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1 Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society Vol. 47, No. 5, pp. 373~380, 010. DOI: /KCERS The Properties of Restorative Cement Mortar with Insulation Performance for Improvement of Durability Hyun-Ju Kang, Seung-Hyun Na, Myong-Shin Song, Eui-Dam Jeong*, and Byung-Dol Seo** Research Institute of Chemical Engineering, Kangwon National University, Samchuk , Korea *Doctoral Program Completion and Department of Orban Planning Chungbuk University, Cheong ju , Korea **Segi-Hightech Building, Seoul , Korea (Received August 16, 010; Revised September 1, September 7, 010; Accepted September 8, 010) ü w w MORTAR x Áù xá Á *Á ** w er ywœw * w œw **( )»w lj ( ; , 9 7, ; ) ABSTRACT In this study, we studied on the durability of restorative cement mortar for deteriorated concrete at complex deteriorated conditions as variation of temperature and of humidities. We made a comparison between restorative materials with insulation function and restorative materials without insulation function in items of compressive and bending strength and permeability of water, durability for carbonation, salt damage, diffusion coefficient of salt at complex deterioration conditions like change of temperature, change of humidity, For insulation, we used close-pore type Alumino-Silicate lightweight aggregate and substituted 1 wt% and 15 wt% out of original restorative cement mortar without insulation function. As a result, it was found that original restorative cement mortar without insulation function fail to meet Korean Standard on polymer modified cement mortar for maintenance in concrete structure, but restorative cement mortar with insulation function is in contentment Korean Standard to meet excellent than restorative materials without insulation function for durability at complex deteriorated conditions. Key words : Durability, Insulation performance, Repair mortar, Lightweight aggregate 1. x ¾ gj p gj p w k ü w w m Ÿ w. ù w y,, š w y x w y š w š. gj p ü z w w x l œ ƒ š. 1) p w gj p ü z w Corresponding author : Myong-Shin Song Tel : Fax : , y y e n w y gj p w z w» gj p ü z w ƒÿ š. ) ¾ k œ ƒ ù j m ƒwš» v qp gj pœ j pœ w s p k š. w v qp gj p x y p, j p x e k ƒ ƒƒ š. 3) ƒ w e, q, k n. gj p œ gj p y ù y w y y w w 373

2 374 x Áù xá Á Á Table 1. Experimental Plan Types Testing items Days (a) Flow Hydrate heat evolution (b) I Thermal conductivity Compressive strength Bending strength Water-absorbtion coefficient 8 (c) II Compressive strength Water permeability Carbonate test Salts ion penetration 10 cycle ~ 40 cycle wš y y w, gj p ww ³ w w. w» ³ sƒ y y w t y ƒ w ƒ w t p., gj p w r ƒ j yƒ w» 4 w yƒ j y w t yƒ ù w y gj p y w t y w w v ƒ. gj p ü w w» w k ü w w, 4 r ƒ j ù p š w k r gj p w ü w w mw.. x z.1. x z ü p e w mw» w» q» w w w x z Table 1. q (a) w» w x w, (a) w 1 wt% (b), 15 wt% (c) ey w xw. d w I p yp mw» w y p Flow d w, KS F 404 gj p s p Fig. 1. Experimental conditions on the 1 cycle of composite deterioration. Table. Chemical Compositions of Lightweight Aggregate Comp. SiO Al O 3 K O CaO Fe O 3 wt% Table 3. Physical Properties of Lightweight Aggregate Size (µm) Softening point( o C) Specific weight Hardeness Refraction index Absorption ratios(%) ~18 k w» p mw, Table 1 x z ùkü. d w II w y gj p y xw w y š w z ü sƒw, w w y w y, n, y w, w w w d w. w y Fig. 1 ù kü... x..1.» q s p k ü H t» w. s p k t Table ùkü. Alumino - Silicate y x x ü ƒ œ closed porex w. yw / p Tables, 3 ùkü š X- z (X-ray Diffractometer, XRD) x x (Scanning electron microscope, SEM) Figs., 3 ùkü. w wz

