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1 x» w e full name w.. Jour. Korean For. Soc. Vol. 100, No. 4, pp. 000~000 (2011) JOURNAL OF KOREAN FOREST SOCIETY» zœx y x 1 Á 2 Á 1 1 w w, 2 w w Governance Types of Corporate Philanthropic Forestry Activities Chung, Jee Yong 1, Youn, Yeo-Chang 2 and Cho, Dong-Sung 1 1 Business School, Seoul National University, Seoul , Korea 2 Department of Forest Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul , Korea :» zœx y z w z w w ww y.» y z w g»» y ƒ.», wš z y w» w. ù ù» y û» wz» z» w ƒ v w. y» zœx y w w p wš w.» zœx y w w»,, x ƒ x w. ƒ x y w ƒã» er r wk mw, ƒ x» w, y ü, y k w.» zœx y y y w w. Abstract: Firms initiate philanthropic activities to improve social welfare that is beyond the scope of their responsibility towards society. Forestry activities, among other philanthropic areas, simultaneously improve corporate environment and social performance and provide the opportunity to cooperate for a large number of employees. Firms can effectively contribute to forest conservation with their financial and human resources. To encourage participation of more firms, we need to understand how and why firms engage in such activities. This study aims to explore different types of philanthropic forestry activities that these firms undertake. Corporate philanthropic activities can be categorized as donation, in-house project, or collaboration according to the governance type. We analyzed Yuhan-Kimberly's forestry campaign to investigate how and why the firm engaged in each type. We also propose some practical implications for firms, government, and non-profit organizations to invigorate firm's participation in philanthropic forestry activities. Key words : corporate social responsibility, corporate philanthropy, forestry activity, case study z ƒ w (Sustainable Development) ù» z (Corporate Social Responsibility) w w ƒ y w ü z y w f f w» j š. Carroll(1979)» z y,,, 4 1) *Corresponding author w.» z w z w w ww y,» ƒ zœx y» w w. zœx y» y z w g š œ j» s w»» y ƒ (½ x, 2009). ù 1990» ƒã»» w z ƒ (, 2002). 1

2 2 ªƒžª 100«4y (2011) ƒã» y w, w w š. y ƒ z w š p z v w œ ƒ y š ü y, ƒã» w w ƒ, z ƒ w.»,, w wš, z y w» w (½ x, 2009). ƒã» y w» w w, w wz(2009)» w zœxy d y» w. (2002) y w, w k ƒ y d z w. ù» zœx y ƒã» w, y ü» w ƒ w ƒ w. ù w zœx y w» ƒ š» š ƒã»» w w», wz» z» w» zœx y w w p w v ƒ.» ƒã» zœx y w¾?»» zœx y w x j ƒ wš (Husted, 2003; Husted, Allen & Rivera, 2010; Peloza & Hassay, 2008).» x» x ù t»kwš zœ x y w. zœx y»z w» ü. x x»» ù» wì zœx y»zwš ww. ü» y w x ùkùš. ½ x (2009, 2010), ü 500» 75» y wš. y ü r x ù t w» v š ù x x y,, v w, y w š. ü» w x zœx y wš,, š» ƒ x y wš, w» y x y w w» w.» zœx y x k w (Husted, 2003; Husted, Allen & Rivera, 2010; Peloza & Hassay, 2008) ƒ ù, z d wš» w e w š w wš k š w š.» zœx y x kw w e x y p» w w, y k š w š w.» š œw» w. w 1.» zœx y ƒã»» zœx y w y w w» z Áy y š (Dyke, Cash, Brody & Thornton, 2005; Fig, 2007; Grillo, Tokarczyk & Hansen, 2008; Panwar & Hansen, 2007; 2009).» ƒœ y k ³ (Dyke et al., 2005)ù z (Fig, 2007).»» w» w w y x w» (Sharma & Henriques, 2005)» z y mw x w wr y q kvw»ƒ j (Dyke et al., 2005; Grillo et al., 2008). w ƒ w» y» z y w w (Panwar & Hansen, 2007; 2009). 1) (economic responsibilities)» zƒ w y w wš, (legal responsibilities) z w, (ethical responsibilities) ³ w ww. (discretionary responsibilities)» z w ww w» w d (Carroll, 1979: 500).

