KJS B Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics 2020; 30(1): eissn Surface

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "KJS B Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics 2020; 30(1): eissn Surface"

Transcription

1 KJS B Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics 2020; 30(1): eissn Surface EMG Verification according to the Electrode Location in Biceps Brachii during Arm Curl Isometric Exercise ORIGINAL 암컬등척성운동시상완이두근에서의 EMG 전극위치에따른근활성검증 Hyo Eun Park 1, Ah Reum Hong 1, Jae Moo So 2 1 Department of Physical Education, Graduate School of Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea 2 Department of Physical Education, College of Education, Konkuk University, Seoul, South Korea Received : 19 February 2020 Revised : 06 March 2020 Accepted : 09 March 2020 Objective: The purpose of this study is to compare the muscle activity by electrode location in the biceps brachii during the arm curl isometric exercise and to provide the basic data needed to develop the proper electrode location of the biceps brachii based on the study results comparing the muscle activity by the angle of the elbow. Method: 17 adult males (Age: 21.50±4.63 yrs, height: ±5.97 cm, weight: 63.79±15.31 kg, upper-arm length: 30.10±1.22 cm) participated in the study. In the arm curls isometric exercise, the experiment was divided into 1st and 2nd steps to compare muscle activity according to electrode location in the biceps brachii and muscle activity according to elbow angle change. In the first experiment, the surface electrode was attached at one-third point on the line from medial acromion to cubital fossa, according to the measurement method indicated by SENIAM. The elbow angle was set to 90. In the second experiment, according to the proposed method of this study, the electrodes were separated at one finger's width in the left and right direction at onethird point on the line from medial acromion to cubital fossa, attached at the long head and short head. From the long head electrode, in about a width of two fingers in proximal direction, a total of three electrodes were attached at the myotendinal junction of the long head. The elbow angles were set as 70, 90, and 110, and the isometric exercise (100% MVC) for 5 seconds was maintained with keeping the forearm and the rope to be 90 for the first and second experiments. Corresponding Author Jae Moo So Department of Physical Education, College of Education, Konkuk University, 120, Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-go, Seoul, 05029, South Korea Tel : Fax : Results: During the arm curl isometric exercise, there was no significant difference in SH and SENIAM proposition location proposed by this researcher. LH was shown to be lower than the muscle activity of the location proposed by SENIAM and there were significant (p<.01) differences. MJ appeared lower than the muscle activity of the location proposed by SENIAM and there were significant (p<.001) differences. The muscle activity by the elbow angle of SH in the biceps brachii was shown in large order of 70 <90 <110, but there was no significant difference. The muscle activity by the elbow angle of LH was shown in large order of 90 <70 <110, but there was no significant difference. The muscle activity by the elbow angle of MJ was shown in large order of 110 <90 <70, but there was no significant difference. Conclusion: During the arm curl isometric exercise of the biceps brachii, it is judged appropriate to attach surface electrodes to the location proposed by SENIAM. Keywords: Arm curl, EMG, Electrodes, Biceps brachii Copyright C 2020 Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

