. p sƒ š sƒƒ w, sƒ š x ww sƒ q. 2. l f l y w š p q mw gj p l f l» sƒw w. w l f lƒ gj p w, š ü e p w w sƒw q. 3. l f l ü ƒ w, v l f l w ƒw w gj p ƒ w w. gj p ƒ w w x. ù x mw w y š l f l sƒƒ ƒ w, l f l e w sƒƒ ƒ w y w. wz gj p e w ƒ, v l f l š sƒw w. w» (2009» ) w. š x 1., Ÿ, Ÿ, ½, e œ w itech beam { sƒ, w wz, 18«, 4y(2002). 2. ½, ½, ½,», ½³, T x w { w x, w wz, 16«, 2y(2004). 3. mw, vùá y» w ³e, mw, 36y(2008). 4. ACI 216R-89, Guide for Determining the Fire Endurance of Concrete Elements (1989). 5. European Committee for Standardisation, ENV : Eurocode 3: Design of Steel Structures. Part 1.2: General Rules: Structural Design for Fire, Brussels, BE(1993). 6. European Committee for Standardisation, ENV : Eurocode 4: Design of Composite Steel J. of Korean Institute of Fire Sci. & Eng., Vol. 23, No. 4, 2009

8 66 ½ Áw zá and Concrete Structures. Part 1.2: General Rules: Structural Fire Design, Brussels, BE(1994). 7. ½,, w z, Hx w y w x, w y wz, 22«, 2y (2008). 8., ½, TSC w y p w x - w w üy w, w wz, 24«, 1y(2008). 9. w z,, ½, e Hx w v üy w, w w z, 19«, 4y(2006). 10. S.K. Choi, I.W. Burgess and R.J. Plank, Performance in Fire of Long-Span Composite Truss Systems, Engineering Structures, Vol.3, No.3, pp (2008). 11. w wz, KBC 2009 (2009). 12. I.M. Vest, Investigation of Stud Shear Connector for Composite Concrete and Steel T-beam, ACI Journal, Vol.27(1956). 13. J.G. Ollgoard, R.G Slutter and J.W. Fisher, Shear Strength of Stud Connectors in Lightweight and Normal-weight Concrete, AISC Engineering Journal, Vol.8, No.2(1971). 14.,, hsttul~ } l, ž Œª ª Œ, Vol.35A(1989). 15. ƒ,, sttururtlso kª lnl k jo «, ž ª Œ, 389, pp.79-87(1988). 16. ž ª, (1999). 17. Michael Spearpoint, Fire Engineering Design Guide, 3rd Edition(2008). w y wz, 23«4y, 2009

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