3 » zœx y x 3 ù y w j k ƒã» n w. y z š ù wš z w ÿ» ƒ» y w j w»»z y w w (Kolk & Pinkse, 2004). ƒ w» t ƒ ù «mw y w w w (Weinhofer & Hoffmann, 2010). ƒã» k y ³,,, y k y š. y e w j» ƒã» zœx y ƒ.» z w w» y w» z l» w.» zœx y k ù, ƒ (Ricks Jr. & Williams, 2005). ƒã» y,,, š w w ƒ ƒ wš» y» (½ x, 2009), š š (Auger, Burke, Devinney, & Louviere, 2003) wr z l z y w z. 2.» zœx y x» zœx y w x x wš w. k» y» w wù (Ford and Farmer, 1986; Jauch and Wilson, 1979).» p y w, j w ü yw ƒ, w ƒ, xk x w ƒ w. x w, x» w ƒ» n w š e w». w» p y w x w x (Geyskens, Steenkamp and Kumar, 2006; Gulati and Nickerson, 2008; Kogut and Zander, 1992; Nickerson and Zenger, 2004; Poppo and Zenger, 1998).» zœ x y xy w» y ƒ x,,»,, 1.» x. 2. x. š x wš (Austin, 2000; Husted, 2003; Peloza & Hassay, 2008).» 1» w y ww» x ù t» w» zœx y ww. ƒ x z (»» ) w» x ƒ ƒ w w» ƒ (Husted, 2003). 2» ü zœx y»z w. zœx y w ù ƒ e ù w w š» w w (Husted, 2003). x x w 3.» x» œ t wš»z l w¾ wì w. ƒ»» wš œ t w»», x ƒ» x ¼ w w w»» x ûš x (Husted, 2003).» zœx y x w» (Husted, 2003; Husted et al., 2010; Peloza & Hassay, 2008)» zœx y x w z w., p zœx y w» ƒ x w z ƒ x kw. Peloza Hassay(2008)» zœx y x w w š w. w w w w»z, p, y y p»» x w ù y» ü 3. x x.

4 4 ªƒžª 100«4y (2011) y x w š w. wr Husted(2003)» zœx y x w w w š w. w, (centrality: zœx y w ) p (specificity: zœx y w ) p, û», wù š wù ƒ û x kw» n z w.» zœx y w» wš y j x k š w. ù»» š, k (Cyert & March, 1963). zœx y z sƒ» ü z z ù y» y w š(sethi, 1975), w» w w w w ql ì (Huber, 1991; Levinthal & March, 1981; Levitt & March, 1988; Nelson & Winter, 1982).» zœx y x w» k š z», ³x w w ƒ w v ƒ (Bowen, 2007). p zœ x y œ (½ x, 2009), z y w w. 3. ü» zœx y xy ½ x (2009, 2010), ü 500» wwš zœx y ü j ƒã» y y w. ƒã y i) xk ƒ ã», ii) z, iii) ù x xk ƒã», iv) k «y w w y, v) 1 z w xk š. y y w w ù, w w w y. œ y d w y ƒ š y wš (½ x, 2009). û y w» y y wì ww»» ù w w. ü 500» zœx v x w,» y x w x w v 44%, x 56% w. x y 66.7% w, x x y 46.7%, y 36.7% wš. t 1 y x w wr y x x { ùkùš. x x» s,» ƒ (45.9%) wš» (27.9%), e (18.0%), x (8.2%) (½ x, 2009: 41).» zœx y w» y ¾ š š, zœx y x w k š z d»,» ƒ x t 1. ü 500» zœx y xy. x x y ü v (%) v (%) (v ) a z p y : ½ x (2010: 823) t 10 a» w w x t z x y sw. 2)½ x (2009, 2010) x t» x w š x x s w g x y w (½ x, 2009: 40).

5 » zœx y x 5, w, š k» ü y yƒ w e w» w k ƒ w. w w k w, š xyw» w x w w (Yin, 2003). ü» z w 1980 ƒã» e r w x ¾ ã w š w k wš w wk t t (Keep Korea Green, KKG) er ƒã» wù»,, x x š, ƒ x y zœx er s ƒ š» w. t t (KKG) er»»,,,, y» zœx y w w. wk t p w er» š w fq w ÿ q ƒ w. wk» y z w eš w er z e w w w ƒ k w š. ù wk» y mw š,,, x w w ƒe wš š w zœx y mw» ƒ y ã wš w y w š mw y y y j» w», w w w w w.»» ƒ zœx y w z y w. wk» šw» w š w» er w. œ w sƒ z e w k w.» er 1984 l, e r wš ñ x œ»» óù 2010 ¾ w. w wk w,, š wk w ƒ š» x wk p KKG er p šw. 2 m er y w ƒ y w» w l w. l wk KKG er» l w 2 ww š, KKG er wš 1 1 w ƒ 1 ww. y (semi-structured) x l ww, w y w ù ƒ w ƒ w w w š w l ƒ ü ü y w. 1. t t (Keep Korea Green, KKG) er t t (KKG) er y y ƒã». er ü j ù» ƒã»,, x, w. y y ñ ü š mw Ÿšy 1984 l ã r. ù» ƒã» y ü Áœ w ysy ¾ ü 503 ù š 1,622 ƒã, w 1,290, 501 š ƒã ( wk, 2010). y w ù, 1999 l 2009 ¾ 708 w ƒ w wš, n œ y w, 2009 ¾ 16,500 m 1 ù 2 w ( wk, 2010). ù» ƒã» y wk» w w xk ù y wk x xk w. x y š w y k y ù»ƒ 1980 l ã w š. y k ƒw š 3,265 y ù» 15,930 w 13 ù ( wk, 2010). x y wk xk w. ù, y w p p œ w œ p y wwš. y ù y w wr» y š y y w KKG er ü Ö œ er š wk ƒ» sƒ» w ( ³, 2003;