2 104 Hyo Eun Park, et al. KJSB INTRODUCTION 현대사회는기계화되고자동화된편리한생활로인해신체활동이줄어들면서건강증진을위한신체운동을중요하게생각하는사람들이늘고있다. 건강증진을위한저항운동기구를이용한근력운동은근육의수축, 팽창을반복하여근육을발달시킬수있고날씨와시간적제약이적어많은사람들이이용하고있다. 그중암컬운동기구 (Arm Curl Machine) 는팔꿈치를회전축으로전완을끌어당기는구조로서상완이두근 (Biceps Brachii) 을발달시킬수있는운동기구이다 (Vella, 2012). 상완이두근은근섬유가방추형으로생긴방추형근 (Fusiform muscle) 으로장두 (Long head: LH) 와단두 (Short head: SH), 두갈래를가진근육이다. 일상생활에서는물건집어들기, 입으로음식가져오기와스포츠에서는권투, 노젓기, 카누경기등에서이근육을많이사용한다. 근육의활동은근전도 (Electromyography: EMG) 를이용하여측정할수있는데근전도기술은근육평가를위한도구로서높은잠재력을지니고있어다양한스포츠활동의평가와의료임상분야에서사용되고있다. 근전도는바늘전극법 (Needle Electromyography: NEMG) 과표면전극법 (Surface Electromyography: SEMG) 이있는데표면근전도가비침습적용이성으로인해운동역학연구에더욱폭넓게사용되고있다. 표면근전도는두개의전극을한근육에부착하여근섬유막을따라전도되는운동단위활동전위 (Motor Unit Action Potential: MUAP) 를차동증폭원리로얻는방식이기 (Jeong & Sin, 2005) 때문에전극이적절한위치에배치되는것이중요하다 (Ganesh, 2012). 표면근전도전극위치에대한선행연구들에서 Bilodeau, Cincera, Arsenault & Gravel (1997) 은단두위에장축으로배치하였고 Orizio, Gobbo, Diemont, Esposito & Veicsteinas (2003) 은근복 (Muscle of Belly) 위에배치하였으며 Lange, Weerden & Hoeven (2002) 은신경분포구역과원위힘줄사이에근섬유방향과평행하게배치하는등연구자들마다전극의위치를다르게배치하고있었다. 이렇게다양한전극위치에대한표준화를위해유럽에서 SENIAM (Surface Electromyography for the Non-Invasive Assessment of Muscle) 연합을만들어프로젝트연구를진행하였고현재까지많은연구자들이 SENIAM 에서제시하는근전도실험방법을따르고있다. SENIAM 프로젝트연구 (Hermens, Freriks, Disselhorst-klug & Rau, 2000) 에따르면 SEMG 표면전극의배치방법은실험대상자의자세를전극위치를적절하게결정할수있도록준비시키고해부학적지점을결정한후연결해서운동종판 (endplate) 과원위힘줄 (Distal Tendon) 사이에두개의전극을근섬유방향과장축으로배열해야하며단축으로배열할경우에는힘줄이나근육가장자리 (edge of the muscle) 에서떨어져야한다고했다. 상완이두근의근활성도를측정할경우의자에앉 고팔꿈치를 90 로구부린후견봉내측 (Medial acromion) 부터팔오금 (Cubital fossa) 까지의선상에서 1/3 지점에위치해야한다고했다. 그러나이것은권장사항일뿐완성되지않았고새로운지식에근거하여정기적으로갱신되어야한다고하였다. 따라서전극배치에따른세밀한연구가뒷받침되어야한다. 또한생역학적인관점에서보면관절각도의변화는지레팔 (lever arm) 의길이와근육의길이를변화시키고이러한변화는근수축력을변화시킨다 (An, Kaufman & Chao, 1989). 이점과관련하여 Baltzopoulos & Brodie (1989) 는신체의각관절에서는최적의역학적이점이있는관절각도가존재한다고하였고 Kim et al. (2005) 도하지분절각도에따른수의등척성수축 (MVIC) 시근전도를비교한연구에서관절의각도변화에따라근육의활성도가변한다고하였으며최대의활동전위값을발생시키는특정관절각도혹은분절의상대적위치를밝혀내는것이근전도정량화연구에서가장우선적으로이루어져야한다고하였다. Kang (2013) 은주관절각도변화가주관절굴곡근의근활성도에미치는영향을알아보고자한연구에서주관절 55 에서가장근활성도가높았고, 반면가장강한힘을낸다는 90 굴곡에서가장작은근활성도를보임으로주관절굴곡근이 20% 늘어난위치에서가장큰힘을낸다고하였다. 또한견관절의휴면자세 (Loose-packed position) 와액와슬링을사용한자세에서주관절굴곡 55 일때가장높게나타났으며, 두번째로 70, 90 에서근활성도가가장낮게나타났다. 견관절을체간에붙인자세에서는일관된결과는보이지않았지만다른자세에서보다근활성도가커진다고하였다. 이렇듯여러연구마다각도에따라상완이두근의근활성의차이를보이고있어, 이부분을측정비교해보는연구가필요하다고할수있다. 이에본연구는암컬등척성운동시상완이두근에서의전극위치별근활성도를비교하고주관절각도별근활성을비교한연구결과를근거로상완이두근의적절한전극위치와주관절자세를개발하는데필요한기초자료를제공하고자한다. METHOD 1. 연구대상 본연구의대상자는상지근골격계에이상이없고우세팔이우측인남자성인 17명을대상으로선정하였다. 피험자들마다비교가능하도록내측견봉부터팔오금까지의길이를측정하였고신체적인특성은 (Table 1) 과같다. 실험에참여하기전모든피험자들은실험과정에대한설명을듣고참여의사와동의서를작성하였다. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics

3 KJSB Surface EMG Verification according to the Electrode Location in Biceps Brachii during Arm Curl Isometric Exercise 105 Table 1. Characteristics or the subjects Height (cm) Weight (kg) Age (year) Upper arm length (cm) M ± SD (n=17) ± ± ± ± 실험도구 암컬등척성운동시상완이두근에서의전극위치에따른 근활성을비교하기위한구체적인장비는 (Table 2) 과같다. Table 2. Experimental equipment Equipment Experimental equipment Manufacturer EMG Telemyo DTS Noraxon Arm curl machine Arm curl machine Cybex 3. 실험방법 Figure 1. Arm curl machine 암컬머신을이용한등척성운동시상완이두근에서의전극위치와주관절의각도변화에따른근활성도를비교하기위해 1차와 2차로나누어실험하였다. 근전도측정전피험자들은민소매티셔츠를입고준비운동을실시한후근육의측정오류를방지하기위해털을면도기로제거하고알코올솜으로닦아내었다. 상완이두근에서의전극위치변화에따른근활성도차이를알아보기위해 SENIAM 에서제시하는측정방법에따라견봉내측부터팔오금까지선상에서 1/3 지점에표면전극 (HEX Dual Electrodes, Noraxon) 을장축으로부착하고 1차실험을진행했다. 이때주관절의굴곡각도는 90 로설정하였다. 2차실험은본연구자가제시하는방법에따라견봉내측부터팔오금까지선상의 1/3 지점에서좌우로손가락 1개너비로띄어장두와단두에부착하고장두전극위치에서근위방향으로손가락 2개너비로띄어장두의근건접합부 (Myotendinal Junction: MJ) 에전극을장축으로부착하였다. 전극부착위치는 (Figure 2) 와같다. 주관절각도변화에따른근활성도차이를알아보기위해주관절의각도는 70, 90, 110 로설정하였고상완이두근외의근육사용을제어하기위해암컬머신에몸통을밀착하고의자높이를실험자마다앉은키에맞게설정하였다. 실험자세는 (Figure 1) 과같다. 1, 2차실험모두본실험은로프를손목에감아전완과로프가 90 가되도록고정한후에최대힘 (100% MVC) 으로로프를잡아당기는등척성운동을 5초동안유지하였다. Figure 2. EMG Electrode placement 4. 자료분석본연구에서는암컬등척성운동수행시 5초동안얻어진자료에서처음과끝의 1초를제외한안정화된 3초의근활성을분석하였다. EMG 신호의주파수대역폭 (Bandwidth) 범위는 20~350 Hz 사이로설정하였고절대값을구하기위하여전파정류 (Full-Wave Rectification) 한다음이어서 Smoothing 하였다. 5. 통계처리본연구의통계처리는 SPSS 24.0 (IBM, USA) 을이용하였고, 전극의위치에따른근활성도비교와주관절각도에따른

