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1 한국토양비료학회지 43 권 3 호 Korean J. Soil Sci. Fert. Vol. 43, No. 3, (2010) 보문 X- 밴드레이더산란계자동측정시스템구축과벼생육모니터링 김이현 1,2 홍석영 1 이훈열 2 * 1 농촌진흥청국립농업과학원, 2 강원대학교지구물리학과 Construction of X-band automatic radar scatterometer measurement system and monitoring of rice growth Yi-Hyun Kim 1,2, SukYoung Hong 1, and Hoonyol Lee 2 * 1 National Academy of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration 2 Department of Geophysics, Kangwon National University Microwave radar can penetrate cloud cover regardless of weather conditions and can be used day and night. Especially a ground-based polarimetric scatterometer has advantages of monitoring crop conditions continuously with full polarization and different frequencies. Kim et al. (2009) have measured backscattering coefficients of paddy rice using L-, C-, X-band scatterometer system with full polarization and various angles during the rice growth period and have revealed the necessity of near-continuous automatic measurement to eliminate the difficulties, inaccuracy and sparseness of data acquisitions arising from manual operation of the system. In this study, we constructed an X-band automatic scatterometer system, analyzed scattering characteristics of paddy rice from X-band scatterometer data and estimated rice growth parameter using backscattering coefficients in X-band. The system was installed inside a shelter in an experimental paddy field at the National Academy of Agricultural Science (NAAS) before rice transplanting. The scatterometer system consists of X-band antennas, HP8720D vector network analyzer, RF cables and personal computer that controls frequency, polarization and data storage. This system using automatically measures fully-polarimetric backscattering coefficients of rice crop every 10 minutes. The backscattering coefficients were calculated from the measured data at a fixed incidence angle of 45 and with full polarization (HH, VV, HV, VH) by applying the radar equation and compared with rice growth data such as plant height, stem number, fresh dry weight and Leaf Area Index (LAI) that were collected at the same time of each rice growth parameter. We examined the temporal behaviour of the backscattering coefficients of the rice crop at X-band during rice growth period. The HH-, VV-polarization backscattering coefficients steadily increased toward panicle initiation stage, thereafter decreased and again increased in early-september. We analyzed the relationships between backscattering coefficients in X-band and plant parameters and predicted the rice growth parameters using backscattering coefficients. It was confirmed that X-band is sensitive to grain maturity at near harvesting season. Key words: Scatterometer, X-band, Rice, Backscattering coefficients, Polarization, Rice growth parameters. 