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1 +,PSFBO4PD&OWJSPO&OH _ Original Paper IUUQTEPJPSH,4&& *44/F*44/ On-Site j h odœ t Research Trend for On-Site Soil Ecotoxicity Evaluation Methods for Field Soil Ð Dokyung Kim Shin Woong Kim Youn-Joo An p s vw p}s} Department of Environmental Health Science, Konkuk University (Received November 16, 2018; Revised January 22, 2019; Accepted January 22, 2019) Abstract : Soil ecosystems are highly vulnerable to contamination by pollutants generated by various human activities. However, soil is the medium on which the majority of agricultural activities are based, and consequently it is necessary to conduct soil ecotoxicity and risk assessments for field soils. Nevertheless, in the case of ecotoxicity assessment for on-site soil, it is difficult to directly evaluate the ecotoxicity of field soil, and thus such assessments are generally conducted under controlled conditions after pre-treatment in the laboratory. Accordingly, it would be highly desirable to evaluate the ecotoxicity of field soil. The purpose of this study was to classify soil ecotoxicity evaluation methods for on-site soil assessments; to survey foreign reports, domestic patents, international standards, and academic research; and to propose future directions for on-site ecological toxicity assessments for field soil. On the basis of our survey, we found the following relevant sources: seven foreign reports, two domestic patents, six international standards, and seven academic researchers. However, no single method has been used consistently in other studies and the ecotoxicity of soil in the field has not been actively evaluated. Therefore, in this study, we propose suitable directions for on-site soil ecotoxicity evaluation methods by considering the speed, efficiency, sensitivity and applicability of the methods. Key Words : Soil Ecosystem, Soil Ecotoxicity Assessment, On Site, Field Soil. ² e º jmò j j a³, mòî ² l ¼j Ð k faaj jº. l kø²l ¼j Ð fa l j l î Ñ æ l ز Õ k Ø l Ð faa º ² º. ô l ²l Ð faaj jº. ²l Ð fa ¼j, dk, h, j j Ù k ¼ j n l Ð fa ¼j k j²ä j º. 1Õ, 7Õ, dk2õ, h 6Õ, j 7Õ m Ø º. } Ù Ø j l Ð fa jm p º. ô ² } Ù ¼j j kùl Ð fa ¼j, n, q a³ î j k j º.., Ð fa, l fa, l 1. º jm k e Ú k º. dp m ¼j e زd j n a j jº. 1) º j k Ù, mòî Ða, Ùl ¼j j fa a jº. 2) ² ¼ j k} j î j Ð faj º. j mj Ð ÑÒ kj²è ²n, º j j j² ¼ j k j j² j a º. 3) l, î ² k dºj Ð ¼m j h l j Ð fa kj, Ð ² h l j º. 4) z h l l j ¼ l køð Ø º. j º jd e m º. 5) j d í ³ j, jº jd m m j jj ²ä Ùº. í, ² j, ph, j î ô mj, ¼jÐ j Corresponding author Tel: Fax:

2 126 +,PSFBO4PD&OWJSPO&OH Ð mjº. Ð fa²l j l ¼j k faj, ² d ³, n, lî l Õ lj º² j jº. h m International Organization of Standardization (ISO) ² 2017 Soil quality Procedure for site-specific ecological risk assessment of soil contamination (soil quality TRIAD approach) 6) j fa j TRIAD hj l v j º. TRIAD ka³j l j l a³j Ð j º. Ðl ¼ l Ð f aj² h î j º. 7) ²l kùl Ð f a ¼j a, dk, j î j mj º. l Ð f a j² Õ ¼j j kn ز l Ð fa k j j º. 2. l Ð fa Òk 2.1. a l Ð faòk ² a l Ð faò k faj k, j á j º. ² m mj j m Õv fa } 8) º j l Ð fa kjä,, m î Ðl ¼j Ð fa ¼j j j º.,, º, m, bb 2, 3, 1, 1Õ a Ù ä m Ø º(Table 1) m mj j m Õv fa } 8) ² l Õv fa (KoRean soil-health assessment and Management System, KRISMAS) m j, m, } ¼ j Õv faj j º. 7º Õv fa j Õv j ³ fa j j,, º, j b k¼j² h j Õv