4 106 Hyo Eun Park, et al. KJSB 근활성도비교를위해 independent t-test와반복측정분석 (ANOVA with repeated measure) 을사용하였다. 유의차이에따른상호작용은단순사후검증을실시하였으며모든통계치의유의수준은 p<.05로설정하였다. RESULTS 본연구는암컬등척성운동시상완이두근의 SENIAM에서제시하는전극위치의근활성도와본연구자가제시하는전극위치의근활성도를비교하고본연구자가제시하는전극위치의주관절각도별근활성도를비교하였다. 총 2회의실험데이터를가지고독립표본검정과일원배치반복측정을통하여비교분석하였다. 1. 주관절각도 90 에서 SH와 SENIAM 의근활성도 이높은차이로나타났으나, 유의미한차이는없었다. 2. 주관절각도 90 에서 LH 와 SENIAM 의근활성도 암컬등척성운동시 LH 와 SENIAM 의근활성도를살펴보면 (Table 4, Figure 4) 과같다. LH 와 SENIAM 의근활성도는 ± μⅤ 와 ± μⅤ 로유의한차이를보였다 (p<.01). Table 4. Muscle activity of LH and SENIAM at 90 of elbow LH SENIAM t p ± ± ** LH: Long Head, SENIAM: electrode location by SENIAM 암컬등척성운동시 SH 와 SENIAM 의근활성도를살펴보 면 (Table 3, Figure 3) 과같다. SH 와 SENIAM 의근활성도는 ± μⅤ 와 ± μⅤ 로 SH 의근활성도값 Table 3. Muscle activity of SH and SENIAM at 90 of elbow SH SENIAM t p ± ± SH: Short Head, SENIAM: electrode location by SENIAM Figure 4. Muscle activity of LH and SENIAM at 90 of elbow 3. 주관절각도 90 에서 MJ 와 SENIAM 의근활성도 암컬등척성운동시 MJ와 SENIAM의근활성도를살펴보면 (Table 5, Figure 5) 과같다. MJ와 SENIAM의근활성도는 ± μⅤ와 ± μⅤ로유의한차이를보였다 (p<.001). 4. 주관절각도별근활성도 Figure 3. Muscle activity of SH and SENIAM at 90 of elbow 암컬등척성운동시상완이두근에서의전극각도별전극 Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics

5 KJSB Surface EMG Verification according to the Electrode Location in Biceps Brachii during Arm Curl Isometric Exercise 107 Table 5. Muscle activity of MJ and SENIAM at 90 of elbow MJ SENIAM t p ± ± *** MJ: Myotendinal Junction, SENIAM: electrode location by SENIAM Figure 6. Muscle activity with varying elbow angles Figure 5. Muscle activity of MJ and SENIAM at 90 of elbow 위치에따른근활성을살펴보면 (Table 6, Figure 6) 와같다. SH 의각도별근활성도는 70 <90 <110 순으로크게나타났지만유의미한차이는없었다. LH 의각도별근활성도는 90 <70 <110 순으로크게나타났지만유의미한차이는없었다. MJ 의각도별근활성도는 110 <90 <70 순으로크게나타났 지만유의미한차이는없었다. DISCUSSION 근육의수축과이완은신경계로부터흥분이운동신경을통 해운동종판 (end-plate) 에전달되면운동단위활동전위 (Motor Unit Action Potential: MUAP) 가근섬유막을따라전도되면서이루어진다 (Lee, 2018). 이에따라 SENIAM 의연구 (Hermens et al., 2000) 에서전통적으로표면전극은 ' 큰 (Large)' 신호를기록할수있는근복 (Muscle Belly) 또는운동종판 (end-plate) 영역위에배치되었다. 그러나현재는운동종판영역이 SEMG 신호의진폭에큰영향을미친다고하였고 (Blok & Stegeman, 1997), Mathiassen & Hägg (1997) 은근섬유의길이방향으로전극위치마다진폭이다르다고보고되었다. 상완이두근에서의전극위치변화에따른근활성도비교시 SH 근활성도가 SENIAM 근활성도보다높게나타났지만유의미한차이는없었고 LH와 MJ는 SENIAM 근활성도보다낮게나타났고유의미한차이가있었다. 이는암컬의최대동작수행시주관절굴곡외에견관절굴곡시모음하고전완을회외한상태로힘을작용하여단두의힘이많이요구되어높은근활성도를보인것으로판단된다. 상완이두근의단두는오훼돌기 (coracoid process) 에서힘줄로시작하고장두는견갑골상관절와결절 (supraglenoid) 에서시작해, 상완골의절반위치쯤내려가다가합쳐지는모양이다. 상완이두근의단두는 Table 6. Muscle activity with varying elbow angles F (p) Post-hoc SH ± ± ± (.523) - LH ± ± ± (.646) - MJ ± ± ± (.240) - SH: Short Head, LH: Long Head, MJ: Myotendinal Junction