6 6 ªƒžª 100«4y (2011) y, 2003). wk ƒ ü ù t p y ƒ k½ wš er ww, ü y zœx y wš y s x w ( y, 2003). KKG er w ù ƒã y x wš w. 2. KKG er KKG er»»kw xk š, w l xk y š w x y, 1990 l ù qp m w w y š. w r» zœx y x w. 1)» ƒ wk» x w w» 1984 l KKG er w. 1980»z x 1 y ü y wš» zœx y xw» zœx y œ ƒã» er w ( x, 2005). w m y wš w œ wì»» š w w w. w ü» zœx y» Áœ ƒã» w ƒ y w ¾ ù» 5 w.»» ü ù z x»» w z w» xk KKG er w.»»kw ƒ»» l» w z w. wk ƒ» xk KKG er w Husted(2003) k w z x.» zœx y w x» l ww w ƒ š z y w» x» w ƒ. z ƒ w» zƒ w z e, wk l» w z», sƒ w. w z z wì w z w w z ƒã» wwš z šw z sƒw w. wk z w ù»» w w w. wr y ù ƒã» w» wk z œ x w mw er y y r.»»k 2002 ¾ 47 6» w š( x, 2005), 2003 l w» x yw wš.» y» ü zœx y x w š z KKG er ƒã» y kƒ. wk w y y mw y w w w» z ƒã» y w š w. p» y mw x ƒ p j z w w y wš w w w w. 2) KKG er w w 1985 l wk ƒã»»z œw» w xk y ù» w w. ù š ƒã y, y w. wk ƒ y ù» w w,» y mw ƒ x w š mw v w œ w wr ü ƒã» y w w w». z»» y w j ù» ü x w w w. wk y ù» w» w, z w wk w y ù

7 » zœx y x 7 w. w z ƒ, ƒ»z w w wk». z y ù» w š, 2005 l 2008 ¾ x w w w» w. y ù» w mw y w x»z KKG er 1988 l ¾ y w, ƒ w y k š w» w. š ev ƒ w w w w wk». x w š,, y,, w, ƒ «ƒ w. ev ü Ö y x v s ƒ š ( y, 2003). wk ww xk ƒã» y»z ƒ. y š wk š d ew» w y w ù k y w š xk w» ww. wk mw zœx y w w w w.»» ƒ x ƒ w w š,»» y l. ƒ k w ¼ w x z wk ww ƒã» w w. KKG er wš w x 1995 w z wk zœx y k.» w z w» y ƒ ù( x, 2005), z y š» z w ƒ» zœx y w»ƒ» w. w z y wk ƒã» z y wš œ y w» w, w x w. z KKG er y x xk w. 3) x ƒã» wš y w w w œ wk 1997 l q.» KKG er y w y w ƒ w wk y ƒ wì ƒã» w v wš w.»ƒ w. ù ³ ù ƒw z, w wù ƒã» w k. w ƒ, wk ƒ wì ƒã w w. œœ ƒã» w š k, 1998 l k ww. ƒã», w,», qp. w ƒ ƒã» wš l w (, 2002). y y ww š y ww. w w wk y» w. wì w w ƒã»» w œœ ƒ š z sƒ. œœ ƒã» 2003 l w š š, ƒã» y reš. z wk ƒ q p xk ƒã» y j»p w. p qp y mw ƒ ã» y» w w. w wk 1995 l w ƒ 1999 l wì ww. w w z ew w z, w, sƒ w w. wk ƒ, ƒ,, œ w z w œ, w w w, l, sƒ y wì w š. ù» ww w ù w ƒƒ ww š, 2001 l w w