j º. j } Ù j d ºj j, º j,, j l kj º m m (United States Environmental Protection Agency, USEPA) ej Ecological Assessment of Hazardous Waste Sites: A Field and Laboratory Reference 9) ² kf Ð k fa ¼j j j º. l ô fa º j, } Ð, º, j ³, kò j m î Ð j º. l Ð f aa l j² º m jñ l j² j j²ä j º. Toxicity testing of soils contaminated with gasoline, diesel, and heavy oil 10) ² ¼j Ð fa kj º. d j j, l k ph, Ð, m, d, Ð, l k (Total Organic Carbon, TOC), l(solid), ò j, a j, a³j m (Extractable Petroleum Hydrocarbons, EPH), o m (Volatile Petroleum Hydrocarbons, VPH) j j º. j j l (Lactuca sativa) (Eisenia fetida) j Ð fa kj º. ², } Õ j Table 1. 3FQPSUT PG GPSFJHO DPVOUSJFT GPS POTJUF TPJM FDPUPYJDJUZ UFTU $PVOUSZ 3FQPSU.BOBHJOHEFQBSUNFOU :FBS 6OJUF4UBUFT $BOBEB p&dpmphjdbm"ttfttnfoupg)b[bsepvt8btuf4juft"'jfmeboe-bcpsbupsz3fgfsfodf p5pyjdjuzuftujohpgtpjmtdpoubnjobufexjuihbtpmjofejftfmboeifbwzpjm 64&1" 64&1" p&wbmvbujpopgb4pjm2vbmjuz5ftu,jugps"mcfsub ""'3% p#jpmphjdbmuftunfuipe5ftugpsnfbtvsjohfnfshfodfboehspxuipgufssftusjbmqmboutfyqptfe UPDPOUBNJOBOUTJOTPJM &OWJSPONFOU$BOBEB p#jpmphjdbmuftunfuipe5ftugpsnfbtvsjohtvswjwbmboesfqspevdujpopgtqsjohubjmtfyqptfeup DPOUBNJOBOUTJOTPJM &OWJSPONFOU$BOBEB %FQBSUNFOUPG1SJNBSZ "VTUSBMJB p5ppmtboe4ztufntgpsbttfttjohtpjmifbmui *OEVTUSJFT /FUIFSMBOET p3fwjtfeqspqptbmgpsuifsjtlbttfttnfoupgqfstjtufodfpgqmbouqspufdujpoqspevdutjotpjm 3*7. Journal of KSEE Vol.41, No.3 March, 2019

3 +,PSFBO4PD&OWJSPO&OH 0O4JUF Ð fa Òk 127, burrowing î l j Ð fa ²,, l, î j º º º } j USDA-ARS (United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service) Soil Kit 11) j l, mj, j d Ðj º. 12) mp,, j Ð, k, вl j, ph, EC, m, º j j j l j² ä j º. USDA-ARS Soil Kit Ð l l j m j j² h Ð m j² j º. j Biological test method: Test for measuring emergence and growth of terrestrial plants exposed to contaminants in soil 12) ² l º j j Ð fa kj² j º. ô l, l j l lj² j l j,, Õ,, l î jä j º. Biological test method: Test for measuring survival and reproduction of springtails exposed to contaminants in soil 13) ²Folsomia candida, Orthonychiurus folsomi, Folsomia fimetaria, Proisotoma minuta 4 jð fa j º. l lj² l j l l kj²ä j l n ²6 l kjð j º m m ² Tools and Systems for assessing soil health 14) j Õv faj jð k î ¼j p j º. ², mj, Ð, È î j Õv faj² j dp j d j Õv f aj² ¼j p j º. º a USDA soil quality test kit j² j ¼ Ù Õv faj Ð }, ÙHealthy Soils for Sustainable Farms soil health test kit j º. j l Õv faj ²16a j º. 16a Ð Ð h Ð î gjj º. î m m j² 14a m Ø h Ð faj² 2a Ø º Æ ì² Revised proposal for the risk assessment of persistence of plant protection products in soil 15) kplant protection products î j m j Ð fa j º., mj d faj² î, j j Ð fa k j º. dp k³ ô Ð l j² ¼j j, k Ð Ð ô j Ð jº. l Ð l ¼j l, l, l, l, l, litter bag lî j º. l l ¼ j l j² jð j, e fa¼ Ð d ô l a jð j f 1 Ò jº. l ² h Ð,, î jð jº. l l, l l l ¼ja ì j l kj ² l j º. jlitter bag l Ù l j² ä j º l Ð faòk h mòk h mòk dk á k Ø º. ¼k jíð faj Ð } Ùdk2Õ j ² j Ð ¼jdk² j ä Ø º. h j m fa 16) Ù ² d m l mî gjj² j l h, l g (apoptosis), f º n m fa j k lð mj k faj º. ò (Folsomia candida) Ð ³ j Ð 17) Ù ò n, mj d j Ð Ð, Ð Ð aq j Ð d j Ð faj² j º. ò Ð g Ðj º d j l Ð faj º h mòk l l a³j Ð j Ù la ì º z, llm(american Society of Testing Materials, ASTM), ¼jm jm 41 3m