서 언 우리나라는여름철의기후특성상비오는기간이길고일조량이적어광학영상에비해날씨에영향을거의받지않는레이더영상활용성이점점중요시되고있는데작물생육및수량, 토양수분, 홍수 가뭄등재해관측등국내외에서농업분야활용연구가활발히진행되고 접수 : 수리 : * 연락저자 : Phone: 있다. 레이더자료를이용하여작물생육과의관계를분석하는연구는미국, 일본, 유럽연합등을중심으로활발히이루어지고있는데이들국가에서는인공위성및지상레이더자료를이용하여작물생육을모니터링하고, 추정하여작물생육모형개발을통해작물 식생변화를정량화하여활용하고있다 (Bouman, 1991; Kurosu et al., 1997; Le Toan et al., 1989; Macelloni et al., 2001; Maity et al., 2004; Paris, 1986; Ulaby et al., 1984; Wigneron et al., 1999). 미국은 1970년대후반토양수분과엽면적지수를입력변수로사용하여단

2 X- 밴드레이더산란계자동측정시스템구축과벼생육모니터링 375 순한작물산란모델인 water cloud model을개발한이후 (Attema and Ulaby, 1978) 토양수분, 기상등다양한인자를이용한좀더복잡한산란모델을개발하고있고마이크로파와작물및토양과의물리적상호관계의이해도를증가시킨일반적인모델개발을활발하게수행하고있다. Brisco et al. (1990) 은 X-밴드안테나를이용하여시계열에따라편파 (Polarization), 입사각도에따른후방산란계수 (Backscattering coefficients) 와밀의엽면적지수, 바이오매스등생육인자와의관계를분석하였고, Palosica (1998) 은레이더영상자료를이용하여작물별로분류하였는데특히벼의재배면적을추정할경우두시기이상의영상자료를 R, G, B 등으로합성하면추정정확도를향상시킬수있다는연구결과를발표하였다. Le Toan et al. (1997) 은레이더영상인 ERS-1 을이용하여벼생육시기별후방산란계수와벼 biomass 와의관계를분석하여추정식을구하였고, Bouvet et al. (2009) 은 ENVISAT 영상자료를통해메콩강지역의작부체계를분류하였다. Lin et al. (2009) 은 ENVISAT 영상자료를이용하여중국남동부사탕재배지역에대해생육을모니터링하고엽면적지수를추정하였고, Cuizhen et al. (2009) 은 ALOS 레이더영상과작물생육모형 (Radiative transfer model) 을이용하여중국남부벼농사지역에벼산란특성을분석하였는데초장, 엽면적지수가증가할수록체적산란 (volume scattering) 과이중산란 (double bounce scattering) 이주로일어났다. Inoue et al. (2002) 은벼생육기간동안레이더자료를이용하여주파수와입사각, 편파별로벼생육을관측하고, 작물군락에대한단순산란모형과후방산란계수와의관계를분석하였다. Yamaguchi et al. (2005) 은 Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (POLSAR) decomposition 을하기위한산란모델을개발하였고, Susaki et al. (2008) 은실내포트시험을통해 decomposition 방법을이용하여벼의산란특성을알아보았는데 X-밴드의경우표면산란 (surface scattering) 이주로일어났고 L-밴드는체적산란이주로발생한다는결과를발표하였다. 국내의경우 Hong et al. (2000) 이 RADARSAT 영상을이용하여벼생육기간동안 9시기의자료를 standard beam mode 5 또는 6으로취득하여보정 (calibration) 과정을통하여지표면의특성을잘나타내는후방산란계수를구하고, 초장, 엽면적지수, 현물중, 건물중등벼의생육변수와의관계를분석하였다. Kim et al. (2009) 은다편파레이더산란계시스템을이용하여벼생육시기에따른후방산란계수변화를관측하고밴드, 편파및입사각도별후방산란계수와벼생육인자와의관계를분석하였다. 하지만다편파산란계시스템을통한관측과정에서는안테나의선택과각도조절이모두수동으로이루어졌고측정이 3-7일간격으로얻어져자료의신뢰성이제한적이었다. 또한, 측정시기에따라강우, 바람, 습도등기후요인이후방산란계수에많은영향을미쳤고측정시마다 calibration 과정에서의정확도문제등이발생하였다. 따라서본연구에서는기후등의영향을받지않고레이더산란측정을할수있는 X-밴드레이더산란계자동관측시스템을구축하고, 벼생육시기에따른후방산란계수와벼생육인자와의관계분석을통해최적관측조건을구명하고이를통해얻어진후방산란계수를이용하여벼생육을추정하고자하였다. 재료및방법 연구지역레이더산란특성측정은국립농업과학원시험포장 ( N, E) 에서 2008 년도추청벼 (Oryza sativa L. var. sativa) 를대상으로모이앙기전 (5월 16일 ) 부터벼수확기 (10월 12일 ) 까지수행하였다. 시험포장의면적은약 660 m 2, 재식밀도 30 cm 15 cm 이고, 비료시용의경우질소는요소비료 100 kg ha -1, 인산은용과린, 칼륨은염화칼륨을사용하여토양검정시비량에따라비료를처리하였다본실험포장의공시토양은화동통으로토성속은식양질이고, 벼이앙일은 5월 18일, 수확일은 10월 12일이었으며시험전토양이화학성은 Table 1에서보는바와같다. 벼생육조사초장 (plant height), 생체중 (fresh biomass weight), 엽면적지수 (Leaf area Index) 등벼생육조사는모이앙기직후부터수확기까지정기적으 Table 1. Soil chemical properties of the experimental plot for fertilizer recommendation. Available Exchangeable cations Available ph OM NH 4-N CEC P 2O 5 K Ca Mg SiO 2 (1:5) g kg -1 mg kg -1 mg kg cmol c kg mg kg