6 108 Hyo Eun Park, et al. KJSB 견관절굴곡, 주관절굴곡, 전완회외, 팔의모음작용을하고장두는견관절굴곡, 팔의벌림, 어깨탈구방지기능을한다 (Calais-Germain, 2009). 상완이두근에서 SH의주관절각도별근활성도는 70 <90 <110 순으로더크게나타났지만유의미한차이는없었고, LH의주관절각도별근활성도는 90 <70 <110 순으로더크게나타났지만유의미한차이는없었으며 MJ의각도별근활성도는 110 <90 <70 각도순으로크게나타났지만유의미한차이는없었다. 최대힘은주관절 90 굽힘과뒤침 (supination) 상태일때발생한다 (Palastanga, Field & Soames, 2009) 고보고한것과다른결과가나타났다. 유의미한차이는없었지만관절각도와근활성도사이에관련성이있음을확인하였다. Kendall & McCreary (1983) 은관절의각도변화가근활성도에영향을미친다는주장을근육의길이와장력의관계에의한설명으로이론적근거를마련했다. 힘또는장력은근육의길이에따라다양하게발휘되는데, 최대장력은근-선 (Z-line) 간격이느슨한길이일때발휘된다. 반면근절의길이가이상적인길이보다짧아질경우능동장력은감소된다 (Nordin & Frankel, 2001). 따라서근육길이의변화는장력의변화를초래하기때문에관절각도의변화로인한근육길이의변화는근육의활성과수축력의변화를가져올수있다 (Kendall & McCreary, 1983; Kim et al., 2005). 결국근력의결정요인은관절각도, 근육의길이, 관절축으로부터힘이작용하는거리등이있으며 (Kim & Lee, 1996), 그중에서근육의길이는근육의수축력을결정하는중요한인자라고할수있다 (Basmajian, 1962). CONCLUSION 본연구에서는표면근전도를이용하여상완이두근에서의적절한전극위치를제안하고자근활성을검증하였다. 머리가두갈래인상완이두근을대상으로 SENIAM에서제안한전극위치와본연구자가제안하는전극위치의근활성을비교한결과, 암컬등척성운동시본연구자가제안하는 SH와 SENIAM 제안위치는유의한차이가없었고 LH, MJ은 SENIAM 에서제안하는위치의근활성도보다더낮게나타났고유의한차이가있었다 (p<.01, p<.001). 따라서상완이두근의등척성운동시표면전극은 SENIAM 에서제안하는위치에부착하는것이적절하다고판단되어진다. 또표면근전도를다양한측면에서측정할수있는방법을마련하였다는점에서그의의가있으며표면근전도를이용한연구를활성화하는데기여할것으로기대된다. 그러나본연구는정상성인남성 17명을대상으로하여일반화하기에무리가있으며많은근육의종류중에서대표적으로두갈래방추형모양인상완이두근의근활성만알아보았기때문에추후에는대상자를더확대하여다양 한근육종류의근활성을파악하는지속적인연구가필요하다고판단된다. 또한우세팔이우측인연구대상자를통하여얻은결과이기때문에추후연구에서는비우세팔과우세팔의비교연구도이루어져야할것으로사료된다. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This study was supported by the 2018 Research Foundation of University of Konkuk. REFERENCES An, K. N., Kaufman, K. R. & Chao, E. Y. S. (1989). Physiological considerations of muscle force through the elbow. Journal of Biomechanics, 22(11-12), Baltzopoulos, V. & Brodie, D. A. (1989). Isokinetic Dynamometry Applications and Limitations. Sports Medicine, 8(2), Basmajian, J. V. (1962). Muscle Alive, Their functions revealed by electromyography. Journal of Medical Education, 37(8), 802. Bilodeau, M., Cincera, M., Arsenault, A. B. & Gravel, D. (1997). Normality and Stationarity of EMG Signals of Elbow Flexor Muscle during Ramp and Step Isometric Contractions. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 7(2), Blok, J. H. & Stegeman, D. F. (1997). Simulated bipolar SEMG characteristics. In: Hermens HJ, Freriks B (Eds.). SENIAM 5: The state of the art on sensors and sensor placement procedures for surface electromyography: a proposal for sensor placement procedures. Enschede: Roessingh Research and Development. Calais-Germain, B. (2009). Anatomy of Movement. Seoul: yeongmunsa. Ganesh, R. N. (Ed.) (2012). Computational Intelligence in Electromyography Analysis - A Perspective on Current Applications and Future Challenges. Croatia: IntechOpen. Hermens, H. J., Freriks, B., Disselhorst-klug, C. & Rau, G. (2000). Development of recommendations for SEMG sensors and sensor placement procedures. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 10(5), Jeong, C. S. & Sin, I. S. (2005). Introduction to Sports Biomechanics. Seoul: Daehanmedia. Kang, T. W. (2013). The effects of changing shoulder and elbow Angle on the muscle activity of the upper extremity during pulley with weight exercises. Graduate School, Silla University. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics

7 KJSB Surface EMG Verification according to the Electrode Location in Biceps Brachii during Arm Curl Isometric Exercise 109 Kendall, F. P. & McCreary, E. K. (1983). Muscles: Testing and Function. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Company. Kim, J. J., Lee, M. H., Kim, Y. J., Chae, W. S., Han, Y. S. & Kwon, S. O. (2005). Comparison of the maximum EMG levels recorded in maximum effort isometric contractions at five different knee flexion angles. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 15(1), Kim, J. W. & Lee, K. M. (1996). The Ralationship between Distance and Force during Isometric Strength Examination. Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine, 20(1), Lange, F., Weerden, T. W. V. & Hoeven, J. H. V. D. (2002). A new surface electromyography analysis method to determine spread of muscle fiber conduction velocities. Journal of Applied Physiology, 93, Lee, G. C. (2018). Experiment in sport biomechanics. Seoul: Rainbow Books. Mathiassen, S. E. & Hägg, G. (1997). Amplitude aspects and functional considerations on surface EMG electrode displacement with particular emphasis on the upper trapezius muscle. In: Hermens HJ, Freriks B. (Eds.). SENIAM 5: The state of the art on sensors and sensor placement procedures for surface electromyography: a proposal for sensor placement procedures. Enschede: Roessingh Research and Development. Nordin, M. & Frankel, V. H. (2001). Basic biomechanics of the musculoskeletal System. Alphen aan den rijn: Wolters Kluwer. Orizio, C., Gobbo, M., Diemont, B., Esposito, F. & Veicsteinas, A. (2003). The surgace mechanomyogram as a tool to describe the influence of fatigue on biceps brachii motor unit actication strategy. Historical basis and novel evidence. Eur Journal of Applied Physiology, 90, Palastanga, N., Field, D. & Soames, R. (2009). Anatomy and Human Movement: structure and function. Seoul: Epublic. Vella, M. (2012). Anatomy for Strength and Fitness Training. Seoul: Daehanmedia.

Effects of baseball expertise and stimulus speeds on coincidence-anticipation timing accuracy of batting Jong-Hwa Lee, Seok-Jin Kim, & Seon-Jin Kim* Seoul National University [Purpose] [Methods] [Results]

More information

Kor. J. Aesthet. Cosmetol., 및 자아존중감과 스트레스와도 밀접한 관계가 있고, 만족 정도 에 따라 전반적인 생활에도 영향을 미치므로 신체는 갈수록 개 인적, 사회적 차원에서 중요해지고 있다(안희진, 2010). 따라서 외모만족도는 개인의 신체는 타

Kor. J. Aesthet. Cosmetol., 및 자아존중감과 스트레스와도 밀접한 관계가 있고, 만족 정도 에 따라 전반적인 생활에도 영향을 미치므로 신체는 갈수록 개 인적, 사회적 차원에서 중요해지고 있다(안희진, 2010). 따라서 외모만족도는 개인의 신체는 타 RESEARCH ARTICLE Kor. J. Aesthet. Cosmetol., 20-40대 여성의 외모만족도가 미용관리태도에 미치는 영향 홍수남 1, 김효숙 2 * 1 건국대학교 뷰티사이언스디자인학과, 2 건국대학교 의상디자인과 Effects of Extrinsic Body Satisfaction on Beauty Management Behavior of

More information

Analyses the Contents of Points per a Game and the Difference among Weight Categories after the Revision of Greco-Roman Style Wrestling Rules Han-bong

Analyses the Contents of Points per a Game and the Difference among Weight Categories after the Revision of Greco-Roman Style Wrestling Rules Han-bong Analyses the Contents of Points per a Game and the Difference among Weight Categories after the Revision of Greco-Roman Style Wrestling Rules Han-bong An 1 & Kyoo-jeong Choi 2 * 1 Korea National Wrestling

More information

Kinematic analysis of success strategy of YANG Hak Seon technique Joo-Ho Song 1, Jong-Hoon Park 2, & Jin-Sun Kim 3 * 1 Korea Institute of Sport Scienc

Kinematic analysis of success strategy of YANG Hak Seon technique Joo-Ho Song 1, Jong-Hoon Park 2, & Jin-Sun Kim 3 * 1 Korea Institute of Sport Scienc Kinematic analysis of success strategy of technique JooHo Song 1, JongHoon Park 2, & JinSun Kim 3 * 1 Korea Institute of Sport Science, 2 Catholic Kwandong University, 3 Yonsei University [Purpose] [Methods]

More information

서론 34 2

서론 34 2 34 2 Journal of the Korean Society of Health Information and Health Statistics Volume 34, Number 2, 2009, pp. 165 176 165 진은희 A Study on Health related Action Rates of Dietary Guidelines and Pattern of

More information

- i - - ii - - iii - - iv - - v - - 1 - - 2 - - 3 - - 4 - - 5 - - 6 - - 7 - - 8 - - 9 - - 10 - - 11 - - 12 - - 13 - - 14 - - 15 - - 16 - - 17 - - 18 - - 19 - α α - 20 - α α α α α α - 21 - - 22 - - 23 -

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp DOI: * A Analysis of

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp DOI: * A Analysis of Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp.99-117 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.28.1.201803.99 2015 * A Analysis of the Characters and Issues about the 2015 Revised Social

More information

Abstract Musculoskeletal Symptoms and Related Factors for Nurses and Radiological Technologists Wearing a Lead Apron for Radiation Pro t e c t i o n Jung-Im Yoo, Jung-Wan Koo 1 ) Angio Unit, Team of Radiology,

