THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE May; 26(5),

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1 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE May; 26(5), ISSN (Print) ISSN X (Online) TACAN Optimization of Broadband Antenna Parasitic Elements for TACAN 박상진 구경헌 Sang Jin Park Kyung Heon Koo* 요약 (Tactical Air Navigation). 15 Hz 135 Hz, MIL-STD-291C., Hz Hz., MIL-STD-291C. Abstract This paper describes the design optimization of parasitic elements used for TACAN broadband antenna. We deployed parasitic elements arranged in a circular array to electronically rotate the antenna instead of employing a mechanically rotated antenna to generate the composite radiation pattern of 15 Hz and 135 Hz including bearing information and to meet the harmonic contents specification of MIL-STD-291C. We performed the simulation for optimization of the parasitic elements and fabricated the antenna composed of 16 parasitic elements of 15 Hz and 63 parasitic elements of 135 Hz. With harmonics magnitude reduction by increasing the number of steps using vector composition of the reflectors, the measured result meets the specification of MIL-STD-291C. Key words: TACAN, Harmonic Contents, Parasitic Element, PIN Diode, Vector Composition. 서론 TACAN(Tactical Air Navigation), ( mile) [1]. TACAN,. TACAN DME(Distance Measuring Equipment) VHF VOR(Very high frequency Omni-directional Range),, ,025 MHz 1,151 1,213 MHz. 126 (1 MHz ) (Korea Airports Corporation) * (Department of Electronics Engineering, Incheon National University) Manuscript received April 20, 2015 ; Revised May 11, 2015 ; Accepted May 11, (ID No ) Corresponding Author: Kyung Heon Koo ( c Copyright The Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science. All Rights Reserved. 483

2 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 26, no. 5, May 2015., [2]., TACAN. 15 Hz 135 Hz, MIL-STD-291C. 36, 54, 63, TACAN,.,.. TACAN 의기본방사패턴형성 2-1 기생소자의반사기와도파기동작 1 λ/4,. 그림 1. Fig. 1. Basic configuration using parasitic elements. 그림 2. Fig. 2. Radiation pattern with parastics. λ/2,.. 2 1,020 MHz,,,,. 1,. 3 TACAN [3] [6]. 3(a) 1 15 Hz Hz. 3(b) 15 Hz. 15 Hz, 15 Hz 15 Hz. 3(c) Hz 9, 15 Hz 135 Hz. 3(d) 15 Hz 135 Hz, 15 Hz 15 Hz 135 Hz. 484

3 TACAN (a) (b) (a) Antenna location (b) Cardioid pattern 그림 4. TACAN Fig. 4. Mechanical TACAN antenna. (c) 9 (c) Nine lobe pattern (d) (d) Composite pattern (e) (e) Composite pattern on cartesian coordinates 그림 3. Fig. 3. Radiation pattern of reflector position. 3(e) 15 Hz 135 Hz.. 설계및전산모의실험 15 Hz Hz 표 1. MIL-STD-291C Table 1. Harmonic contents of MIL-STD-291C Hz RMS sum of 2 nd to 6 th 20 % Hz RMS sum of 2 nd to 6 th 15 % 900 RPM(Revolutions Per Minute) TACAN. 4 db systems AS-4052T. TACAN 15 Hz 135 Hz, PIN Diode TACAN. 1 TACAN 15 Hz 135 Hz [7]. 3(c) 9 9, Hz 기생소자개수에따른전산모의실험 Hz 36 (

4 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 26, no. 5, May 그림 Fig. 5. Configuration composed of 36 parasitic elements. ). 5 36, 40 9, 15 Hz 135 Hz. 9, 27, 2 mm 30 db [8] [10]. 6(a) 135 Hz, 4. 6(b) 135 Hz 7., % 15 %. 3, 29.5 %. 7(a) (a) 135 Hz (a) Waveform of 135 Hz (b) 그림 Fig. 7. Signal analysis for 54 parasitic elements. 9, 15 Hz Hz. 7(b) 135 Hz 7., %, 15 %. 5, 17.7 %. 8(a) , 15 Hz Hz. 8(b) 135 Hz 7., % 15 %, 6 (a) 135 Hz (a) Waveform of 135 Hz (b) 그림 Fig. 6. Signal analysis for 36 parasitic elements. (a) 135 Hz (a) Waveform of 135 Hz (b) 그림 Fig. 8. Signal analysis for 63 parasitic elements. 486

