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1 Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society Vol. 47, No. 5, pp. 412~418, DOI: /KCERS Mechanical Properties and Durability of Cement Concrete Incorporating Silica Fume Seung-Tae Lee and Seung-Heun Lee* Department of Civil Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan , Korea *Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan , Korea (Received August 27, 2010; Revised September 6, 2010; Accepted September 6, 2010) ev yww p gj p w p ü k Á x* w m œw * w œw ( ; ; ) ABSTRACT This paper presents the results of experimental work on both mechanical properties and durability of concrete or mortar incorporating silica fume. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of replacement of silica fume on the performance of hardened concrete or mortar. The replacement levels of silica fume that replaced cement in this work were 0%, 5%, 10% and 15%, respectively. The results of this study indicate that both mechanical properties and durability of concrete are greatly dependent on the replacement levels of silica fume. As the replacement level of silica fume increased, the mechanical properties including compressive and flexural strengths, and static modulus of elasticity were proportionally enhanced. Furthermore, it was found that silica fume had some beneficial effects on the resistances to both chloride ions penetration and sodium sulfate attack. However, it exhibited poor resistances to both freezing-thawing action and magnesium sulfate attack. Key words : Silica fume, Mechanical properties, Durability, Concrete 1., gj p š» w z w gj p š v ƒ š. šd, šü š v w gj p w» w w gj p w k w. 1) w w l ev(silica fume) š gj p w š, ƒ w. ev» j g, r g g w w sƒ sw SiO 2», š gj p yy ƒ y ƒš. Corresponding author : Seung-Tae Lee Tel : Fax : , ev w gj p p, ü w ƒ ww, w w t š. ù w š /š gj p» w» w ev m š, ƒwš. ev 90% SiO 2 s w p y Ca(OH) 2 w C-S-H w, w gj p œ, n w ITZ(interfacial transition zone) ƒ g w š gj p x w. 2) p, ev w gj p y, k y ü w z ùk ü š. 3-5) ev w gj p(y k ) w ü p sƒw» w y w, 4 ƒ ev gj p (y k ), {, k w 412

2 ev yww p gj p w p ü 413 Table 1. Chemical Composition and Physical Properties of OPC and SF Item Chemical composition (%) Physical properties Type SiO 2 Al 2 O 3 Fe 2 O 3 CaO MgO SO 3 Ig. loss Specific gravity Blaine (cm 2 /g) OPC ,480 SF ,700 Table 2. Properties of Fine and Coarse Aggregates Items Gmax Absorption Specific F.M. Types (mm) (%) gravity Fine aggregate < Coarse aggregate p en w, w w, y e