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1 w ywz 17«2y(2012)/ 1 AMESim» CRDi l 2 p w if * Á le * Áfld ** Analysis of Dynamic Characteristics in Two-stage Injection for CRDi Injectors Based on AMESim Environment Insu Jo, Jiwon Kwon and Jinwook Lee Key Words: Two-stage injection(2 ), dynamic characteristics( p ), Piezo stack(v k), Inverse piezoelectric effect( z ), AMESim simulation code(amesim w g ) Abstract For reduction of CO, NOx and soot emission emitted by diesel diffusion combustion, the authors focused on injection actuator to improve fuel availability inside combustion chamber. In this study, it was investigated the internal dynamic characteristics of two-stage injection with diesel injectors with different driving type for the common rail direct injection by using the AMESim simulation code. The analysis parameter defined such as fuel pressure, injection hole's diameter and driven voltage. As the results, it was shown that the piezo-driven injector had a faster response and had better control capability than the solenoid-driven injector. It was found the piezo-driven injector can be utilized effectively as multiple injector than solenoid-driven injector. 1. ú»» CO, NOx w ³ wì z š, w g w w w w w. xw» w ù w (multiple injection)» x v š.» Pilot Main ù š, Pre, After, Post ƒ w xw ò w. (2011 ~2011, 2011 y ) * w w» œw ** w» œw, z, w ywz TEL : (02) w š l w. x l vj-y (peak and hold), j» w š e ƒ g» ƒ, w. ù l v k(piezo stack) w y v l ƒ ûš š w (1). Fig. 1 f l š l v l qx ùkü. l» g ƒ w (rising time) w (falling time) w l š. l w» w (battery) œ 12V 100 µs ü 20A¾ j ƒ w

2 2 /JOURNAL OF ILASS-KOREA VOL. 17 NO. 2 (2012)», ƒw ƒ jš w.»» w š e (charge pump)ƒ v w., Fig. 1(b) v qx, Á w (2). v k(piezo stack) wƒ k ƒ w, œ k w., v l v z w v w k.» f l l v l 2, l ü p y w» w, l w xw z, l š p w ww. 2. o 2.1 AMESiml mk mo l v l» w e w» w, AMESim(Advanced Modeling Environment for Simulation of Engineering Systems) g w w w z, w ww (2-4). v l» 2.0 l l» w w w (5). š, š, t ISO 4113 w. w w y x, y y. ew v ƒ v m, (mass with friction and ideal end stops) w w v m w. w f l w œ š q v m w w feed orifice ù,. w» - sx (ball poppet with conical seat) w, w x p ƒ x sv (spherical pop- Fig. 1 Driving current wave between solenoid and piezodriven injector Fig. 2 Injector model and parameter

3 w ywz 17«2y(2012)/ 3 pet valve) 1 š w. w w» w. Fig. 2 w ƒ Parameter ùkü. v l w w Fig. 3 v l w w w. w»» 2.0 l y» w. 2.2 mo 2 2, l v l w, œ, w. w w Fig. 2 P1, P2, P3 w. l ƒ w P3 ƒ w wš P1,P2 w w. P1 P2 š v ƒ w w., P1, P2 Needle w š, P3 w w. l y j» sƒw tƒ. Table 1 Parameter w» š» w w w. š Fig. 4 Two-stage injection signal used in this study, Fig. 4 (Pilot) (Main) 2 w w š, l y,» š» w w. Fig. 3 Analytic model for driving the piezoelectric actuator Table 1 Test conditions with main analysis parameter Pilot Main (µs) œ (mm) (bar) P1, P2, P3sni m lh Fig , 1300, 1600 bar, v l P1 y ùkü. l v q» ùkû. w y ql,» z ùkù. ù v q ƒ j.