5 TACAN (a) 135 Hz (a) Waveform of 135 Hz (b) 그림 Fig. 9. Signal analysis for 72 parasitic elements %. 9(a) , 15 Hz Hz. 9(b) 135 Hz 7., % 15 %, Ansys HFSS, PEC(Perfectly Electrical Conduct) ,213 MHz, 50 MHz, CPU i , 8 GB 그림 Fig. 11. Configuration composed of 63 parasitic elements Hz 9, 54, 63, %, Hz 기생소자전산모의실험 Hz 36 (9 4 ) , 135 Hz (a) 135 Hz, , 13(b) (a) 1 (b) 2 (a) Operation of 1 reflector (b) Operation of 2 reflectors 그림 Fig. 10. The simulation result of nine-lobe pattern. 그림 12. Fig. 12. Composition of vector. 487

6 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 26, no. 5, May 파형 (a) 135 Hz (a) Wavorm of 135 Hz 스펙트럼 (b) 개 기생소자의 스텝에 대한 신호분석 그림 Fig. 13. Signal analysis for 14 steps of 63 parasitic elements. 반사기 패턴과 반사기 패턴 비교 그림 Fig. 14. Comparison of 1 reflector s pattern and 2 reflectors s pattern. 에 대하여 7차까지의 하모닉 성분 크기를 볼 수 있 다 이때 차부터 7차까지의 하모닉 성분이 미세한 것을 확인할 수 있다. 그림 14는 1개의 반사기 동작에 대한 방사 패턴과 2개 의 반사기 동작에 대한 방사 패턴을 비교한 것으로, 2개 의 반사기 동작에 따른 벡터 합성으로 생성된 방사패턴 이 이득이 위아래 1 db 정도 큰 것을 확인할 수 있다. 제작된 안테나 형상 그림 15. TACAN Fig. 15. Configuration of fabricated TACAN antenna. 로 구성하고, 135 Hz 기생소자는 Low 대역, Middle 대역, High 대역으로 나누어 63개 3열로 구성하였다. 핀 다이오드는 OFF 시 아이솔레이션을 크게 확보하기 위해 2개를 직렬로 연결하였다. 기생소자 제작에 사용된 기판은 1.0 mm 두께의 FR-4를 이용하였다. 그림 16은 제작된 안테나의 실물 형상으로 15 Hz 기생 소자는 15개 2열, 135 Hz 기생소자는 63 3열로 구성된다. 그림 17은 63개의 기생소자에 의해 생성된 135 Hz의 검파 신호를 보여준다. 135 Hz 한 주기가 7스텝으로 구성 된 것을 확인할 수 있다. 그림 18은 135 Hz의 2차부터 6차까지의 하모니 성분을 줄이기 위해 반사기를 순차적으로 1개와 2개씩 교대로 동작시켜 7스텝에서 14스텝으로 증가시킨 파형을 보여 135 Hz.,2 Ⅳ. 제작 및 측정 본 논문에서 광대역에 대하여 특성을 만족시키기 위해 그림 15의 형상에 대한 전산모의실험 결과에 따라 15 Hz 기생소자는 Low 대역과 High 대역으로 나누어 16개 2열 488 제작된 안테나 형상 그림 16. TACAN Fig. 16. Configuration of fabricated TACAN antenna.

