THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE May; 29(5),

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1 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE May; 29(5), ISSN (Print) ISSN X (Online) Development of Polarization-Controllable Active Phased Array Antenna for Receiving Satellite Broadcasting 최진영 이호선 공동욱 전종훈 Jin-Young Choi Ho-Seon Lee Tong-Ook Kong Jong-Hoon Chun 요약 GHz Ku MFC(Multi-Function Core),., 60. Abstract We herein present a study on the active phased array antenna for receiving satellite broadcasting that can electrically align its polarization to that of target transmitters in its moving condition or in the Skew angle arrangement of the broadcasting satellite receiver. Hence, we have developed an active phased array structure composed of the self-developed Vivaldi antenna and multifunction core (MFC) chip, receiving RF front end module, and control units. In particular, the new Vivaldi antenna designed in the Ku-band of GHz to receive one desired polarization mode such as the horizontal or vertical by means of an MFC chip and other control units that can control the amplitude and phase of each antenna element. The test results verified that cross-polarization property is 20 db or higher and the primary beam can be scanned clearly at approximately ±60. Key words: Active Phased Array Antenna, MFC Chip, Vivaldi Antenna, Controllable Polarization, Ku Band Satellite. 서론 TV, Line of Sight..,. HFSS. (RFcore Co., Ltd.) Manuscript received March 16, 2018 ; Revised April 17, 2018 ; Accepted May 3, (ID No ) Corresponding Author: Jong-Hoon Chun ( c Copyright The Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science. All Rights Reserved. 325

2 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 29, no. 5, May [1],[2], MMIC [3],[4], GHz Ku 60, MFC(Multi-Function Core). [5] [8], (cross polarization).. MFC 칩의설계및제작 1(a) MFC. (LNA), (DA), 6 bit, 5 bit. BGR(Bandgap Voltage Reference), LDO (Low-Drop Out),. MFC 그림 1. MFC Fig. 1. MFC chip. (a) MFC (a) Block diagram of MFC chip (b) MFC (b) Picture of manufactured MFC chip 1(b) TSMC(Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company) 65 nm. 2(a) (c) 1 MFC GHz db, -10 db. 2(d) MFC 3.5 db. MFC 2(e) (f). 6-bit , 5- bit 0 31 db 1 db. 2.. MFC 1,,.. 안테나의설계및제작. Ku GHz GHz GHz Ku, 2., VSAT(Very Small Aperture Terminal). 3(b) PCB open 50 Ω, 2,. (magnetic coupling) (balun) 2 326

3 (a) (a) Small signal gain property (b) (b) Input reflection coefficient property (c) (c) Output reflection coefficient property (d) (d) Noise figure property (e) (e) Phase control property 그림 2. MFC Fig. 2. MFC chip measurement results. balanced. 3(c) 12.3 mm 10.7 GHz, 60 grating lobe. 3(a) Back-to-Back (f) (f) Gain control property balun, 3(b) exponential. ground, 3(b) PCB 327

4 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 29, no. 5, May 표 1. MFC Table 1. MFC specification. Frequency Small signal gain Input / Output return loss Noise figure Measurement result GHz db Input : 8 db / Output : 15 db 3.5 db Phase control 6 bit, Gain control (a) (a) Balun (b) (b) Basic Vivaldi antenna 5 bit, 0 31 db (c) (c) Final Vivaldi antenna. 3(c). 3(b), 3(c) E H. E PEC(Perfect Electric Conductor), H PMC(Perfect Magnetic Conductor), GHz 15 db. PCB 3(d), PCB RO4003(t=0.2 mm). Ground, 4, (excitation) [9].. N, S ij i j. a j, x j y j j. 5 (d) PCB (d) PCB dimension 그림 3. Fig. 3. Design process of Vivaldi antenna. ground, ground 2 그림 4. Fig. 4. Single Vivaldi antenna simulation. 328