w ü x š w. w wz ev w gj p, ü w w» l wš w. 2. x 2.1. w p ASTM C 150 w msp p( w OPC), p yw Table 1., x š ev( w SF) Elkem t, SF yw p Table 1 ùk ü., x w SF OPC w ƒƒ 0, 5, 10 15% 4 ù gj p k w, ƒƒ SF-00, SF-05, SF- 10 SF-15 gj p(y k ) w. w, w. x Table 2., gj p w w œ» y w PC š AE w w x SF w» w(sf-00) SF p w 5, 10 15% w 3 w 4 w k gj p w x ww, ƒ gj p wp ùkü Table 3. k gj p - w 0.45 w, 4 k gj p 1 z kxw 20 ± 3 o C ƒƒ w. Table 3. Concrete Mix Proportion G Symbol max W/b S/a Unit weight (kg/m 3 ) (mm) (%) (%) W C SF S G SF SF SF SF x w p - w ƒ 0.45 gj p, { k d w» w x ƒ x œ ƒƒ w, 1 z kxw t w z, ƒ gj p w p w., t w Φ10 20 cm x œ KS F 2405 w 3, 7, gj p d w, t w cm ƒ x œ KS F 2408 w gj p { d w. wr, gj p k KS F 2438 w d w en w gj p m w ASTM C 1202 w Ì 50 mm 28 x d w. x 60 V 6 m j x l w 30 d w d l w w (1) w m w w. Q = 900( I 0 + 2I I I I 360 )», Q = m w (Coulomb), Ix=x (A), gj p y»yw x Nordiest NT BUILD 492 5) w (2) w. D RT x d α x d = zfe t (1) (2) 47«5y(2010)

3 이승태 이승헌 414 2, = 여기서 = : 비정상상태에서 염소이온 확산계수(m /s), : 이온의 원자가(z=1), : 패러데이 상수, : 전압차(V), : 기체상수, : 용액의 온도(K), : 시편의 두께(m), : 염소이온의 침 투깊이(m), : 실험기간(s), :error function, : 비색법에 의한 반응 농도 및 : 음극셀의 염소이온 농도이다. U E RT a L erf 1 cd c0 zfe 2 D F U T L t z R xd erf cd cd 동결융해 저항성 SF-00 및 SF-10 콘크리트를 대상으로 ASTM C 666에 준하여 동결융해 저항성 실험을 실시하였다. 콘크리트의 동결융해 저항성을 정량적으로 평가하기 위하여 매 100싸 이클에서 cm 원주형 콘크리트 공시체의 압축강도 를 측정하였으며, 매 30싸이클에서 cm 각주형 콘크리트 공시체의 동탄성계수를 측정하였다. 동결융해 반 복작용을 받기 전 공시체의 동탄성계수에 대한 소정의 사 이클에서의 동탄성계수를 식 (3)과 같이 상대동탄성계수 (relative dynamic modulus of elasticity)로 나타내었다. E d, c Compressive strength of concrete incorporating SF. Fig. 2. Flexural strength of concrete incorporating SF. (3) ( ) = ( ) 100 n1 n Fig 여기서, =c 싸이클에서 상대동탄성계수(%), =c 싸 이클에서의 공명진동수(Hz) 및 = 초기 공명진동수(Hz)이다. n1 E d, c n 황산염침식 저항성 물-결합재비 0.45 및 잔골재-결합재비 2.0으로써 동일하 며, SF의 대체율(0, 5, 10 및 15%)이 상이한 4종류 모르 타르를 제조하였다. 제조된 모르타르 공시체를 1주일 동 안 표준양생한 후, 황산염용액에 약 1년 동안 침지하였으 며, 침지재령별 압축강도를 KS L 5105에 의하여 측정함 으로써 모르타르의 황산염침식 저항성을 평가하였다. 본 연구에서는 두 종류 황산염용액(5% Na SO 및 5% MgSO )에 침지한 모르타르의 압축강도를 측정하여 황산 염 환경별 저항성을 상호 비교하였다 실험결과 및 고찰 콘크리트의 역학적 특성 SF의 대체율을 달리한 4종류 콘크리트의 재령별 강도 를 측정하였으며, 그 결과를 정리하여 Fig. 1 및 2에 나 타내었다. Fig. 1은 SF 콘크리트의 재령별 압축강도를 나 타낸 것으로써, 콘크리트의 압축강도 발현에 대한 SF의 효과를 확인할 수 있다. 특히, SF를 대체한 콘크리트의 높은 초기 압축강도 발현 특성을 알 수 있다. 이러한 결 과는 SF의 사용에 따른 충진효과, 포졸란 효과, ITZ영역 의 밀실효과 등에 기인한 탓으로 판단되며, Wild 등 의 연구와도 비교적 잘 일치하였다. 뿐만 아니라, 재령 91일 ) 한국세라믹학회지 에서도 SF를 대체하지 않은 SF-00 콘크리트의 압축강도 가 53.6 MPa인 반면, SF를 5~15% 대체한 콘크리트는 약 67~74 MPa의 높은 압축강도 값을 나타냄으로써, SF의 장 기강도 발현 효과도 관찰할 수 있었다. Fig. 2는 4종류 콘크리트의 재령 7일 및 28일의 휨강도 를 나타낸 것이다. 이 그림에서 알 수 있듯이 재령 7일 및 28일에서 SF-15 콘크리트의 휨강도 발현이 가장 우수 하게 나타남을 알 수 있으며, SF-05 및 SF-10 콘크리트는 서로 유사한 강도발현 특성을 나타내었다. 또, 재령이 증 가함에 따라 SF를 대체한 콘크리트의 휨강도 발현이 control(sf-00) 콘크리트에 비하여 우수하게 나타났다. 예 를 들어, 재령 28일에서 SF를 대체한 콘크리트의 휨강도 는 약 6.7~7.5 MPa 정도인 반면, SF-00 콘크리트는 약 5.4 MPa의 휨강도 값을 나타내었다. 한편, 본 연구에서 고찰된 콘크리트의 압축강도와 휨강도

