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1 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE Sep.; 24(9), ISSN (Print) ISSN X (Online) 77 GHz Design of 77 GHz Automotive Radar System 남형기 강현상 송의종 김성균 남상욱 김병성 Hyeong-Ki Nam Hyun-Sang Kang Ui-Jong Song Chenglin Cui Seong-Kyun Kim Sang-Wook Nam* Byung-Sung Kim 요약 GHz. GaAs MMIC, 65 nm CMOS. 8 dbm LO, 19 db. MMIC WR-10, mm 61 mm 21 mm, 10 dbm, 1 MHz 94 dbc/hz, 12 db. Abstract This work presents the design and measured results of the single channel automotive radar system for GHz long range FMCW radar applications. The transmitter uses a commercial GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit(mmic) and the receiver uses the down converter designed using 65 nm CMOS process. The output power of the transmitter is 10 dbm. The down converter chip can operate at low LO power as -8 dbm which is easily supplied from the transmitter output using a coupled line coupler. All MMICs are mounted on an aluminum jig which embeds the WR-10 waveguide. A microstrip to waveguide transition is designed to feed the embedded waveguide and finally high gain horn antennas. The overall size of the fabricated radar system is 80 mm 61 mm 21 mm. The radar system achieved an output power of 10 dbm, phase noise of 94 dbc/hz at 1 MHz offset and a conversion gain of 12 db. Key words : 77 GHz Car Radar, FMCW Radar System, Millimeter-Wave Module. 서론, [1]. (adaptive cruise control),, 2012 ( ) (No ) ( ) (No ). IT (Department of IT Convergence, Sungkyunkwan University) * (Department of Electrical and Computer & Engineering, Seoul National University) Manuscript received July 19, 2013 ; Revised August 12, 2013 ; Accepted August 26, (ID No ) Corresponding Author : Byung-Sung Kim ( 936 c Copyright The Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science. All Rights Reserved.

2 77 GHz. 150 m, [2]., IC. 77 GHz,.,. SiGe HBT, CMOS. CMOS,.,, CMOS..,.,.. 능동회로설계 1. IF, PLL. UMS 13 GHz VCO(CHV2270) 6 (CHU3377). CHU dbm. PLL Analog Device ADF 4158, IF amp 그림 GHz Fig. 1. Block diagram of 77 GHz automotive radar system. Analog Device AD MHz V 470 ma, 5.5 V 30 ma. 65 nm CMOS IC. UMS 77 GHz,,., ,. [5], [6],. 3(a), 3(b) LO. 8 dbm LO 21 db. P1 db 23 dbm., 937

3 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 24, no. 9, Sep (a) (a) Circuit schematic of the receiver (a) (a) Conversion gain along with RF input power (b) (b) Microphotograph of the fabricated receiver 그림 nm CMOS Fig. 2. Down conversion receiver using 65 nm CMOS process. 11 db, 10 MHz. 1.2 V, 22 ma.., 10 1 MHz. (1) [3]. (1) σ RCS(Radar Cross Section) 30 m 2 [4]. R, λ, G T, G R, P T, P R. 24 dbi (b) LO (b) Conversion gain along with LO power 그림 3. Fig. 3. Performance of the down conversion receiver., 150 m, 10 dbm 95 dbm. (2). min 16 db [10], IF FFT BW FFT 1 khz, min 95 dbm 33 db. min log min (2) 938

4 77 GHz IF 10 db/dec. FMCW IF, IF., IF,,,. IF, 10 db/dec, 4 40 db/dec., SNR. FMCW (sweep) 500 MHz, 1 ms 150 m 500 khz IF, 24 db 33 db.. 수동회로및패키지설계.,, LO. 2.2, 5 mil Rogers Duroid RT- 5880,, [7]. 4. WR-10, 77 GHz. MMIC UMS. (a) (a) Micro-strip to waveguide feeder structure (b) - (b) Simulation result of microstrip to waveguide feeder 그림 4. Fig. 4. Microstrip to waveguide feeder. LO 77 GHz. GSG(Ground-Signal-Ground),, GSG 3.. [8]. LO. LO 10 6 dbm 9 13 dbm, 19 db 939