3 내구성 향상을 위하여 단열성능이 부여된 단면복구 MORTAR의 물성 375 Basic Properties of Restorative Cement Mortar(a) Basic Properties Factors of Restorative Quality standard Cement Mortar(a) Bending strength(mpa) above Compressive above strength(mpa) Compressive Alkali resistance 39.9 strength (MPa) 0.0 N/mm above Table 4. Fig.. XRD analysis results of lightweight aggregate. Depth of Carbonation (mm) Quantity of permeability (g) Water absorption coefficient kg/(m h ) Moisture transmission resistance (Sd) Salt resistance (coulombs) Length exchange ratios (%) Fig. 3. SEM analysis results of lightweight aggregate. 실험 방법 혼합 방법 및 시험체 제작 본 실험의 배합수는 W/B : 0.로 하였으며 KS L 5109(수 경성 시멘트 반죽 및 모르타르의 기계적 혼합방법)에 의 거 혼합하였다. 단면복구용 폴리머 시멘트 모르타르의 특성을 평가하 기 위하여 KS F 404에 준하여 각각의 시험체를 제작하 였다. 또한 염화물 이온 확산에 의한 염해 특성을 고찰하 기 위하여 KS 규정과는 다른 mm의 시험 체를 별도로 제작하여 실험하였다 측정방법 유동성, 수화발열 특성 시멘트를 사용한 모르타르의 유동성을 평가하기 위하 여 Flow table에 의한 유동성 측정방법을 사용하였으며, 수화반응에 미치는 영향을 측정하기 위해 KYOWA사 10 점식 Data Logger(UCAM-60B)를 이용, 초 간격으로 수 화열을 측정하였다. () 열전도율과 물 흡수계수(KS F 609) 측면 방수처리 된 기건 상태의 시험체를 준비한 후 시 험체를 약 10 mm 깊이로 담근다. 시험체는 일반적으로 (1) under.54 0 under under 0.5 m under under ±0.15 under 다공질이며 친수성이므로 모세관 현상에 의해 시험체 내 부로 물이 흡수되고, 이에 따라 시험체 무게는 점차 증가 한다. 물 흡수량을 시간경과에 따라 측정한 후, 이를 흡 수면에서의 단위면적당 물흡수량[kg/m ]으로 환산하며 시 간 [h ]에 따라 표시한다. 이때 측정시간은 일반적으 로 물에 담근 후 10분, 30분, 1시간, 3시간, 6시간, 1시간, 4시간, 48시간을 기준으로 하여 4개 이상의 측정값이 일 직선상에 위치하면 흡수시험을 종료할 수 있다. 또한 단열성능의 지표가 되는 열전도율 시험(Germany, NETZSCH사 HFM436/3/1)은 크기 mm의 육면 체로 시험체를 제작하여 재령 8일 동안 수중에서 0 3 C 로 양생한 시험체에 대해 측정하였다. (3) 염해 측정 및 중성화 측정 염화물 이온의 측정은 각 측정 재령에서의 시험체의 중 심부를 절단하여 그 중심부를 기준, 중심부에 후르오렛센 나트륨(C H O Na)수용액을 엷게 도포한 후 이어서 0.1NAgNO 수용액을 분무한다. Cl 이온이 존재하는 곳에서 는 AgCl의 백색 침전이 생성되고 Cl 이온이 존재하지 않 는 곳에서는 적갈색으로 변하게 된다. 따라서 이때 백색 침전이 생성된 거리를 염분이 침투한 거리로 산정하였다. 중성화 시험은 각 측정 재령에서 시험체의 중심부를 절 단한 후 1%의 페놀프탈레인-에탄올 용액을 분무한 후 적 색으로 변한 부위까지의 거리를 중성화 진행으로 산정하였다. 시멘트 재료의 경화체 중에 있어서 외부 이온의 확산을 검토하는 경우, 고상으로서 박판 중에서의 이온의 확산을 0.5 t ± o 3) 제 47 권 제 5호(010)