3 376 김이현 홍석영 이훈열 Fig. 1. Field view X-band automatic scatterometer system ; (left) The Shelter installed in the experimental paddy field with an X-band looking at the 45 degree ; (right) RF systems inside the shelter with network analyzer, RF cable and a computer that controls frequency, polarization and data storage. 로조사 (1회/ 주 ) 하였으며이삭건물중 (grain dry weight) 경우 8월말부터약 3일간격으로조사하였는데생육조사방법은생육이고른벼 3주를선택하여초장, 생체중등을측정하고 70 에서건조하여건물중 (dry biomass weight) 등을측정하였다. 엽면적지수는단위면적에대한군락의엽면적으로정의되고개엽을모두떼어내어 LI-3100 (LI-COR, Inc. USA) 을이용하여직접측정한후주 ( 株 ) 재식밀도로구하였다. 후방산란계수와벼생육인자와의관계및생육추정을알아보기위해 SAS 프로그램 (Enterprise Guide 4.0) 을이용하여상관분석및회귀분석을수행하였다. X-밴드레이더산란계자동관측시스템구축 X- 밴드레이더산란계자동관측시스템은현장측정과정에서의강우, 바람등기후의영향을최소화하기위해설계및구축하였다. 자동관측시스템설치는모이앙기전 (5월 16일 ) 에하였고, 구성요소로는 X-밴드안테나, 네트워크분석기, GPIB (General Purpose Interface Bus) USB, calibration kit, RF Cable, 노트북컴퓨터등으로되어있다 (Fig. 1). 네트워크분석기, RF Cable, 측정프로그램이내장된컴퓨터등은강우, 바람을피해관측시스템건물내부에설치하였고건물외부에안테나를설치하였는데, 안테나와 RF cable 부분에밀봉처리를하여비가안테나내부로스며드는것을차단하였다. 자동산란계관측시스템의구성항목별특성은 Table 2와같다. 네트워크분석기는 Agilent Technologies 사의 8720D 모델을사용하였으며가용가능한주파수의범위는 20 MHz ~ 20 GHz 이다. 네트워크분석기에는두개의포트가있으며, 각각의포트는송, 수신을할수있게설계되어있다. 이두개의포트는안테나에 Table 2. Specification of the X-band automatic scatterometer system. Specification X-band Frequency (GHz) 9.65 ± 0.5 Beam Width E-Plane (Deg.) ~ H-Plane (Deg.) ~ Antenna Gain (db) 22.4 Antenna Type Dual polarimetric horn Number of Frequency points 1601 band Width (MHz) 1000 Wavelength (m) Slant range resolution (m) 0.15 Polarization HH, VV, HV, VH Incident angle ( ) 45 Platform height (m) 4.16 Measurement time 1 per 10minutes 연결되어 S 11, S 12, S 21, S 22 의신호를받게되는데, 뒤에첨자는송신을나타내고앞의첨자는수신을나타낸다. 안테나에는수직편파 (Vertical Polarization, V) 및수평편파 (Horizontal Polarization, H) 포트가있으며, 이것을네트워크분석기와연결하여 VV, VH, HV, HH 편파에대한특성을측정하게된다. 안테나는 X-밴드의 Dual-Polarization Square Horn 안테나를사용하였고입사각도는 45 로고정해서측정하였다. 입사각도를 45 로고정한이유는기존연구결과에서입사각도별로후방산란계수와벼생육인자와의비교에서 45 에서가장상관관계가높게나왔기때문이다 (Kim et al., 2009). 여름철고온으로건물내부에온도가올라가는것을막기위해내부에냉난방기를설치

4 X- 밴드레이더산란계자동측정시스템구축과벼생육모니터링 377 하여 20 를유지함으로써산란측정과정에서관측시스템이오류없이지속적으로측정될수있도록하였다. 안테나이득은 22.4 db 이고, 중심주파수는 9.65 GHz로설계하였는데, 이는 2010년도발사예정인아리랑5호의 X-밴드중심주파수와동일하게설계하여측정함으로써향후아리랑5호위성에적용하고농업적으로활용할수있도록하기위함이다. 또한시스템 Calibration 및자료질을향상을위해측정주기는 10분당 1번씩자동으로산란특성을측정하도록 National Instrument 사의 LabVIEW TM 를이용하여프로그램을만들었다. 이렇게구성된다편파산란계는대상체에서산란되어돌아오는 VV, VH, HV, HH 편파의크기 (amplitude) 와위상 (phase) 정보를얻을수있고실시간으로아스키 (ASCII) 파일로컴퓨터에저장될수있게하였으며, 이파일을후방산란계수추출에이용하였다. 후방산란계수산출레이더파가지표면에서산란되면모든방향을향해퍼져나가므로안테나에는그일부만이도달하게된다. 따라서단위면적당파워의크기는가까이있는대상체에의한것보다멀리있는대상체에의한것이더작다. 이렇게수신안테나에도달하는단위면적당파워의크기를후방산란이라한다. 