4 128 +,PSFBO4PD&OWJSPO&OH Ð ISO, l } (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD), USEPA î h l j º. ISO Õv Ù h l, OECD USEPA, ASTM l j Ð fa j²h l Ø º. º h l Ø l faj Ð j h l ISO USEPA j 6 Õ j ä m Ø º. USEPA hj OCSPP : Field Testing for Terrestrial Wildlife 18) Ù Ò ¼j î k fa kj j k j º. l fa k j²mj ÑÒ, Ð, º î j }j, l faî j º. jl n, lî m j² ¼j j º. j, OCSPP : Terrestrial Plants Field Study 19) ² ¼j l } j º. l (texture), ph, Ð, (partition coefficient) î d j j l ô l e l j k j² ä jº. j, l e Ò m Õ( Ð, Ð, Ð, v î) j ä j º. ¼j l ²,, º, ², Õ, n ¼, Ð k, gð, h Ð î jº. ISO ² Soil quality-avoidance test for determining the quality of soils and effects of chemicals on behaviour-part 1: Test with earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei) 20) Soil quality-avoidance test for determining the quality of soils and effects of chemicals on behaviour-part 2: Test with collembolans (Folsomia candida) 21) j l ¼ ²Ð faj²h l j º. ² ¼j mj³ Ð jä, l j l lj² ¼j j º. jf, l k fa j h Soil quality Procedure for site-specific ecological risk assessment of soil contamination (soil quality TRIAD approach) 6) 2017 hø º. h l j² soil quality TRIAD approach ² 5º Ø, 1º, Ð gjj m,,, î a ¼j TRIAD k fajº. 2 º fa j Õ ¼j m j, 3º ², j, î j Tier (I-III) fa,, l î kjº. 4º ¼j TRIAD k j m fa a k jj² º, 5º ² ¼j k ( q¼, m î) jº l Ð fa j Òk l Ð fa ¼j j Ð fa l j Ø º., l ¼ l Ð fa kj ² º 6Õ m Ø.,, j abb2, 3, 1Õ m Ø º(Table 2). ² j mjj² k, 7,20,22) z d j l Ð fa } Ø º. Natal-da-luz î 23) Þ} j d l ¼ ¼ (Eisenia andrei) mj j º. Kim î 24), a j d ¼» l æ, mj, j l Ð fa kj º. j Antunes î 7) j d j Ð fa kj n m j mj Table 2. 0OTJUFTPJMFDPUPYJDJUZUFTUTUVEJFTPOGJFMETPJM 5FTUTQFDJFT &OEQPJOU &YQPTVSFEVSBUJPO 3FGFSFODF &JTFOJBBOESFJ #JPDIFNJDBMNBSLFS IPVST "OUVOFTFUBM &BSUIXPSN &JTFOJBBOESFJ "WPJEBODFCFIBWJPS IPVST /BUBMEBMV[FUBM &JTFOJBBOESFJ #VSSPXJOHBOEBWPJEBODFCFIBWJPS IPVST,JNFUBM $PMMFNCPMB 'PMTPNJBDBOEJEB 4VSWJWBM3FQSPEVDUJPO PSEBZT 4NJUFUBM 'PMTPNJBDBOEJEB "WPJEBODFCFIBWJPS IPVST /BUBMEBMV[FUBM $IMBNZEPNPOBTSFJOIBSEUJJ $IMPSPQIZMMJOUFOTJUZ IPVST /BNBO"O 4PJMNJDSPCF 4PJMNJDSPCFJOGJFME 'FFEJOHBDUJWJUZ $SPTTMFZFUBM 4PJMNJDSPCFJOGJFME 'FFEJOHBDUJWJUZ EBZT,SBUT 4PJMNJDSPCFJOGJFME 'FFEJOHBDUJWJUZ EBZT $BTBCFFUBM Journal of KSEE Vol.41, No.3 March, 2019

5 +,PSFBO4PD&OWJSPO&OH 0O4JUF Ð fa Òk 129 j º. Smit î 25) 10 } mùj d l ò (Folsomia candida) j l Ð fa kjæ j º. Natal-da-luz î 23) mj l Ò jí l Ðmj j l Ð fa kj º. jf ¼j Ð l l m jí j º² j jº. 26,27) Nam and An 28) f fò p j j j² ØÐ j² l } j, l j º. 29) l ¼j m faj j ² 3 Õ m Ø º. 30~32) m Ù3Õ ²l j² mò j Ð fa kj º. Crossley î 30) a l æ n Ñj ì j Ù j, Kratz 31) PVC d j ² Ñj Ù j º. Casabé î 32) Þa Þ j l Ð fa kj º. 3. l Ð Òk kn k l Ð j ² 2Õ, º3Õ, m 1Õ, Æ ì1õ m Ø º. dk 2Õ Ø h 6Õ a ì m Ø j 6Õ Ø º. 6Õ l ¼j fa ¼j j ²È l } º Õv, m fajñ l j l Ð fa k j² j º. h jl j l faj² Ð fa ¼j jñ l Õv fa ¼j j º. jfj l faj² lj l j Ð fa kjñ } j Ð fa l j í m Ø º. h gjj 1962 l Ð fa ¼j a kø } Ù í m Ø ² j²ä d Ø º. ²l l l kj² j l Õ a, l kø² Ð fa d ô, n, q, a³ î º j Õ k j º. jf ² l ز e l k j² í l ¼j a jm ä j º. 7,33~36) e Ð fa ز l Ð,, Ò î n j Ù º. jf l Ð f qð j k¼ f qða l p l j º. ô l l l a l Ð Ð s - î j jí ² m زä j jº. jl l n, lî º jí j l Õ j, bl a³ jð Ð fa } k j ä º. 4. ²l Ð fa kj lm, dklm, h, j ¼j, j j n} Ø jl Ð fa w j Õí j j º. l kùl Ð fa,,, g jj j ä m j º. dp j,, î j º j l Ð fa } j º. ¼jj ²m Ù a ²È l Ð fa kj 1 kj j Ð fajñ Õv faj j² m Ø º. l Ð fa ¼j ²º j j kø } Ù k Ø l Ð faj²è Ø ²º²j º. j k ² } j, n, q a³ î j kj²ä j jä Ùº. Acknowledgement j j º d Š º i d } kù (2016M3A6A ). ¼jm jm 41 3m