5 편파가변 위성 방송 수신용 능동 위상 배열 안테나 개발 사계수 계산 결과이며, 설계된 비발디 안테나는 E면 방향 또는 H면 방향으로 60 의 최대 빔 조향 각도에서 0.5 정 도의 최소 반사계수 특성을 갖지만, ±45 이내의 빔 조향 각도 범위 내에서는 GHz까지 대체적으로 양 호한 0.3 정도 이내의 반사계수 특성을 보인다. sin cos sin sin 비발디 안테나의 삼각 배열 (a) (a) Triangular array of Vivaldi antenna 그림 3(c)의 최종 설계된 안테나는 그림 6과 같이 제작 형상을 수정하여, 하나의 기구물에 4개의 단일 비발디 안 테나가 존재하며, 동시에 서로 수직 배치하여 2개의 선형 편파 특성을 동시에 갖도록 한다. 이와 같이 제작된 안테 나는 그림 7(a)와 같이 삼각배열의 방식으로 안테나를 배 열하도록 한다. 통상적으로 비발디 안테나의 삼각 배열 방 식은 grating lobe를 효과적으로 억제하기 위한 가장 효율적 배열 외곽 치수 (b) 256 (b) Dimensions of 256 array 비발디 안테나 배열 형상 그림 7. Fig. 7. Configuration of Vivaldi antenna array. 능동 반사계수 그림 5. Fig. 5. Active return loss. 비발디 안테나 제작 형상 그림 6. Fig. 6. Configuration of fabricated Vivaldi antenna. 인 방식이나, 본 논문에서는 그림 7에서 표기한 것과 같 이 45 간격의 4개의 편파(편파#1 편파#4)를 전기적으로 제어하여 구현하기 위한 방법으로 삼각배열 방식을 채택 하였다. 제작하고자 하는 256 배열 안테나는 그림 7(b)와 같이 mm 방사 개구면을 가지며, 외곽의 더 미 안테나를 포함하여 mm 의 면적을 가진다. 2 2 Ⅳ. 능동 위상 배열 안테나의 제작 앞서 설명한 MFC 칩과 비발디 안테나를 이용하여 빔조 향 및 편파가변이 가능한 16 16배열 규모의 수신용 능동 위상 배열 안테나를 구현하였다. 그림 8은 그 구성도이다. 전원 경로를 살펴보면 외부 전원공급기로부터 12 V를 입 력받아 제어조립체를 직접 구동하는 한편, 전원/제어분배 기를 통하여 MFC 및 온도센서 동작에 필요한 5 V, 2.5 V, 1.2 V로 변환되어 각 수신 모듈로 분배된다. RF 신호 경로를 살펴보면 256개의 복사소자로부터 입력 329

6 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 29, no. 5, May MFC RF. PC RS232. / MFC (L) 34.8(W) 12(H) mm. PCB 16 PCB 16 1 MFC PCB 1.. MFC 20.,. 16., / RF RF. 10. / 12 V 5 V, 2.5 V, 1.2 V DC-DC MFC 그림 9. Fig. 9. Receiving module. (a) (a) Block diagram (b) PCB (b) PCB manufactured picture 그림 10. Fig. 10. Signal flow chart of sub-array module. 그림 8. Fig. 8. Active phased array antenna configuration.. 60,. RF (strip-line) 16:

7 편파가변 위성 방송 수신용 능동 위상 배열 안테나 개발 가변이 가능하다. 사선 방향의 2개 편파 이외에 수직과 수 평 편파를 선택적으로 생성하는 방법은 그림 13에 나타 내었다. 즉, 그림에서 보는 것과 같이 ±45 의 2개 편파가 동시에 존재하는 상태에서 +45 방향의 편파#2의 위상을 180 간격으로 조정함에 따른 벡터의 합에 따라서 수직편 파와 수평편파가 선택적으로 생성되는 것을 알 수 있다. 즉, 수신 모듈에 사용된 위상 제어 소자인 MFC는 빔 조 향을 위하여 위상을 달리 제공하는 역할과 동시에 수직 과 수평 편파를 선택적으로 생성하기 위한 역할도 동시 열해석 결과 그림 11. Fig. 11. Thermal analysis result. 우를 가정하여 열해석한 결과이다. 발열조건은 대기온도 25 에서 1채널 MFC 128개가 동시에 동작하여 25.6 W (0.1 W 256개)의 열을 낸다고 가정하였다. 열해석 결과, 방열핀과 mm 크기의 방열팬 4개로 MFC 주변의 열평형 온도는 대략 35 로서 안정적인 방열 성능이 예 측되었다. 제작하고자 하는 16 16배열 능동 위상 배열 안테나의 주요 특성을 표 2에 정리하였고 그림 12(a) 그림 12(c)에 그 제작 형상을 나타내었다. 내부 구조 (a) (a) Inner structure Ⅴ. 빔 조향 및 방사특성의 측정 그림 7(a)에서 표시한 4개의 편파 중, 비발디 안테나의 E면과 방향이 같은 ±45 의 2개 편파는 단순히 MFC를 포 함한 수신 모듈을 on/off하여 하나를 선택함으로써 편파 능동 위상 배열 안테나 주요 특성 화면 (b) GUI (b) GUI display 표 2. Table 2. Active phased array antenna main performance. Specification Frequency GHz Polarization Horizontal, Vertical, ±45 direction polarization Scan angle range ±60 Array size 256(16 16) Cross polarization discrimination Antenna gain Half-power beamwidth 20 db 22 dbi 9.5 외관 형상 (c) (c) Outer configuration 최종 제작된 능동 위상 배열 안테나 그림 12. Fig. 12. Final active phased array antenna. 331