마이크로파가지표면에서산란되어안테나로되돌아오는신호 은다음과같은레이더방정식으로표현할수있다 (Ulaby et al. 1990). (1) (3) 후방산란계수는레이더방정식 (1) 과식 (2) 을이용하여구할수있다. 먼저, 식 (1) 을 db로환산하면다음과같다. 2 p r GG t rλ σ 10log = 20logU = 10log 3 4 pt ( 4π ) R (4) σ ( db) = 10logσ = 20log U Gt ( db) G ( db) 20logλ + 30log4π + 40logR r 안테나는송신안테나와수신안테나가동일하기때문에 와 의값은같다. 식 (2) 의 값은산란계의수평해상도에따른산란체의면적으로다음과같이나타낼수있다. (5) 이때, 은안테나의거리해상도로서 (c= 빛의속도, B=band 폭 ) 이고, 는입사각이며 ( = 대상체의거리, = 안테나의빔폭 ) 이다. 식 (4) 과식 (5) 를다시정리하면 X-밴드후방산란계수를구하기위해다음과같은식이사용하였다 (Kim et al., 2009). X-band : 여기에서 는지표면을향해송신되는파워,, 은각각송신안테나와수신안테나의이득, 는마이크로파의파장, 는대상체의후방산란유효면적 (Radar Cross Section, RCS) 이다. 그리고 은안테나로부터대상체까지의거리이다. 후방산란계수 ( ) 는단위면적 ( ) 의 RCS 중안테나로되돌아오는양으로서다음과같이나타낼수있다. (2) 산란계실험을통해측정된대상체에서산란되어되돌아오는신호의크기 ( ) 는송신마이크로파파워 ( ) 에대한수신마이크로파파워 ( ) 의비로써다음식과같이나타낸다. σ (db)=20logu+32.21(db)+30logr+10logcos 결과및고찰 생육시기에따른 X-밴드후방산란계수와벼생육인자의변화관측벼생육시기별 X-밴드편파별후방산란계수변화와바이오매스, 엽면적지수, 초장, 이삭건물중등벼생육인자의변화를관측하였는데전체생육시기의 X-밴드편파별후방산란계수범위는 - 50 db ~ -5 db 이었고동일편파 (HH-, VV-편파 ) 가교차편파 (HV-, VH-편파 ) 보다후방산란계수가높았다 (Fig. 2). 벼군락형성되지않은생육초기에는 VV-편파가 HH-, HV/VH- 편파보다후방산란계수가높게나타났지만유효분얼기인 6월중순 (DOY 168) 부터 HH-편

5 378 김이현 홍석영 이훈열 Correlation stage Correlation stage (a) (c) Correlation stage Correlation stage (b) (d) Fig. 2. (a) Temporal variations of fresh biomass and backscattering coefficients in X-band during rice growth. (b) Temporal variations of grain dry weight and backscattering coefficients in X-band during rice growth. (c) Temporal variations of LAI and backscattering coefficients in X-band during rice growth. (d) Temporal variations of plant height and backscattering coefficients in X-band during rice growth. 파가 VV-편파보다후방산란계수가더높게나타났는데그이유는벼군락이형성되면서표면산란보다체적산란에더영향을받은것으로분석된다. 모든편파별후방산계수가벼유수형성기인 7월하순 (DOY 209) 까지증가한후감소하다가 9월초순 (DOY 244) 에다시증가하는 dual-peak 현상을보였고, 이런현상은 VV-, HV/VH- 편파에서뚜렷이나타났다. 또한 VV- 편파의경우 9월초순부터후방산란계수증가가다른편파에비해크게나타났다. Kim et al. (2009) 이수동관측조건에서얻은결과와비교해보았을때본연구결과는 10분단위로자동측정함으로써 3-7일간격으로측정한수동관측조건자료에비해편파별후방산란계수변화경향이생육인자변화와더불어생육시기에따라명확히나타나자료의질이높았음을확인할수있었고, 특히 7월하순과 10월초순을두시기를정점으로 dual-peak 현상이수동관측조건에비해뚜렷이나타났음을확인할수있었다. 이현상은 X-밴드후방산란계수가벼출수기이후이삭두께와상관관계를보여주고있고, 특히이삭이익어가면서외부에노출되는과정에서파장이짧은고주파 X-밴드는이삭에대한감지도가높아후방산란계수가증가하는것으로분석된다. 이런결과는밀의출수기이후부터 X-밴드후방산란계 수가증가하였던이전결과의경향과일치한다 (Ulaby et al., 1976). 한편벼생육시기에따른생육인자들의변화를관측한결과생체중의경우모이앙기이후계속증가하다가벼출수기인 8월 19일 (DOY 231) 을정점으로수확기까지감소하는경향을보였다 (Fig. 2(a)). 편파별후방산란계수와의변화를분석한결과모든편파별후방산란계수가 7월 28일 (DOY 209) 이후감소되었다가 9 월초순에다시증가한반면생체중은 8월중순까지증가하다가그이후감소되어벼출수기이후생체중과편파별후방산란계수는상관성이높지않음을볼수있었다. 하지만 6월중순 (DOY 168) 부터 7월하순 (DOY 209) 까지두변수가모두증가하는경향을보여이시점에서는상관성을볼일것으로생각되었다. 이삭건물중과편파별후방산란계수변화를본결과이삭건물중은분석을실시한 8월중순이후수확기까지계속증가하였고, 편파별후방산란계수는 9월초순 (DOY 244) 부터 10월초순 (DOY 276) 까지증가하였는데특히후방산란계수의 VV-, HV/VH- 편파의경우다른편파에비해 9월초순부터 10월초순까지증가하는경향이이삭건물중과동일하게나타나이기간에두변수가유효한상관을보일것으로생각되었다 (Fig.