More information

歯1.PDF

歯1.PDF 200176 .,.,.,. 5... 1/2. /. / 2. . 293.33 (54.32%), 65.54(12.13%), / 53.80(9.96%), 25.60(4.74%), 5.22(0.97%). / 3 S (1997)14.59% (1971) 10%, (1977).5%~11.5%, (1986)

More information

P.P.Templat Korea

P.P.Templat Korea Physical examination of the shoulder Range of motion Range of motion 1. active ROM test - Apley scratch test Range of motion 2. passive ROM test - limitation in ROM 신경학적검사 (neurologic examination) 2. Muscle

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp DOI: * A Study on Teache

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp DOI:   * A Study on Teache Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp.149-171 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.27.4.201712.149 * A Study on Teachers and Parents Perceptions on the Introduction of Innovational

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA The e-business Studies Volume 17, Number 6, December, 30, 2016:237~251 Received: 2016/11/20, Accepted: 2016/12/24 Revised: 2016/12/21, Published: 2016/12/30 [ABSTRACT] Recently, there is an increasing

More information

歯5-2-13(전미희외).PDF

歯5-2-13(전미희외).PDF The Korean Journal of Counseling 2004, Vol. 5, No. 2, 423-434,. 4 5 18 9, 9.,,,,,.,,, t-.. :,,, (,, 1996),.,,. (, 2001),... 88 98 2000, 88 12.5%(250 )98 35.6%(712 )2.8 (,,, 2001) (Corresponding Author)

More information

현대패션의 로맨틱 이미지에 관한 연구

현대패션의 로맨틱 이미지에 관한 연구 한지닥섬유제품의인체생리반응및쾌적성평가 임순 Evaluation of Thermal Physiological Responses and Comfort in Dox Fabric Soon Im Professor, Dept. of Fashion Industry, Incheon National University This study performed the evaluation

More information

Kor. J. Aesthet. Cosmetol., 라이프스타일은 개인 생활에 있어 심리적 문화적 사회적 모든 측면의 생활방식과 차이 전체를 말한다. 이러한 라이프스 타일은 사람의 내재된 가치관이나 욕구, 행동 변화를 파악하여 소비행동과 심리를 추측할 수 있고, 개인의

Kor. J. Aesthet. Cosmetol., 라이프스타일은 개인 생활에 있어 심리적 문화적 사회적 모든 측면의 생활방식과 차이 전체를 말한다. 이러한 라이프스 타일은 사람의 내재된 가치관이나 욕구, 행동 변화를 파악하여 소비행동과 심리를 추측할 수 있고, 개인의 RESEARCH ARTICLE Kor. J. Aesthet. Cosmetol., 한국 중년 여성의 라이프스타일이 메이크업 추구이미지와 화장품 구매행동에 미치는 영향 주영주 1 *, 이순희 2 1 서경대학교대학원미용예술학과, 2 신성대학교 미용예술계열 The Effects of The Life Style for Korean Middle Aged Women on

More information

Microsoft PowerPoint - evaluation(창원대)

Microsoft PowerPoint - evaluation(창원대) Evaluation 헤렌휘트니스파크한경진 ATC Contents 1. Shoulder 2. Elbow 3. Knee 4. Ankle 1 Shoulder Neer Hawkin s Empty can Speed O brien Shoulder anatomy 2 Neer Test Hawkin s test 3 Empty can test Speed Test 4 O Brien

More information

-07-......

-07-...... A Depth Interview on Qualification, Role, and Professionalism of Infant/Toddler Teachers Department of Child & Family Studies, Kyung Hee University Associate Professor : Ahn, Sun Hee Department of Early

More information

ECG & EP CASES Young-Keun On, MD, PhD Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine Cardiac & Vascular Center, Samsung Medical Center Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea A case of

More information

- i - - ii - - iii - - iv - - v - - vi - - 1 - - 2 - - 3 - 1) 통계청고시제 2010-150 호 (2010.7.6 개정, 2011.1.1 시행 ) - 4 - 요양급여의적용기준및방법에관한세부사항에따른골밀도검사기준 (2007 년 11 월 1 일시행 ) - 5 - - 6 - - 7 - - 8 - - 9 - - 10 -

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp DOI: : A basic research

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp DOI:   : A basic research Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp.379-404 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.27.3.201709.379 : A basic research for the after-school forest activities program models:

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp DOI: * Review of Research

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp DOI:   * Review of Research Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp.79-102 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.27.2.201706.79 * Review of Research Trends on Curriculum for Students with Severe and multiple

More information

<353420B1C7B9CCB6F52DC1F5B0ADC7F6BDC7C0BB20C0CCBFEBC7D120BEC6B5BFB1B3C0B0C7C1B7CEB1D7B7A52E687770>

<353420B1C7B9CCB6F52DC1F5B0ADC7F6BDC7C0BB20C0CCBFEBC7D120BEC6B5BFB1B3C0B0C7C1B7CEB1D7B7A52E687770> Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society Vol. 13, No. 2 pp. 866-871, 2012 http://dx.doi.org/10.5762/kais.2012.13.2.866 증강현실을 이용한 아동교육프로그램 모델제안 권미란 1*, 김정일 2 1 나사렛대학교 아동학과, 2 한세대학교 e-비즈니스학과