8 8 ªƒžª 100«4y (2011) š w ù 2008» w. w z w kw 2009 l e wwš. ƒã» ƒ w j y. KKG er w w 2009 ¾ 708 w ¾ we 3,000 w. w,», w, ƒ qp x wš ƒ w w. x x mw wk y w z x w, z x ƒã» y y w. x KKG er w,, y y w ƒ w ww ƒ w w ù ƒ w w w. wk qp y w w. w z ww ƒ. KKG er m w ƒã» w wk ƒ y wüš w š, y ü py w» wš x w t 2. x KKG er y. z x k y y ü wk w œ l ƒã» w y w sy w Ì w ys y, s w Ì y y reš. w ys y 2000 ¾ mw»»kw š z,, ù» v w x w. y x,, y w l p p wì wš, 2002 z 2003 l ù» ƒã» z w š 2007 l n œ y w wwš. w x wk z,, š š y d» w.,» w» p j y w š z w w w w.» yù ƒ.» š «ƒ š ƒ w r w w w». w ƒ w KKG er wš œ w ƒ» w œ qp x w. ¾ r, wk KKG er» w y w» ( 84-02) ( 85-) x ( 98-) Á» zœx y w Á» zœx y w û û Á y ÁKKG Á yy er x Á» w ³ ù Á» zœx y Á» y mw ƒ Áz ù w w w v p j x w x w ƒã» Á» ü x Á ƒã» w Á x Áœ zœx y Á»z œ y Á Á» w w z»k Á»»k Áœ er y Á zœx» y x Á» y Á y ù» Á y k Á ƒ x»z w Á ƒ x Áv»z Á š d w k y y Á Áw / Á w/ Á / z Á Á»z w Á y w Á» y Á

9 » zœx y x z l qp xk y w š. z yù x z y wš ww w e. KKG er y x w t 2. m» zœx y» ù, y x x w w x kwš ƒ x y p» w, š» q y yƒ w e w k r š w. wk KKG er m w,» zœx y x kw z ù» ü x w w w yw x y, wƒ. š x z y w e w. KKG er y x w,»,, x.» x ƒã» y w w z»kw. wk» w»kw w w š ù, w w z w e z wš w w. x» w z ƒ y w w, w ü» ƒ ûš w» ƒ. xk y ù» y y w. ƒã» y j» w w k»z, ƒ, w v ww,»» y w š ƒ w. w y wk ww» w š k» š d w g. w ü w» ƒ z y x xk. KKG er x ƒ j p qp x w. we œ y wš» w ƒ z x mw». w z w w š, y mw y» w, y» w. wk ƒ j w z, x w wš ww wš w w w w. x w» û, KKG er œ w» y œ y z x xk w š.» zœx y x w e w ù z d w» (Husted, 2003; Husted et al., 2010; Peloza & Hassay, 2008) w, wk ƒã» er w ù z, z x w. w» w ƒ w» x er wš ƒ p jƒ x š w ƒ y w w, œ y š w ³ ù y w x er ³ y w.» mw ƒ wš zœx y wr» œ w ñ w» œ w yw x ww. ù z n z yw, wk œ w œ ƒe w qp x ƒ w w w.» w ù zœx y zœx y x w w ƒ. w» wù w zœx y re x x w ƒ ƒ w.» w j yw». w š» w y š x w w w. w,» zœx y w x w ww w. wz zœx y wš w»» w wz ù x x

10 10 ªƒžª 100«4y (2011) k y w š, x w y wš» xk y š w. w ƒã» y» ƒ š w w.» w ù zœx,» x x k k w w œ z. w ƒ w ù w w š w v w.»» wì z œx y wš w y qp» p š w wwš w w.» œ wì w» w qp w, w w t ƒ w.» ù»»kw ü w w».» zœx y y w w» w w ù sƒw. ù» š j» zœx y wš w» ƒw». ƒ ã»» z» w ƒ j š q w,» zœx y w w.» w,»» ù, y x x ƒã» y w w y» w m e w w. ù ƒ» ù x z w w ù w g w» w š» ww ùƒ j. ƒ w š z ƒ ùkú w ¾ ƒ v w.» w x w m w» qp w z š,» q p» x y y w w» qp ƒ ƒ w. ƒ» š x, w»» w y j» w ƒ. p wk» zœx y ù ƒã» y w y y y w»» w y. w y» ù p w k.» w w x x w w w xy ù w x w w w w wz û. w w wš w zœx y» ã w r wk» œw. ü» ƒ t w, y x k e w w ù» ƒã» y w e,» x, w ƒ s œw. w» :»z y ( y: S210910L010100) w. x 1. ½ x, y, Ÿ, ½w » z (CSR) y mw y y.. pp ½ x,, k, ½w ü 500» zœxy v x. w wz 99(6): x,, IDS&Associates wk : ƒ w». w. pp ³ » z y (Corporate Social Responsibility: CSR) z w : wk t t er (KKG) 20 y. Ÿšw 14(5): wk wk 2010 z š. wk. pp y, y, ¼ wk œ fq. w fq 5(4): wz » Á» zœ x. wz. pp w qp. w 1(1): Auger, P., Burke, P., Devinney, T.M. and Louviere, J.J What Will Consumers Pay for Social Product Features?. Journal of Business Ethics 42(3): Austin, J.E Strategic Collaboration Between Nonprofits and Business. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quar-