6 X- 밴드레이더산란계자동측정시스템구축과벼생육모니터링 379 2(b)). 생육시기에따른엽면적지수와후방산란계수와의변화관측에서는엽면적지수는 8월 22일 (DOY 234) 에최대값을나타냈고그이후감소했지만편파별후방산란계수는 7월말과 9월말에 dual peak 현상이일어남으로전체생육기간에서는서로상관성이높지않음을확인할수있었다 (Fig. 2(c)). 하지만생체중과마찬가지로 6월중순 (DOY 168) 부터 7월하순 (DOY 209) 까지엽면적지수와편파별후방산란계수가증가하는경향이동일하게나타나이시기를중심으로두변수간의상관관계를확인해보았다 (Table 4). 초장과후방산란계수와의변화관측결과초장은생육시기에따른증가하다가 8월 30일 (DOY 242) 을정점으로감소하여벼출수기이후에는생체중, 엽면적지수와같이후방산란계수변화경향과상관성을높지않았지만 6월중순 (DOY 168) 에서 7월말 (DOY 209) 까지는두변수가서로증가하는경향이동일하게나타났다 (Fig. 2(d)) 편파별후방산란계수와벼생육인자와의상관관계분석생육시기별후방산란계수와벼생육인자의변화분석결과를바탕으로 SAS 프로그램 (Enterprise Guide 4.0) 을이용하여입사각도 45도조건에서후방산란계수와초장, 생체중, 건물중, 엽면적지수등벼생 육인자의상관관계를분석하였다. Table 3은 년전벼생육기간동안의편파에따른후방산란계수와벼생육인자와의상관계수 (correlation coefficient, r) 를보여주고있다. 2008년도결과 HH-편파후방산란계수와엽면적지수와의상관계수 (r=0.81) 를제외하고는편파별후방산란계수와초장, 생체중, 엽면적지수와의상관이낮게나타났는데 2007년도결과에서도생체중과의상관관계를제외하고는본연구결과와비슷한경향을보였다. 벼출수기이후수확기까지이삭건물중과편파별후방산란계수와의관계를알아본결과 VV-편파후방산란계수와이삭건물중의상관계수가높게나타났고 (r=0.91), HH, HV/VH- 편파후방산란계수의경우이삭건물중과의관계가높지않았다. 또한 VV-편파후방산란계수와이삭건물중의상관관계가 2007년의결과 (Kim et al., 2009) 보다높게나타났으며 HH-편파는상관계수가낮았다. 하지만 Fig. 2 결과에서보는바와같이초장, 생체중, 엽면적지수의경우유효분얼기이후유수형성기까지편파별후방산란계수와증가하는경향이동일하게나타나이시기를중심으로벼생육인자와후방산란계수관계를분석하였다. Table 4는후방산란계수와벼생육인자와의관계에서생육시기에증가하는경향을보이는동일한 Table 3. Correlation coefficients between backscattering coefficients at X-band and rice growth parameters during rice growth stage in Parameters (year) LAI Tfw Gdw Plant height Polarization HH 0.80 ** 0.81 ** 0.81 ** 0.73 ** 0.59 * 0.46 * 0.74 ** 0.55 * VV 0.55 * 0.64 * 0.52 * 0.64 * 0.87 *** 0.91 *** 0.53 * 0.59 * HV 0.74 ** 0.60 * 0.64 * 0.54 * 0.58 * 0.43 * 0.62 * 0.42 * VH 0.74 ** 0.61 * 0.64 * 0.54 * 0.58 * 0.44 * 0.62 * 0.44 * Tfw : Total fresh weight Gdw : Grain dry weight * : level of significance p<0.05, ** : level of significance p<0.01, *** : level of significance p< Table 4. Correlation coefficients between backscattering coefficients at X-band and rice growth parameters during various rice growth stages. Polarization Parameters LAI Tfw Gdw Plant height HH 0.92 *** 0.90 *** 0.43 * 0.83 ** VV 0.86 *** 0.85 ** 0.94 *** 0.89 *** HV 0.80 ** 0.83 ** 0.85 ** 0.80 ** VH 0.80 ** 0.83 ** 0.85 ** 0.79 ** Rice stage : From mid-june (DOY168) to late-july (DOY209) Rice stage : From mid-june (DOY168) to late-july (DOY209) Rice stage : From early-september (DOY244) to early-october (DOY276) Rice stage : From mid-june (DOY168) to late-july (DOY209).