5 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 24, no. 9, Sep 포트는 50 Ω 종단되어야 하나, W 밴드에서 는 실제 50 Ω 종단이 어렵기 때문에 도파관 프로브 를 달아 개방 도파관으로 종단하였다. isolation Ⅳ. 레이더 시스템 모듈 제작 및 측정 결과 방향성 결합기 단면 (a) (a) A single section directional coupled line coupler 방향성 결합기 구조도 그림 6은 제작된 77 GHz 레이더 모듈이다. 레이 더 모듈 크기는 80 mm 61 mm 21 mm이다. IF 출력, 위상 고정 루프의 기준 주파수 입력, 데이터 입력 단 자는 외부 장비와 연결되어 있고, 도파관 끝에는 24 dbi 이득을 갖는 두 개의 상용 표준 혼 안테나를 연 결할 수 있도록 구성되어 있다. 그림 7은 테스트를 위한 송신부의 측정 구성도이 다. 송신부는 별도의 송신 모듈을 만들어 전력증폭 기 출력과 LO 구동 전력을 확인하였다. 패키징된 송 신부의 최종 출력 전력은 10 dbm이고, 방향성 커플 러의 전력 결합비율은 20.5 db로 추가적인 손실 (b) (b) Geometry of directional coupled line coupler 방향성 결합기 시뮬레이션 결과 (c) (c) Simulation result of directional coupled line coupler 방향성 결합기 그림 5. Fig. 5. Directional coupled line coupler. 결합기를 사용하여 공급하였다. 결합기의 디자인 파라미터는 W=0.38 mm, S=0.18 mm, L=0.71 mm이 고, 각각의 위치는 그림 5(b)에 나타난다. 방향성 결 합기의 단면도는 그림 5(a)와 같고, 시뮬레이션 결과 는 그림 5(c)에 나타내었다. 방향성 결합기의 출력 전력 손실은 0.6 db이고, 하향 변환 혼합기로의 결합 전력은 19 db 감쇄되어 입력된다. 방향성 결합기의 [9] 940 제작된 레이더 모듈 그림 6. Fig. 6. Fabricated radar module.

6 77 GHz 송신기 측정 구성도 그림 7. Fig. 7. Measurement setup for the transmitter. 가 발생하였다. 그림 9는 송신부의 위상 잡음 을 나타낸다. 위상 고정 루프(PLL)의 위상 잡음은 1 MHz 오프셋에서 94 dbc/hz로 확인되었다. 제작된 CMOS 수신 칩은 웨이퍼 테스트에서 20 db의 변환 이득을 갖는데 비해, 모듈 평가에서는 12 db 이득을 갖는 것으로 확인되었다. 이러한 이득 저하는 제작 한 듀로이드 기판의 제작 해상도가 낮아 정확한 패 턴이 형성되지 않고, 수작업으로 진행한 본딩 위치 가 정확하지 않아 수신 칩에서 마이크로스트립 선로 로의 부정합으로 인해 LO 구동 전력의 감소 및 저잡 음 증폭기의 입력 손실과 더불어 모듈 제작과정에서 도파관을 완벽하게 밀폐하지 못하여 발생하는 손실 과 도파관에서 Chip Pad로 천이과정에서의 손실이 발생했기 때문으로 판단된다. 그림 10은 40 db 이득을 갖는 IF 증폭기를 포함하 여 제작한 레이더 모듈의 측정 결과이다. 그림 10(b) 는 송신 신호를 주기 2.5 ms로 76.5 GHz에서 77 GHz 까지 선형 변조했을 때, 약 80 m 떨어진 표적을 나타 1.5 db 출력 단자 (a) (a) Output port 송신기 출력 측정 송신기 위상 잡음 측정 그림 9. Fig. 9. Measurement phase noise of the transmitter. 실측정 사진 (a) (a) Measurement set up 스펙트럼 결합 단자 (b) (b) Coupling port 그림 8. Fig. 8. Measurement power of the transmitter. 차량용 레이더 시스템 설계 거리 측정 (b) IF (b) IF spectrum 그림 10. Fig. 10. Range measurement. 941