11 » zœx y x 11 terly 29(suppl 1): Bowen, F Corporate Social Strategy: Competing Views from Two Theories of the Firm. Journal of Business Ethics 75(1): Carroll, A.B A Three-Dimensional Conceptual Model of Corporate Performance. The Academy of Management Review 4(4): Cyert, R.M. and March, J.G A Behavioral Theory of the Firm. Prentice-Hall. Englewood Cliffs. pp Dyke, J., Cash, S.B., Brody, S.D. and Thornton, S Examining the Role of the Forest Industry in Collaborative Ecosystem Management: Implications for Corporate Strategy. Corporate Social Responsibility & Environmental Management 12(1): Fig, D Questioning CSR in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: the case of Aracruz Celulose sa. Third World Quarterly 28(4): Ford, D. and D. Farmer Make or buy - a key strategic issue. Long Range Planning 19(5): Geyskens, I., J.-B. Steenkamp, E.M. and Kumar, N Make, buy, or ally: A transaction cost theory meta-analysis. Academy of Management Journal 49(3): Grillo, N., Tokarczyk, J. and Hansen, E Green advertising developments in the U.S. forest sector: A follow-up. Forest Products Journal 58(5): Gulati, R. and Nickerson, J.A Interorganizational trust, governance choice, and exchange performance. Organization Science 19(5): Huber, G.P Organizational Learning: The Contributing Processes and the Literatures. Organization Science 2(1): Husted, B.W Governance Choices for Corporate Social Responsibility: to Contribute, Collaborate or Internalize?. Long Range Planning 36(5): Husted, B.W., Allen, D.B. and Rivera, J.E Governance Choice for Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility. Business & Society 49(2): Jauch, L.R. and Wilson, H.K A strategic perspective for make or buy decisions. Long Range Planning 12(6): Kogut, B. and Zander, U Knowledge of the firm, combinative capabilities, and the replication of technology. Organization Science 3(3): Kolk, A. and Pinkse, J Market Strategies for Climate Change. European Management Journal 22(3): Levinthal, D. and March, J.G A Model of Adaptive Organizational Search. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 2(4): Levitt, B. and March, J.G Organizational Learning. Annual Review of Sociology 14: Nelson, R.R. and Winter, S.G An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change. Havard University Press. Cambridge, Mass. pp Nickerson, J.A. and Zenger, T.R A knowledgebased theory of the firm: The problem-solving perspective. Organization Science 15(6): Panwar, R. and Hansen, E.N The standardization puzzle: An issue management approach to understand corporate responsibility standards for the forest products industry. Forest Products Journal 57(12): Panwar, R. and Hansen, E.N A process for identifying social and environmental issues: a case of the US forest products manufacturing industry. Journal of Public Affairs 9(4): Peloza, J. and Hassay, D.N Make versus Buy Philanthropy: Managing Firm-Cause Relationships for Strategic and Social Benefit. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing 19(2): Poppo, L. and Zenger, T Testing alternative theories of the firm: Transaction cost, knowledge-based, and measurement explanations for make-or-buy decisions in information services. Strategic Management Journal 19(9): Ricks, Jr., J.M. and Williams, J.A Strategic Corporate Philanthropy: Addressing Frontline Talent Needs Through an Educational Giving Program. Journal of Business Ethics 60(2): Sethi, S.P Dimensions of Corporate Social Performance: An Analytical Framework. California Management Review 17(3): Sharma, S. and HenriquesSG I.I Stakeholder Influences on Sustainability Practices in the Canadian Forest Products Industry. Strategic Management Journal 26(2): Weinhofer, G. and Hoffmann, V.H Mitigating Climate Change? How Do Corporate Strategies Differ?. Business Strategy & the Environment 19(2): Yin, R.K Case Study Research: Design and Methods. Sage Publications. Thousand Oaks, CA. pp ( ; k)

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