4 376 x Áù xá Á Á Fig. 4. Schema of ions diffusion on the semi-infinite solid model. ƒw, ƒ¾ semiinfinite solid» w y y w. semi-infinite solid y Fick's 'nd law l š p y w y y w. 3. y w š p y w y š k q y ƒw. p p y en y w» Fick's y semi-infinte model ƒw. Fig. 4 semi-infinite solid y w ùkü. 4) Cx x = 1 erf Co Dt» Cx : t l x, t paste ü Co : paste t D : y (1) e x mw Cx x y D w. cement y t l x Cx=0 ùký. x t Dt t y x t d w y y d w v y w. 4. š 4.1. p y p Fig. 5 d flow test ùkü (1) () Fig. 5. Flow of each type. Fig. 6. Reaching time of maximum temperature of each type.. k œx ƒ w flow 180~00 mm. x a» wš y w b, c 180 mm~00 mm» w y w. w b c cƒ b flow w ùkû x ey ƒw ùkù q., ƒ w ƒ w w w wù,, x ƒ w ƒ w w w w w w w w ù w q. Fig. 6 y p ùkü. y» y p ùkü w. Type y š š ùkü. š a b, cƒ û ùkû š c>b>a ùkû. w wz

5 내구성 향상을 위하여 단열성능이 부여된 단면복구 MORTAR의 물성 Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Compressive strength of each type. Fig Water absorption coefficient of each type. Bending strength of each type 압축강도 및 휨강도 측정결과 Fig. 10. Fig. 7에 압축강도 측정 결과를 나타내었다. 각 재료 모 두 재령 8일에서 KS F 404 기준에 의한 0 MPa을 상 회하는 결과를 나타내었다. 또한 a가 가장 우수한 압축강 도 특성을 나타내었으며, b, c 모두 KS F 404 기준에 의 한 0 MPa을 상회하는 우수한 압축강도 발현 특성을 나 타내었다. 또한 b, c는 a와 비교하여 모두 초기에 강도 발 현이 우수하며 특히 재령 7일까지의 강도 발현성이 우수 한 것으로 나타났다. 이는 치환된 cenosphere의 Al O 의 함량이 높기 때문으로 판단된다. Fig. 8에 휨강도 측정 결과를 나타내었다. 각 재료 모두 재령 8일에서 KS F 404 기준에 의한 6 MPa을 상회하 는 결과를 나타내었다. 또한 a가 가장 우수한 휨강도 특 성을 나타내었으며, 단열성 단면복구 모르타르인 b, c 모 두 KS 기준에 의한 6 MPa을 상회하는 우수한 휨 강도 발 현 특성을 나타내었다 물 흡수계수 3 Fig. 9에는 물 흡수계수 특성을 나타내었다. b, c의 경 우 a보다는 높은 흡수량을 나타내었다. 이는 기준 재료인 단면복구재에 단열성능 부여를 위한 경량골재를 혼입하 Thermal conductivity of each type. 였기 때문으로 판단된다. 즉, 흡수율이 높은 경량 골재의 첨가량이 증가할수록 경량골재가 함유된 단면복구 모르 타르의 흡수율이 역시 증가되었을 것으로 판단된다 열전도율 측정결과 Fig. 10에는 열전도율 특성을 나타내었다. 그림에서 보면 a는 열전도율이 1.08, b와 c는 각각 0.70, 0.65 kcal/m h C 나타나 기준 재료로 사용한 a보다 40% 단열효과가 있음 을 확인할 수 있었다. 이는 closed pore 구조로 되어 있는 o 경량 골재가 대부분의 열을 흡수함으로서 열전도율이 낮 게 측정된 것으로 판단된다. 복합열화 조건에서 단면복구재의 물성 복합열화 조건이란 외부 온도 및 습도의 변화에 따라 콘크리트의 물성은 팽창 수축의 반복이 진행되며 열화진 행이 촉진된다. 이러한 원인으로 가장 큰 단점인 콘크리 트 구조물의 수명을 감소시키는 역할을 한다. 본 연구에 서는 온도 변화 및 건습 반복의 열화조건을 고려하여 Table 5 및 Fig. 1과 같은 복합열화 환경을 조성하였다 ) 제 47 권 제 5호(010)