4 Fig. 3. Relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength. Fig. 4. Static modulus of elasticity of SF-00 concrete. Fig. 5. Static modulus of elasticity of SF-10 concrete. ev yww p gj p w p ü 415 ùkü Fig. 3. ƒ gj p { w ƒ (4) w (R 2 =0.90) ùkü. 7,8) f f = 0.158( f c ) 0.913», f c =gj p (MPa), f f =gj p { (MPa). SF k š w» w SF-00 SF-10 gj p k d w, ACI 318 code 9) w. ACI 318 code gj p k (5) wš. E c = 4.7 f c», E c =gj p k (GPa), f c =gj p (MPa). SF-00 SF-10 gj p k d d Figs. 4 5 ƒƒ ùkü. SF gj p k d ACI ù kû. Mazloom 10) šw ü w ùkû gj p en w SF w gj p en w w w w, œ m š SFgj p w w w w. 11,12) p, Shekarchi 12) wy šü gj p w SF 7.5 ~10% w, SF ƒw w w x ƒw š w. ASTM C 1202 x w d w 28 gj p m w ùkü Fig. 6. gj p m w gj p w w ùkû, SF ƒw m w ùkù w ùkü. SF-00 ASTM C 1202 w sƒ» moderate 2754coulomb ùkü, SF w SF-05, SF-10 SF-15 Very low 1000 coulomb w ùkü. wr, NT BUILD 492 6) w gj p y ùkü Fig. 7. gj p y ƒ w w ùkü, SF-00 gj p y ƒ SF gj p w j y ùkü. p, SF-15 gj p y SF-00 gj p (4) (5) 47«5y(2010)

5 416 ká x Fig. 6. Total charge passed of concrete. Fig. 8. Compressive strength of concrete subjected to freezingthawing cycles. Fig. 7. Diffusion coefficient of concrete. w 1order y ùký en w ƒ w ùkû., gj p m w y d w, SF w gj p œ, 2 C-S-H ƒ, ITZ w en w j z ùkü., wz, wy gj p w,» d SF w gj p w ü y w q. ù, w p ü š w SF w w x ww v ƒ q gj p w w gj p w w gj p w œ» wœ», w œ»ƒ gj p s w w q y w w w. gj p 13,14) w w sƒ» gj p w y w sƒ w. x gj p w w sƒw ƒ, ³ y sƒ ASTM C 666, y w gj p k d w w w sƒw. w gj p ü w SF z sƒw» w ASTM C666 w SF-00 SF-10 gj p w w d w. gj p j( : 100 j, k : 30 j) k d w sƒ, Fig. 8 Fig. 9 ƒƒ ùkü. Fig. 8 SF w gj p y y w. w y (0 j) ƒ w gj p w j ƒw w ùk û. w, SF w SF-10 gj p w j ƒ SF w SF-00 gj p w j w ù kü. p, j SF-00 gj p 34.2 MPa 30.6 MPa ùkü, SF-10 g j p 200 j 12.6 MPa ùkü, 300 j w w w œ ƒ q d w. Fig j d w gj p k w wz