4 4 /JOURNAL OF ILASS-KOREA VOL. 17 NO. 2 (2012) Fig. 5 Pressure variation at P1 position between solenoid and piezo injector Fig. 7 Pressure variation at P3 position between solenoid and piezo injector Fig. 6 Pressure variation at P2 position between solenoid and piezo injector Fig. 8 Injection rate between solenoid and piezo injector

5 한국액체미립화학회지 제17권 제2호(2012)/ 5 Fig. 9 Injected fuel quantity between solenoid and piezo injector Fig. 6은 연료압력 1000, 1300, 1600 bar 일 때, 솔레 노이드와 피에조 인젝터의 P2에서 압력변화를 나타낸 것이다. 분사 말기, 피에조 인젝터는 솔레노이드 방식 대비 약 0.1 ms 빠른 연료압력회복 속도를 가짐을 알 수 있으며, Fig. 7의 P3지점에서 압력변화를 비교해 보면, 솔레노이드 인젝터의 파일럿 분사 시 압력강하의 크기 가 피에조에 비해 더 큼을 알 수 있었다. Fig. 8은 연료압력 1000, 1300, 1600 bar 일 때, 솔레 노이드와 피에조 인젝터의 분사율을 나타낸 것이다. 피 에조 인젝터의 파일럿 분사율은 솔레노이드에 비해 연 료압력별로 현격한 차이를 보여주고 있으며, 메인분사 의 기간도 짧아짐을 알 수 있었다. Fig. 9는 연료압력 1000, 1300, 1600 bar 일 때, 솔레 노이드와 피에조 인젝터의 분사량을 나타낸 것이다. 메 인 분사 시, 피에조의 연료량 증가 속도가 상대적으로 빠름을 알 수 있었다. 인젝터 분공직경 영향 Fig. 10은 분공경이 0.118, 0.168, mm 일 때, 솔 3.2 Fig. 10 Effect of injection hole diameter on pressure at P1 position 레노이드와 피에조 인젝터의 P1에서 압력변화를 나타 낸 것이다. 분공경이 작아짐에 따라 압력회복시간이 지연되고 있는 것을 알 수 있으며, 피에조 인젝터의 경우, 파일럿분사에서 분공경에 의한 영향보다는 메인 분사 종료 후, 압력회복 시간에 차이가 있음을 알 수 있었다. 즉, 피에조 인젝터의 경우, 짧은 시간의 분사에는 분 공경의 영향은 미미하나, 파일럿 분사 시 연료압력이 변 동하는 지점에서 분공경이 큰 경우 압력강하의 폭이 더 커짐을 알 수 있었다. Fig. 11은 분공경이 0.118, 0.168, mm 일 때, 솔 레노이드와 피에조 인젝터의 P2에서 압력변화를 나타 낸 것이다. 메인분사에서 전반적인 압력 패턴은 유사하 지만, 최대압력강하 시, 약 0.7 ms의 차이가 발생함을 알 수 있었다. Fig. 12는 분공경이 0.118, 0.168, mm 일 때, 솔 레노이드와 피에조 인젝터의 P3에서 압력변화를 나타 낸 것이다. 2단 분사기간 동안 압력회복은 피에조 인젝 터의 경우, 약 0.1 ms정도 더 빠른 분사종료를 가짐을 알 수 있었다.

6 6 /JOURNAL OF ILASS-KOREA VOL. 17 NO. 2 (2012) 4. Fig. 11 Effect of injection hole diameter on pressure at P2 position» f l l v k w xw z, 2 š p w,. 1) ( y )», v l l. 2) l q, j wƒ w, v l q w x w š,». w, v ƒ ƒ,,» z ùkù, v l 0.1 ms z ƒ. 3) 2, w w l ql x w. l y, v l lƒ d w q. 4) l œ, z, v l z z. q w œ j, w s j ùkù, w 0.7 ms ƒ w. mw v l, q œ w, { w ( w» ) w» w ( ), ¾. y Fig. 12 Effect of injection hole diameter on pressure at P3 position (1) J. W. Lee, Study on driving performance, spray characteristics and cavitation flow of a piezo-driven Diesel

7 w ywz 17«2y(2012)/ 7 injector, Doctoral Dissertation, Seoul National University, (2) D. T. Hountalas and A. D. Kouremenos, Development of a Fast and Simple Simulation Model for the Fuel Injection System of Diesel Engines, Advanced in Engineering Software, Vol.29, No.1, (3) G. M. Bianchi, S. Falfari, M. Parotto and G. Osbat, Advanced Modelling of Common Rail Injector Dynamics and Comparison with Experiments, SAE , (4) O. Chiavola and P. Giulianelli, Modelling and Simulation of Common Rail System, SAE , (5) J. W. Lee and K. D. Min, Analysis of Hydraulic Characteristics of High Pressure Injector with Piezo Actuator, KSAE, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp.164~173, 2006.

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