6 130 +,PSFBO4PD&OWJSPO&OH Ð References 1. Jeong, S.-W. and An, Y.-J., Soil Investigation Strategies for Soil Risk Assessment, J. Soil Groundw. Environ., 12 (1), 36~43(2007). 2. O halloran, K., Toxicological Considerations of Contaminants in the Terrestrial Environment for Ecological Risk Assessment, Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess., 12, 74~83(2006). 3. Nam, S.-H. and An, Y.-J., Review of the Extraction Methods of Soil Extracts, Soil Elutriates, and Soil Suspensions for Ecotoxicity Assessments, J. Soil Groundw. Environ., 19(3), 15~24(2014). 4. Nam, S.-H. and An, Y.-J., Investigation of Korean Native Organisms for Development of Ecotoxicity Test : (2) Soil Test Species, J. Korean Soc. Environ. Eng., 40(1), 48~57 (2018). 5. Chea, Y., Kim, S. W., Kwak, J. I., Yoon Y., Jeong, S.-W. and An, Y.-J., A Comparative study of Assessment Techniques for Soil Ecosystem Health: Focusing on Assessment Factors of Soil Health, J. Soil Groundw. Environ., 20(3), 15~24(2015). 6. International Organization for Standardization (ISO), ISO Soil quality Procedure for site-specific ecological risk assessment of soil contamination (soil quality TRIAD approach), International Organization for Standardization (2005). 7. Antunes, S. C., Castro, B. B., Nunes, B., Pereira, R. and Goncalves, F., In situ bioassay with Eisenia andrei to assess soil toxicity in an abandoned uranium mine, Ecotox. Environ. Safe., 71, 620~631(2008). 8. Ministry of Environment, Development of soil health assessment technology for heavy metal contaminated soil after physicochemical treatments, (2017). 9. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Ecological Assessment of Hazardous Waste Sites: A Field and Laboratory Reference, (1991). 10. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Toxicity testing of soils contaminated with gasoline, diesel, and heavy oil, (2016). 11. Environment Canada, Evaluation of a Soil Quality Test Kit for Alberta, (2005). 12. Environment Canada, Biological test method: Test for measuring emergence and growth of terrestrial plants exposed to contaminants in soil, (2005). 13. Environment Canada, Biological test method: Test for measuring survival and reproduction of springtails exposed to contaminants in soil, (2014). 14. Department of Primary Industries, Tools and Systems for assessing soil health, (2009). 15. National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Revised proposal for the risk assessment of persistence of plant protection products in soil, (2008). 16. Kim, Y. and Ryoo, K. S., KR Patent No Korean Intellectual Property Office(2007). 17. An, Y.-J. and Kim, S.-W., KR Patent No Korean Intellectual Property Office(2013). 18. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), OCSPP : Field Testing for Terrestrial Wildlife, (2012). 19. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), OCSPP : Terrestrial Plants Field Study, (2012). 20. International Organization for Standardization (ISO), ISO Soil quality-avoidance test for determining the quality of soils and effects of chemicals on behaviour-part 1: Test with earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei). 