6 실리카퓸을 혼합한 시멘트 콘크리트의 역학적 특성 및 내구성 Fig. 9. Relative dynamic modulus of elasticity of concrete subjected to freezing-thawing cycles. 성계수를 나타낸 것이다. SF-00 콘크리트는 300사이클까 지 상대동탄성계수가 비교적 안정적인 경향을 보였으며, 300싸이클에서 약 90.3%의 값을 나타낸 반면, SF-10 콘 크리트는 동일 싸이클에서 약 67.5%의 비교적 낮은 상대 동탄성계수 값을 보임으로써, 동결융해저항성이 매우 떨 어지는 것으로 나타났다. 이상과 같이 SF를 사용한 콘크리트의 동결융해저항성이 감소하는 이유는 SF 혼합에 따라 콘크리트의 평균 공극크 기가 감소함으로써 동해과정시 콘크리트의 조직구조가 팽 창압을 크게 받았기 때문으로 판단된다. 그러나, Hooton 은 SF 콘크리트의 우수한 동결융해 저항성을 보고하기도 하였다. 결론적으로, 동결융해 작용을 받는 환경에 SF 콘크리트 를 사용할 경우, 초기 압축강도가 확보된 경우일지라도 콘크리트 배합, 연행 공기량 등에 따라 콘크리트의 동결 융해 저항성이 달라지기 때문에 내구성 설계시 세심한 주 의가 필요하다고 판단된다. 모르타르의 황산염침식 저항성 콘크리트구조물이 지하수, 산성토양 등과 같이 황산염이 온(SO )이 포함된 환경에 노출될 경우, 황산염이온은 콘 크리트 중의 수화물과 반응하여 여러 유해물질을 생성하 게 되며, 생성된 반응물질의 생성속도 및 농도에 따라 콘 크리트구조물의 내구성은 심각하게 저하되기도 한다. 특히, SF를 사용한 콘크리트의 황산염침식 저항성은 황 산염의 종류에 따라 성능저하 정도가 크게 달라지게 되 며, 주된 반응생성물도 변화한다고 보고되고 있다. 본 연구에서는 황산염의 종류 및 SF의 대체율을 변수로 하 여 모르타르의 황산염침식 저항성 실험을 수행하였다. Figs. 10 및 11은 양이온이 상이한 2종류 황산염 용액에 15,16) Fig Compressive strength of mortar exposed to 5% sodium sulfate solution. 14) ,18) 19) Fig. 11. Compressive strength of mortar exposed to 5% magnesium sulfate solution. 침지한 모르타르의 압축강도를 1년까지 침지재령별로 측정 하여 각각 나타낸 것이다. 5% 황산나트륨 용액에 침지한 모르타르의 압축강도를 측정한 것이 Fig. 10으로써, SF의 사용유무에 따라 침지재령별 압축강도 경향이 다르게 나타 났다. 다시 말해서, SF-00 모르타르의 침지재령 6개월의 압 축강도가 49.7 MPa인 반면, SF-5, SF-10 및 SF-15 모르타르 는 약 66~70 MPa의 높은 압축강도를 나타내었다. 또한, 침 지재령 12개월에서도 SF 사용 모르타르는 57 MPa 이상의 압축강도가 나타난 반면, SF-00 모르타르는 침지전 압축강 도(39.7 MPa)보다 낮은 32.1 MPa의 값을 나타내었다. 이상 의 실험결과로부터, 황산나트륨환경에서 SF를 사용한 모르 타르는 우수한 황산염침식 저항성을 나타냄을 확인할 수 있다. 한편, Fig. 11은 5% 황산마그네슘 용액에 침지한 모르타 제 47 권 제 5호(2010)

7 418 ká x w, Fig. 10 y ù p e w k w ùkù. w, SF ƒw ƒ j ùkû. p, SF-15 k e 6 e w ƒ w, x e 12 w. SF- 00 k e 12 ƒ 42.0 MPa, SF-15 k 26.9 MPa û ƒ ù kü. SF k ƒ y y w w x ùkù SF s w 2 C-S-Hƒ Mg w 2+ p M-C-S-H y» r p k q. 20) 4. ev w gj p(y k ) w p ü x š w, ev gj p w ùkû y w. p, gj p k w p ev z, s z, ITZ z w m gj p w j z ùkü., gj p k ACI 318 code w ùkû., gj p w w ev w j z ùkü, w y gj p ev z x w. ù, e{ gj p w œ s w q ƒ w w mgj p w ùkû. wr, k y e w x š w, y ùp y ev w k w j ƒw ùkû ù, y y w ùkû., ev gj p w, gj p w, y w w w v ƒ š q. REFERENCES 1. J. T. Song and J. H. Shin, Rheological Properties of Cement Pastes Containing Mineral Admixtures and Superplasticizer(in Korean), J. Kor. Ceram. Soc., 42 [11] (2005). 2. S. Wild, B. B. Sabir, and J. M. Khatib, Factors Influencing Strength Development of Concrete Containing Silica Fume, Cem. Concr. Res., 25 [7] (1995). 3. R. D. Hooton and M. P. Titherington, Chloride Resistance of High-Performance Concretes Subjected to Accelerated Curing, Cem. Concr. Res., 34 [9] (2004). 4. O. Kayali and B. Zhu. Corrosion Performance of Midium- Strength and Silica Fume High-Strength Reinforced Concrete in a Chloride Solution, Cem. Concr. Comp., 27 [1] (2005). 