7 380 김이현 홍석영 이훈열 시기에대해변수들간의상관관계를분석한결과이다. 벼유효분얼기 (DOY 168) 에서유수형성기 (DOY 209) 의편파별후방산란계수와엽면적지수, 생체중, 초장과의관계를각각알아본결과, 먼저엽면적지수의경우 HH-편파와상관계수가높게나타났고 (r=0.92), 다른편파후방산란계수도전체벼생육시기보다상관계수가높게나타났다. 생체중은 HH-편파와상관계수가가장높았고 (r=0.90), 다른편파후방산란계수들도대체로상관성이높았으며초장은 VV-편파후방산란계수와상관성이높게나타났다 (r=0.89). 생체중, 엽면적지수등다른생육인자와마찬가지로이삭건물중의경우에도 9월초순 (DOY 244) 부터 10월초순 (DOY 276) 까지증가하는경향이 VV-, HV/VH- 편파후방산란계수와동일하게나타나이시기에변수들간의상관관계를분석하였다. 9월초순 (DOY 244) 에서 10월초순 (DOY 276) 사이에편파별후방산란계수와이삭건물중 (a) (b) Fig. 3. (a) Relationship between backscattering coefficients in X-band (HH, 45 ) and LAI for the duration from tillering effect stage (DOY 168) to panicle formation stage (DOY 209). (b) Comparison between measured (2007yr data) and estimated LAI by modeling (2008yr data). 과의관계에서 VV-편파후방산란계수가높은상관계수를보인반면 (r=0.94), HH-편파는상관성이낮게나타났다 (r=0.43). 벼수확기로갈수록잎의노엽화가진행되고벼군락밀도가낮아지는기간임으로이삭이외부에노출되기쉬우므로파장이짧은 X-밴드에서민감한반응을보이는것으로판단된다. 후방산란계수를이용한벼생육인자추정 X-밴드편파별후방산란계수와벼생육인자와의상관분석결과시기별가장상관계수가높은후방산란계수를이용하여벼생육을추정하였다. Figure 3은벼유효분얼기 (DOY 168) 에서유수형성기 (DOY 209) 시기에 HH-편파후방산란계수를이용엽면적지수를추정한결과이다. 회귀분석의결정계수가높게나타났고 (R 2 =0.85), 엽면적지수실측값 (2007 년도 ) 과추정경험모형 (2008년도 ) 을비교해본결과제곱근평균제곱오차 (RMSE) 가 0.43으로비교적오차가작았다. 생체중과상관관계가높은 HH-편파후방산란계수를이용하여생체중을추정하였는데생체중과 HH-편파후방산란계수는결정계수가 0.82 로서, 비교적좋은추정식을구할수있었다 (Fig. 4). 2007년도생체중실측값과생체중추정모형 (2008 년도 ) 을비교해본결과 RMSE=41.0 g m -2 으로비교적작은오차를보여생체중추정모형의유효성이높다는것이증명되었다. 초장의경우 VV-편파후방산란계수를이용하여초장과의관계를분석하고실측값과추정값을비교해본결과결정계수가 0.81로나타났다 (Fig. 5). 이결과를바탕으로 2007년도초장실측값과 2008년도초장추정모형을비교해본결과비교적작은오차를보였다 (RMSE=6.93 cm). 벼출수기가지나결실기로접어드는 9월초순부터벼수확기에가까운 10월초순시기에이삭건물중과상관관계가높게나타난 VV-편파후방산란계수를이용하여이삭건물중을추정하였고그결과는 Fig. 6과같다. VV-편파후방산란계수를이용한이삭건물중추정경험모형의결정계수는 0.89로나타났고 (Fig. 6(a)), 이모형을이용하여 2008년도이삭건물중을추정하고이를 2007년도실측값과비교한결과 RMSE=0.35 g m -2 을보여이삭건물중추정모형의유효성이높다는것이증명되었다 (Fig. 6(b)). 본연구는 Kim et al. (2009) 이일정한간격을두고수동조건으로관측한결과와비교해서벼생육시기에따른편파별후방산란계수변화경향이뚜렷하게나타났고, 이후방산란계수를이용하여벼생육인자와의관계및추정결과에서도기존결과보다상관관계및생육추정모형유효성이높게나타났다. 본연구결과를통해벼생육을추정하는데편파별후방산란계수와생육인자와의관계분석을통해최적조건을

8 X- 밴드레이더산란계자동측정시스템구축과벼생육모니터링 381 (a) (a) (b) Fig. 4. (a) Relationship between backscattering coefficients in X-band (HH, 45 ) and fresh biomass for the duration from tillering effect stage (DOY 168) to panicle formation stage (DOY 209). (b) Comparison between measured (2007yr data) and estimated fresh biomass by modeling (2008yr data). (b) Fig. 5. (a) Relationship between backscattering coefficients in X-band (VV, 45 ) and plant height for the duration from tillering effect stage (DOY 168) to panicle formation stage (DOY 209). (b) Comparison between measured (2007yr data) and estimated plant height by modeling (2008yr data). 찾아벼생육인자를추정할수있는가능성을확인하였다. 특히 X-밴드안테나에서는수량과밀접한관련이있는이삭건물중과의관계가높게나타나수량의예측가능성을확인하였고, 향후 X-밴드안테나를장착하는아리랑 5호레이더영상의농업활용에기초자료로이용될수있을것으로기대된다. 