More information

<30345F283439372D353034295F313135375FC0CCB5BFC8F15FB5B5B7CEC5CDB3CEC0C720B0BBB1B8BACE20B0E6B0FCBCB3B0E8B0A120C5CDB3CE20B3BBBACEC1B6B8ED2E687770>

<30345F283439372D353034295F313135375FC0CCB5BFC8F15FB5B5B7CEC5CDB3CEC0C720B0BBB1B8BACE20B0E6B0FCBCB3B0E8B0A120C5CDB3CE20B3BBBACEC1B6B8ED2E687770> J of Korean Tunn Undergr Sp Assoc 15(5)497-504(2013) eissn: 2287-4747 http://dx.doi.org/10.9711/ktaj.2013.15.5.497 pissn: 2233-8292 도로터널의 갱구부 경관설계가 터널 내부조명에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구 이미애 1 ㆍ이동희 2 * 1 아이라이트 대표이사 2

More information

Lumbar spine

Lumbar spine Lumbar spine CT 32 111 DOI : 10.3831/KPI.2010.13.2.111 Lumbar Spine CT 32 Received : 10. 05. 23 Revised : 10. 06. 04 Accepted : 10. 06. 11 Key Words: Disc herniation, CT scan, Clinical analysis The Clinical

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp DOI: (NCS) Method of Con

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp DOI:   (NCS) Method of Con Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp.181-212 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.27.3.201709.181 (NCS) Method of Constructing and Using the Differentiated National Competency

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp DOI: NCS : G * The Analy

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp DOI:   NCS : G * The Analy Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp.133-158 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.27.1.201703.133 NCS : G * The Analysis of the Cognitive Level of Basic Job Skills of Specialized

More information

<30392D D DB9DAB9CEC3B62C20C0CCBBF3BFAD2E687770>

<30392D D DB9DAB9CEC3B62C20C0CCBBF3BFAD2E687770> J Korean Soc Phys Med, 2016; 11(2): 71-76 http://dx.doi.org/10.13066/kspm.2016.11.2.71 Online ISSN: 2287-7215 Print ISSN: 1975-311X Research Article Open Access 탄력밴드와아령에의한저항이다양한어깨관절외전각도에서중간어깨세모근의등척성수축에미치는영향

More information

12이문규

12이문규 Review on Conservative Treatment of Spinal Scoliosis Moon-kyu Lee, O.M.D., Gil-jae Lee, O.M.D., Yun-kyung Song, O.M.D., Hyung-ho Lim, O.M.D. Dept. of Oriental Rehabilitation Medicine College of Oriental

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering 한국정보통신학회논문지(J. Korea Inst. Inf. Commun. Eng.) Vol. 19, No. 5 : 1031~1039 May. 2015 정보보호 산업의 경제적 파급효과 및 기여도 분석 김방룡 1 홍재표 2* Economic

More information

012임수진

012임수진 Received : 2012. 11. 27 Reviewed : 2012. 12. 10 Accepted : 2012. 12. 12 A Clinical Study on Effect of Electro-acupuncture Treatment for Low Back Pain and Radicular Pain in Patients Diagnosed with Lumbar

More information

원위부요척골관절질환에서의초음파 유도하스테로이드주사치료의효과 - 후향적 1 년경과관찰연구 - 연세대학교대학원 의학과 남상현

원위부요척골관절질환에서의초음파 유도하스테로이드주사치료의효과 - 후향적 1 년경과관찰연구 - 연세대학교대학원 의학과 남상현 원위부요척골관절질환에서의초음파 유도하스테로이드주사치료의효과 - 후향적 1 년경과관찰연구 - 연세대학교대학원 의학과 남상현 원위부요척골관절질환에서의초음파 유도하스테로이드주사치료의효과 - 후향적 1 년경과관찰연구 - 연세대학교대학원 의학과 남상현 원위부요척골관절질환에서의초음파 유도하스테로이드주사치료의효과 - 후향적 1 년경과관찰연구 - 지도김석원교수 이논문을석사학위논문으로제출함

More information

(5차 편집).hwp

(5차 편집).hwp (215), 54(1), 17-3 211 STEAM,.. STEAM, STEAM, 5~6 11.,., 5~6...,. (, 21)., 29. (,, 212). 211 STEAM * :, E-mail: njkwon@hanmail.net http://dx.doi.org/1.15812/ter.54.1.2153.17 (215), 54(1), 17-3,. (Arts)

More information

???? 1

???? 1 The Korean Journal of Applied Statistics (2014) 27(1), 13 20 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5351/kjas.2014.27.1.013 Maximum Tolerated Dose Estimation by Stopping Rule and SM3 Design in a Phase I Clinical Trial

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp DOI: * A Study on the Pe

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp DOI:   * A Study on the Pe Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp.405-425 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.28.1.201803.405 * A Study on the Perceptions and Factors of Immigrant Background Youth

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp DOI: : Researc

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp DOI:   : Researc Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp.251-273 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.27.2.201706.251 : 1997 2005 Research Trend Analysis on the Korean Alternative Education

More information

스포츠과학 143호 내지.indd

스포츠과학 143호 내지.indd https simtk.org,, sanghyuk0620@kspo.or.kr.... 48 SPORT SCIENCE . 33 55% 1 2 Iwamoto and Takeda 2003 3 1 3.......?... 4 SPORT SCIENCE 1. 2 3 12 16 3 6.. 5 strain gauge. 1970. 6 1) Brukner, P., Bradshaw,

More information

<30312DC1A4BAB8C5EBBDC5C7E0C1A4B9D7C1A4C3A52DC1A4BFB5C3B62E687770>

<30312DC1A4BAB8C5EBBDC5C7E0C1A4B9D7C1A4C3A52DC1A4BFB5C3B62E687770> Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering 한국정보통신학회논문지(J. Korea Inst. Inf. Commun. Eng.) Vol. 19, No. 2 : 258~264 Feb. 2015 ID3 알고리즘 기반의 귀납적 추론을 활용한 모바일 OS의 성공과 실패에 대한

More information

V V V α Azam, M. Z. M. & Park, Dong-Ho (2012). The relationship between Digit Ratio(2D:4D) and Physical Fitness in Children. Journal of Korean Society of Living Environmental System, 19(1), 101-110.