5. H. Yazici, The Effect of Silica Fume and High-Volume Class C Fly Ash on Mechanical Properties, Chloride Penetration and Freeze-Thaw Resistance of Self-Compacting Concrete, Const. Build. Mater., 22 [4] (2008). 6. NT BUILD 492, Concrete, Mortar and Cement-based Repair Materials: Chloride Migration Coefficient from Non- Steady-State Migration Experiments, pp.1-8,g Espoo Finland: Nordiest, S. Bhanja and B. Sengupta, Influence of Silica Fume on the Tensile Strength of Concrete, Cem. Concr. Res., 35 [4] (2005). 8. M. Ghrici, S. Kenai, and M. S. Mansour, Mechanical Properties and Durability of Mortar and Concrete Containing Natural Pozzolana and Limestone Blended Cements, Cem. Concr. Comp., 29 [7] (2007). 9. ACI Committee 318, Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete, p. 107, American Concrete Institute, M. Mazloom, A. A. Ramezanianpour, and J. J. Brooks, Effect of Silica Fume on Mechanical Properties of High-Strength Concrete, Cem. Concr. Comp., 26 [4] (2004). 11. H. W. Song, S. W. Pack, S. H. Nam, J. C. Jang, and V. Saraswathy, Estimation of the Permeability of Silica Fume Cement Concrete, Const. Build. Mater., 24 [3] (2010). 12. M. Shekarchi, A. Rafiee, and H. Layssi, Long-Term Chloride Diffusion in Silica Fume Concrete in Harsh Marine Cclimates, Cem. Concr. Comp., 31 [10] (2009). 13. G. Fagerlund, Frost Resistance of High Performance Concrete-Some Theoretical Considerations, Durability of High Performance Concrete: In Proceedings of the RILEM International Workshop; pp , Paris, France, R. D. Hooton, Influence of Silica Fume Replacement of Cement on Physical Properties and Resistance to Sulfate Attack, Freezing and Thawing and Alkali-Silica Reactivity, ACI Mater. J., 90 [2] (1993). 15. B. B. Sabir, Mechanical Properties and Frost Resistance of Silica Fume Concrete, Cem. Concr. Comp., 19 [4] (1997). 16. B. B. Sabir and K. Kouyiali, Freeze-Thaw Durability of Air-Entrained CSF Concrete, Cem. Concr. Comp., 13 [3] (1991). 17. M. Collepardi, Thaumasite Formation and Deterioration in Historic Buildings, Cem. Concr. Comp., 21 [2] (1999). 18. D. W. Hobbs and M. G. Taylor, Nature of the Thaumasite Sulfate Attack Mechanism in Field Concrete, Cem. Concr. Res., 30 [4] (2000). 19. S. T. Lee, H. Y. Moon, and R. N. Swamy, Sulfate Attack and Role of Silica Fume in Resisting Strength Loss, Cem. Concr. Comp., 27 [1] (2005). 20. O. S. B. Al-Amoudi, Attack on Plain and Blended Cements Exposed to Aggressive Sulfate Environments, Cem. Concr. Comp., 24 [3] (2002). w wz

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