7 THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 24, no. 9, Sep IF. IF 42 dbm, 105 khz IF. (1) 77 GHz 80 m 142 db. 10 db. RCS. IF 52 db. SNR 1 khz 2.5 db. SNR 16 db, 12 db/oct 37 m. CPW. W.. 결론 77 GHz., 65 nm CMOS. CMOS mm,. CMOS,. References [1],, " ",, 37(5), [2] Jri Lee, Yi-An Li, Meng-Hsiung Hung, and Shih- Jou Huang, "A fully-integrated 77-GHz FMCW radar transceiver in 65 nm CMOS technology", IE- EE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 45, no. 12, pp , [3] David. K. Cheng, Field and Wave Electromagnetics 2 nd Ed., Addison Wesley, [4] M. I. Skolnik, Introduction to Radar Systems, New York: McGraw Hill, [5] Seong-Kyun Kim et al, "A 77 GHz low LO power mixer with a split self-driven switching cell in 65 nm CMOS technology", IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, vol. 22, no. 9, pp , [6], Chenglin Cui,,, "65 nm CMOS 77 GHz LNA ",, 24(9), pp , [7] Robert E. Collin, Field Theory of Guided Waves, IEEE Press, [8] G. Zheng, et al., "Wideband coplanar waveguide RF probe pad to microstrip transitions without via holes", IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, vol. 13, no. 12, pp , [9] Ching-Ian Shie, et al., "Transdirectional coupled-line couplers implemented by periodical shunt capacitors", IEEE Trans. Microwave. Theory Tech., vol. 57, no. 12, pp , [10] M. I. Skolnik, Introduction to Radar Systems, New York: McGraw Hill,

8 77 GHz 남형 기 년 2월: 광운대학교 전파공학 과 (공학사) 2012년 3월 현재: 성균관대학교 IT 융합학과 석사과정 [주 관심분야] 레이더 시스템 설계, 안테나 설계 김성 균 2012 강현 상 년 2월: 광운대학교 전파공학 과 (공학사) 2013년 2월: 성균관대학교 IT융합학 과 (공학석사) 2013년 2월 현재: 삼성전자 연구원 [주 관심분야] 안테나 설계, 레이더 시스템 2011 송의 종 년 2월: 성균관대학교 정보통신 대학 (공학사) 2013년 2월: 성균관대학교 이동통신 전력전자공학과 (공학석사) 2013년 2월 현재: 삼성전기 연구원 [주 관심분야] RFIC 설계 2011 차량용 레이더 시스템 설계 년 2월: 성균관대학교 정보통신 대학 (공학사) 2009년 2월: 성균관대학교 정보통신 대학 (공학석사) 2013년 2월: 성균관대학교 정보통신 대학 (공학박사) [주 관심분야] RFIC 설계 2007 남상 욱 년 2월: 서울대학교 전자공학 과 (공학사) 1983년 2월: 한국과학기술원 전자공 학과 (공학석사) 1989년: Electrical Engineering at the University of Texas at Austin (공 학박사) 1990년 현재: 서울대학교 전기공학부 교수 [주 관심분야] 마이크로파 능동/수동 회로 설계, 안테나 및 전파전파, 전자파 수치 해석 등 1981 김병 성 년 2월: 서울대학교 전자공학 과 (공학사) 1991년 2월: 서울대학교 전자공학 과 (공학석사) 1997년 2월: 서울대학교 전자공학 과 (공학박사) 1997년 3월 현재: 성균관대학교 정 보통신대학 교수 [주 관심분야] RFIC 설계, RF 소자 모델링 1989 Chenglin Cui 년 월 정보통신 공학과 공학사 년 월 성균관대학교 정보통신 대학 공학석사 년 월 현재 성균관대학교 정 보통신대학 박사과정 [주 관심분야] RFIC 설계 : Nanjing Univ. of Posts and Telecommunications ( ) : ( ) : 943

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