8 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 29, no. 5, May 수직편파의 생성 (a) (a) Horizontal polarization formation 수평편파의 생성 (b) (b) Vertical polarization formation 편파 가변의 원리 그림 13. Fig. 13. The principle of polarization change. 에 한다. 결과적으로 본 논문에서 제작한 능동 위상 배열 안테나는 4개의 선형 편파를 선택적으로 택일할 수 있으므 로, 이동체의 방향 전환에 따라 바뀌는 편파 도래각(Skew angle)에 대해서도 적극적인 대응이 가능하다. 그림 14는 제작한 능동 위상 배열 안테나에서 bore-sight 상태의 방사패턴이다. 단 방사패턴의 측정은 자연적으로 생성되는 ±45 방향의 방사패턴이 아닌, 벡터의 합에 의해 서 생성되는 수직과 수평편파에 대해서 논하도록 하겠다. 측정된 bore-sight 방사패턴은 GHz까지 모두 왜곡 없는 main lobe를 형성하고 있으며, -10 db 이하의 측정 사진 및 좌표 (a) (a) Measurement photograph & coordinate (b) 10.7 GHz (c) 11.7 GHz 방사패턴 측정 그림 14. Bore-sight Fig. 14. Bore-sight radiation pattern measurement. 332 (d) 12.7 GHz

9 1 st side lobe. 12 GHz 23.5 db 30 db, GHz, 30., 60, grating lobe. 3. elevation 60 (a) 11.7GHz, (a) 11.7GHz, azimuth direction 표 3. Table 3. Active phased array antenna radiation property. Freq GHz 11.7 GHz 12.7 GHz Pol. Scan angle Gain [dbi] Measurement XPD [dbc] Hor. Bore-sight Ver. Bore-sight Hor. Bore-sight Azi. Ele Ver. Bore-sight Hor. Bore-sight Ver. Bore-sight dB BW [, Az/El] 10.59/ / / / / / / / / / 8.53 Gain [dbi] Simulation 3dB BW [, Az/El] 10.4/ / / / / / 8.4, 60 main lobe 향후계획 (b) 11.7GHz, (b) 11.7GHz, elevation direction 그림 15. Fig. 15. Beam scanned pattern measurement. MFC Ku, 60., 4, (skew 333

10 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 29, no. 5, May angle). 512, dynamic beam tilting ,, 6 LHCP Transponder(BS) Transponder(CS). References [1] C. Hemmi, T. Dover, F. German, and A. Vespa, "Multifunction wide-band array design," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 47, no. 3, pp , Mar [2] J. L. Armitage, "Electronic warfare solid-state phased arrays," Microwave Journal, vol. 29, Feb [3] P. Leroux, M. Steyaert, LNA-ESD Co-design for Fully Integrated CMOS Wireless Receivers, Springer Science & Business Media, New York, [4] B. Razavi, Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits, Boston, McGraw-Hill, [5] P. J. Gibson, "The Vivaldi aeriel," in th European Microwave Conference, Brighton, UK, 1979, pp [6], ",", [7] F. German, S. Sanzgirl, and D. Doyle, "Analysis of flared slot antennas for phased array application," in Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, Ann Arbor, MI, 1993, vol. 3, pp [8] Joon Shin, Daniel H. Schaubert, "A parameter study of stripline-fed Vivaldi notch antenna arrays," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 47, no. 5, May [9] D. M. Pozar, "Active element pattern," IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 42, no. 8, pp , Aug : ( ) : ( ) : ( ) [ 주관심분야 ], RF : ( ) : ( ) : : LG MC : ( ) : ( ) [ 주관심분야 ] 334

11 : ( ) : ( ) : : [ 주관심분야 ],, EMC : ( ) : ( ) : ( ) : ( ) [ 주관심분야 ] 335

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