본연구결과와다른여러문헌에서밴드별로산란 (scattering) 과정에서의작물에대한침투정도의차이가나타났기때문에현재 L, C, X-밴드자동관측시스템을구축하여각안테나별로생육시기에따른산란특성을파악하고작물생육추정모형을개발하는연구를진행하고있다. 요약 본연구에서는기상조건에영향을받지않고레이더산란측정을할수있는 X-band 안테나기반자동관측 시스템을구축하였다. 이시스템을이용하여벼생육시기에따른편파별후방산란계수변화와벼생육인자변화를관측하고, 후방산란계수와벼생육인자와의관계를분석을통해최적조건의후방산란계수를이용한벼생육을추정하였다. 벼생육시기에후방산란계수변화를관측해본결과생육초기에는 VV-편파가 HH, HV/VH- 편파보다후방산란계수가높게나타났고, 모든편파별후방산란계수가벼유수형성기 (7월말경 ) 까지증가하다가그후감소한후 9월초순이후다시증가하는 dual-peak 현상을뚜렷이나타났다. 동시에생육시기에따른생체중, 이삭건물중, 엽면적지수, 초장등벼생육인자들의생육변화를관측해보았는데생체중, 엽면적지수, 초장은 6월중순부터 7월하순까지편파별후방산란계수와의변화경향이비슷하게나타났고, 이삭건물중의경우특히 VV-편파후방산란계수가 9월초순에서 10월초순까

9 382 김이현 홍석영 이훈열 (a) 교해본결과 RMSE 가 41.0 g m -2 으로비교적작은오차를보여생체중추정모형의유효성이높다는것이증명되었다. 또한초장의경우실측값 (2007 년 ) 과초장추정모형 (2008 년 ) 을비교분석한결과오차범위가비교적작게나타났고 (RMSE=6.93 cm), VV-편파후방산란계수를이용해얻은이삭건물중추정경험모형 (2008 년도 ) 과 2007년도이삭건물중실측값과의관계를통해추정식을검증한결과 RMSE=0.35 g/m2 을보여이삭건물중추정모형의유효성이높다는것이증명되었다. 본연구결과에서는 Kim et al. (2009) 이일정한간격을두고수동조건으로관측한결과와비교해서벼생육시기에따른편파별후방산란계수변화경향이뚜렷하게나타났고, 이후방산란계수를이용하여벼생육인자와의관계및추정결과에서도기존결과보다상관관계및생육추정모형유효성이높게나타났다. 본연구결과를통해 X-band 산란계자동측정시스템을이용하여벼생육을예측할수있음을확인하였다. 인용문헌 (b) Fig. 6. (a) Relationship between backscattering coefficients in X-band (VV, 45 ) and grain dry weight for the duration from early-september (DOY 244) to early- October (DOY 276). (b) Comparison between measured (2007yr data) and predicted grain weight by modeling (2008yr data). 지변화경향이동일하게나타났다. 편파별후방산란계수와벼생육인자와의상관관계를분석한결과엽면적지수, 생체중은 6월중순 (DOY 168) 부터 7월하순 (DOY 209) 시기에 HH-편파후방산란계수와상관관계가높았고, 초장은같은시기에 VV-편파후방산란계수와관계가높게나타났다. 이삭건물중의경우벼출수기가끝나고결실기로접어드는 9월초순 (DOY 244) 부터 10월초순 (DOY 276) 시기에 VV-편파후방산란계수와상관관계가높게나타났다. 이결과를바탕으로벼생육인자와상관이높게나타난편파별후방산란계수를이용하여벼생육을추정하였다. 엽면적지수는 HH-편파후방산란계수를이용하여 2007년도실측값과 2008년도추정경험모형을비교해본결과비교적오차가작았고 (RMSE=0.43), 상관관계가높은 HH-편파후방산란계수를이용하여 2007년도생체중실측값과생체중추정모형 (2008 년도 ) 을비 Attema, E.P. and F.T. Ulaby Vegetation modeled as a water cloud. Radio Science. 13: Bouman, B.A.M Crop Parameter estimation from ground-based X-band (3-cm Wave) radar backscattering data. Remote Sens. Environ. 37: Bouvet, A., T. Le Toan, and N. Lam-Dao Monitoring of the Rice Cropping System in the Mekong Delta Using ENVISAT/ASAR Dual Polarization Data. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 47: Brisco, B.R., J. Brown., J.A. Koehler., G.J. Sofko, and M.J. McKibben The diurnal pattern of microwave backscattering by wheat. Remote Sens. Environ. 34: Cuizhen, W., W. Jiaping., Z. Yuan., P. Guangdong, and Q. Jiaguo Characterizing L-band scattering of paddy rice in southeast china with radiative transfer model and multitemporal ALOS/PALSAR imagery. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 47: Hong, S.Y., S.H. Hong, and S.K. Rim Relationship between Radarsat backscattering coefficient and rice growth. Korean J. Remote Sensing. 16: Inoue, Y., T. Kurosu., H. Maeno., S. Uratsuka., T. Kowu., K. Dabrowska-Zielinska, and J. Qi Season-long daily measurements of multifrequency (Ka, Ku, X, C, and L) and full-polarization backscatter signatures over paddy rice field and their relationship with biological variables. Remote Sensing of Environment. 81:

10 X- 밴드레이더산란계자동측정시스템구축과벼생육모니터링 383 Susaki, J. and K. Yoshifumi Decomposition of polarimetric scattering of paddy rice. in Proc. IGARSS Symposium. pp Kurosu, T., M. Fujita, and K. Chiba The identification of rice fields using multi-temporal ERS-1 C- band SAR data. International Journal of Remote Sensing. 18: Kim, Y.H., S.Y. Hong, and H.Y. Lee Estimation of paddy rice growth parameters using L, C, X-bands polarimetric scatterometer. Korean J. Remote Sensing. 25(1): Le Toan, T., H. Laur., E. Mougin, and A. Lopes Multitemporal and dual-polarization observations of agricultural vegetation covers by X-band SAR images. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 27: Le Toan, T., F. Ribbes., L. Wang., N.K. Floury., J.A. Kong., M. Fujita, and T. Kurosu Rice crop mapping and monitoring using ERS-1 data based on experiment and modeling results. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 35: Lin, H., J. Chen., Z. Pei., S. Zhang, and X. Hu Monitoring sugarcane growth using ENVISAT ASAR data. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 47: Macelloni. G.S., P.P. Paloscia., F. Marliani, and M. Gai The relationship between the backscattering coefficient and the biomass of narrow and broad leaf crops. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 39: Maity, S., C. Patnaik, and S. Panigrahy Analysis of temporal backscattering of cotton crops using a semi-empirical model. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42: Paris, J.F The effect of leaf size on the microwave backscattering by corn. Remote Sensing of Environment. 19: Paloscica, S An empirical approach to estimating leaf index from multifrequency SAR data. International Journal of Remote Sensing. 19: Ulaby, F.T. and T.F. Bush Monitoring wheat growth with radar. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 42: Ulaby, F.T., C.T. Allen., G. Eger, and E.T. Kanemasu Relating the microwave backscattering coefficient to leaf area index. Remote Sensing of Environment. 14: Ulaby, F.T. and C. Elachi Radar Polarimetry for Geoscience Applications. Artech House Inc. Wigneron, J.P., P. Ferrazzoli., A. Olioso., P. Bertuzzi, and A. Chanzy A simple approach to monitor crop biomass from C-band radar data. Remote Sensing of Environment. 69: Yamaguchi, Y., T. Moriyama., M. Ishido, and H. Yamada Four-component scattering model for polarimetric SAR image decomposition. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 43:

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