21. International Organization for Standardization (ISO), ISO Soil quality-avoidance test for determining the quality of soils and effects of chemicals on behaviour-part 2: Test with collembolans (Folsomia candida). 22. Hund-Rinke, K. and Wiechering, H., Earthworm avoidance test for soil assessments: an alternative for acute and reproduction tests, J. Soils Sediment, 1, 15~20(2001). 23. Natal-da-Luz, T., Rombke, J. and Sousa, J. P., Avoidance tests in site-specific risk assessment-influence of soil properties on the avoidance response of collombola and earthworms, Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 27(5), 1112~1117(2008). 24. Kim, S. W., Kim, D., Moon, J., Chae, Y., Kwak, J. I., Park, Y., Jeong, S.-W., An, Y.-J., Earthworm dispersal assay for rapidly evaluating soil quality, Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 36(10), 2766~2772(2017). 25. Smit, C. E., van Beelen, P., van Gestel, C. A. M., Development of zinc bioavailability and toxicity for the springtail Folsomia candida in an experimentally contaminated field plot, Environ. Pollut., 98(1), 73~80(1997). 26. International Organization for Standardization (ISO), ISO Soil quality Effects of contaminants on Enchytraeidae (Enchytraeus sp.) Determination of effects on reproduction, (2014). 27. International Organization for Standardization (ISO), ISO Soil quality Determination of the effects of pollutants on soil flora Screening test for emergence of lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa L.), (2005). 28. Nam, S.-H. and An, Y.-J., Paper-disc method: An efficient assay for evaluating metal toxicity tosoil algae, Environ. Pollut., 216, 1~8(2016). 29. Nam, S.-H., Moon, J., Kim, S. W., Kim, H., Jeong, S.- W., An, Y.-J., Rapid in situ assessment for predicting soil quality usingan algae-soaked disc seeding assay, Environ. Monit. Assess., 189, 637(2017). 30. Crossley, D. A. and Hoglund M. P., A Litter-Bag Method for the Study of Microarthropods Inhabiting Leaf Litter, Ecology, 43(3), 571~573(1962). 31. Kratz W., The Bait-Lamina Test, Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., 5(2), 94~96(1998). 32. Casabé, N., Piola1, L., Fuchs, J., Oneto1, M. L., Pamparato, L., Basack, S., Giménez, R., Massaro, R., Papa, Journal of KSEE Vol.41, No.3 March, 2019

7 +,PSFBO4PD&OWJSPO&OH 0O4JUF Ð fa Òk 131 J. C. and Kesten, E., Ecotoxicological Assessment of the Effects of Glyphosate and Chlorpyrifos in an Argentine Soya Field, J. Soils Sediment, 7(4), 232~239(2007). 33. Ratliff, L. F., Ritchie, J. T. and Cassel, D. K., Field- Measured Limits of Soil Water Availability as Related to Laboratory-Measured Properties, Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 47(4), 770~775(1983). 34. Entin, J. K., Robock, A., Vinnikov, K. Y., Holinger, S. E., Liu, S. and Namkhai, A., Temporal and spatial scales of observed soil moisture variations in the extratropics, J. Geophys. Res-Atmos, 105(9), 11865~11877(2000). 35. Western, A. W., Grayson, R. B. and Blöschl, G., Scaling of soil moisture: A hydrologic perspective, Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 30, 149~180(2002). 36. Cao, R., Jia, X., Huang, L., Zhu, Y., Wu, L. and Shao, M., Deep soil water storage varies with vegetation type and rainfall amount in the Loess Plateau of China, Sci. Rep., 8, 12346(2018). ¼jm jm 41 3m

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