6 378 x Áù xá Á Á Table 5. Conditions of Complex Deterioration Factors Conditions Carbonation(CO ) CO 15% Salt(NaCl) NaCl 3% Humidity(RH) 30~60% Temperature( o C) 0~60 o C Fig. 13. Carbonation depth of each type at complex deterioration condition. ¼ w w y w w w w. Fig. 11. Compressive strength of each type at complex deterioration condition. Fig. 1. Water permeability of each type at complex deterioration condition Fig. 11 w y p ùkü. 0 cycle y j» 8 w. a y cycle ƒ w ùkû. ù b, c w w š y w a y cycle ¼ w ƒ w ùkû. w y cycle 4... n y Fig. 1 y cycle ƒ Type n d ùkü. b c y cycle w n ƒ j ùkû, a w n ƒw ùkû. w b c a n w ƒ a w ùkû. w y w yƒ» q y w Fig. 13 ƒ type y cycle y ¾ ùkü. a y cycle w» w» l yƒ w ùkû ù, b c y» l 0 cycle ¾ yƒ w ùkû. w w w w» y q. w a y cycle ¼, 30 cycle y ¾ ƒƒ w ùk û, š y w semi-infinite solid w w Fig. 14 ù kü. Semi-infinite solid model y ü en y wù, w z en w y CO en ww, p y free-cao CO w CaCO 3 w wz

7 ü w w MORTAR 379 Fig. 16. Diffusion coefficient of salt ion of each type at complex deterioration condition. Fig. 14. Schema of ion diffusion and salts production at semiinfinite solid model. Fig. 15. Penetration depth of salt ion of each type at complex deterioration condition. ƒ w, CaCO 3 w p y ü œ macro pore size j» y w q. x ùkù a enw z y ü en ƒ w q w w Figs. 15, 16 y en ¾ y ùkü. a b, c e n ¾ ƒ û. b, c a w y en û. b, c y cycle w y ƒ û, semi-infinite solid model w en y w p y w w š w y ü œ s w w y ƒ q. w b, c w y ƒ 40 cycle¾ f, enw» p y x» q. w» t š w. 5. y y y y w ü w j» w w w. 1) w» w close pore alumino-silicate w 1, 15 wt% eyw w ƒƒ 0.70, 0.65 kcal/m hr oc w 40% z ƒ. ) KS F 404» w š, w y y w x p w y y 40 cycle 4.3 MPa, 4.99 MPa ùkû w w y w. 3) w y y w n y 5% û ùkû, n x w š y w w w ùkû. 47«5y(010)

8 380 x Áù xá Á Á 4) w w y y w w w y y ü w j q. REFERENCES 1. C. S. Na, E. B. Lee, G. S. Kim, M. S. Song, B. S. Cho, and M. H. Kim, The Experiment Study on the Durability of Restorative Materials under Environment of Combined Deterioration, J. Kor. Arch. Ins., 3G [4]G (003).. S. H. Na, H. J. Kang, and M. S. Song, Effect of Stearic Acid on the Waterightness Properties of the Cementitious Materials, J. Kor. Ceram. Soc., 46 [4] (009). 3. M. S. Song, The Study on the Sea-Water Reisting of Portland Cement, pp. 9-11, Master Thesis, Myongji University, Yongin, Helmut Mehrer, Diffusion in Solids, pp. 8-43, Springer, New York, Y. D. Kim, J. H. Park, B. S. Cho, Y. R. Kim, Y. J. Kwon, and M. H. Kim, An Experimental Study on Steel Corrosion Properties of Restorative Material under Environment of Combined Deterioration, J. Kor. Arch. Ins., 4 [1] (004). 6. W. F. Cole and B. Kroone,, Carbon Dioxide in Hydrated Portland Cement Anion Interaction for the Determination of Chemical Equilibria in Cement/Water Systems, J. Am. Conc. Ins., 31 [1] (1960). w wz

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