7 용 광대역 안테나 기생소자 최적화 TACAN 스텝을 갖는 검파된 포락선 신호 스텝을 갖는 검파된 포락선 신호 그림 Hz Fig. 17. Detected envelop signal of 135 Hz signal with 7 steps. 그림 Hz Fig. 18. Detected envelop signal of 135 Hz signal with 14 steps. 준다. 기생소자 1개와 2개 동작에 따른 이득 차이가 우측 그림에서 보여진다. 그림 19는 15 Hz와 135 Hz가 합성된 신호와 검파한 신 호를 보여준다. 15 Hz 트리거 신호를 통해 검파된 합성신 호의 15 Hz 와 135 Hz 성분을 확인할 수 있으며, 135 Hz 에 대하여 14개의 스텝으로 구성된 것을 확인할 수 있다. 그림 20은 광대역에 대한 TACAN 방사 패턴 측정 결과 로서, 15 Hz와 135 Hz의 정상적인 합성 패턴을 보여준다. 표 2는 15 Hz 기생소자는 16개 2열, 135 Hz 기생소자 는 63개 3열로 제작된 안테나에 대하여 135 Hz의 스텝을 7스텝에서 14스텝으로 증가시킴에 따라 요구 규격을 만 족하고, 개선된 결과를 보여준다. 계단식 파형과 관련하여 스위칭 소자로 사용된 핀 다 합성신호의 검파 신호 그림 Hz Hz Fig. 19. Detected envelop signal of 15 Hz Hz composite signal. 광대역에 대하여 측정된 합성 패턴 그림 20. Fig. 20. Measured composite pattern over broadband. 규격 및 하모닉 성분의 측정 결과 표 2. TACAN Table 2. TACAN specification and the measured result of harmonic contents. 항목 15 Hz 135 Hz 규격(MIL-STD-291C) 7스텝 1.90 % RMS sum of 2 to 6 15 % % RMS sum of 2nd to 6th 20 % nd th 스텝 % 6.21 % 이오드와 핀 다이오드의 바이어스 전압을 조정하는 FET 스위치의 스위칭 동작에 따른 상승시간(rising time)과 하 강시간(falling time), 그리고, 오버슈팅(overshooting)으로 인하여 측정된 계단식 파형이 전산모의실험 파형과 차이 가 발생함으로써 전산모의실험의 하모닉 성분 크기와 차 이가 발생하였다. 489

8 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 26, no. 5, May 결론 TACAN 135 Hz , Hz 135 Hz,, 72, 15 Hz 135 Hz. 63,., 63., 15 Hz 135 Hz, MIL-STD-291C.,,. References [1] W. L. Garfield, "TACAN : A navigation system for aircraft", IEE Proceedings - Part B: Radio and Electronic Engineering, vol. 105, issue 9, Part S, pp , [2],, " TACAN ",, vol. 26, no. 1, pp , [3] E. J. Christopher, "Electronically scanned TACAN antenna", IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. AP-22, pp , Jan [4] L. N. Shestag, "Cylindrical array for the TACAN system", IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. AP-22, pp , Jan [5] G. Greving, R. Zeitz, "Concept and experimental verification of a new electronic TACAN antenna", European Microwave Conference, pp , [6] C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory : Analysis and Design, 3 rd ed., New York: Wiley, [7] MIL-STD-291C, Military Standard Tactical Air Navigation(TACAN) Signal, Feb [8] J. T. Rayno, S. K. Sharma, "Frequency reconfigurable spirograph plannar monopole(spma)", Proceeding ISAP, pp , [9] B. Chang, Y. Qian, "A reconfigurable leaky mode/patch antenna controlled by PIN diodes switches", IEEE AP-S Int. Symp. Digest, pp , [10] M. F. Ismail, M. K. A. Rahim, "The Invesigation of PIN diode switch on reconfigurable antenna", IEEE International RF and Microwave Conference, pp , Dec

9 TACAN : ( ) : ( ) : : : [ 주관심분야 ],, 1981 : ( ) 1983 : ( ) 1991 : ( ) : UC San Diego : 1997 :,,,,,, 1987 : [ 주관심분야 ],, RF, 491

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