More information

Analysis of teacher s perception and organization on physical education elective courses Chang-Wan Yu* Korea Institute of curriculum and evaluation [Purpose] [Methods] [Results] [Conclusions] Key words:

More information

Æ÷Àå82š

Æ÷Àå82š Lee, Kyungbae (E-mail : kblee6078@ex.co.kr) Lee, Jaehoon (E-mail : ranian74@ex.co.kr) Sohn, Duecksu (E-mail : mgsds@ex.co.kr) Kwon, Soonmin (E-mail : soonmini2@ex.co.kr) ABSTRACT PURPOSES : The purpose

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp DOI: * Suggestions of Ways

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp DOI:   * Suggestions of Ways Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp.65-89 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.29.1.201903.65 * Suggestions of Ways to Improve Teaching Practicum Based on the Experiences

More information

歯14.양돈규.hwp

歯14.양돈규.hwp : The Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy 2003. Vol. 15, No. 3, 615-631. 1 2 3 1,410.,, ( ),., ( 69%),.,, ( ), ( ).,,.., ( ).,. :,,. :, (390-711) 21-1, : 043-649-1362 E-mail : ydk9498@hanmail.net

More information

인문사회과학기술융합학회

인문사회과학기술융합학회 Vol.5, No.5, October (2015), pp.471-479 http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ajmahs.2015.10.50 스마트온실을 위한 가상 외부기상측정시스템 개발 한새론 1), 이재수 2), 홍영기 3), 김국환 4), 김성기 5), 김상철 6) Development of Virtual Ambient Weather Measurement

More information

11-19스포츠과학 145호 내지.indd

11-19스포츠과학 145호 내지.indd 출처: 아이클릭아트 스포츠과학 신체활동 후 회복방법 박지홍 경희대학교 체육대학 스포츠의학과 교수 관절부상과 경기력향상에 관심 jihong.park@khu.ac.kr 신체활동과 피로의 연속성 신체활동(운동)의 중요한 원리 중 하나는 연속성입니다. 규칙적으로 반복된 자극(트레이닝)이 주어졌 을 때 그 자극을 극복하는 과정을 운동 적응(exercise adaptation)이라고

More information

THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 29, no. 10, Oct ,,. 0.5 %.., cm mm FR4 (ε r =4.4)

THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. vol. 29, no. 10, Oct ,,. 0.5 %.., cm mm FR4 (ε r =4.4) THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. 2018 Oct.; 29(10), 799 804. http://dx.doi.org/10.5515/kjkiees.2018.29.10.799 ISSN 1226-3133 (Print) ISSN 2288-226X (Online) Method

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp DOI: 3 * The Effect of H

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp DOI:   3 * The Effect of H Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp.577-601 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.28.4.201812.577 3 * The Effect of Home-based Activities Using Traditional Fairy Tales

More information

278 경찰학연구제 12 권제 3 호 ( 통권제 31 호 )

278 경찰학연구제 12 권제 3 호 ( 통권제 31 호 ) 여성경찰관의직업윤리의식결정요인분석 * An Analysis of Determinantal Factors Influencing Professional Ethical Standards of South Korean Police Women 신문희 ** 이영민 *** Ⅰ. 서론 Ⅱ. 이론적배경 Ⅲ. 연구방법 Ⅳ. 연구결과 Ⅴ. 결론 Ⅰ. 서론 278 경찰학연구제 12

More information

03이경미(237~248)ok

03이경미(237~248)ok The recent (2001-2010) changes on temperature and precipitation related to normals (1971-2000) in Korea* Kyoungmi Lee** Hee-Jeong Baek*** ChunHo Cho**** Won-Tae Kwon*****. 61 (1971~2000) 10 (2001~2010).

More information

7 1 ( 12 ) 1998. 1913 ( 1912 ) 4. 3) 1916 3 1918 4 1919. ( ) 1 3 1, 3 1. 1.. 1919 1920. 4) ( ), ( ),. 5) 1924 4 ( ) 1. 1925 1. 2). ( ). 6). ( ). ( ).

7 1 ( 12 ) 1998. 1913 ( 1912 ) 4. 3) 1916 3 1918 4 1919. ( ) 1 3 1, 3 1. 1.. 1919 1920. 4) ( ), ( ),. 5) 1924 4 ( ) 1. 1925 1. 2). ( ). 6). ( ). ( ). 7 1 ( 12 ) : 1-11, 1998 K orean J M ed H ist 7 : 1-11, 1998 ISSN 1225-505X * **.,.., 1960.... 1) ( ) 1896 3 2 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2. 1), 14 1909 1,. 14 17 1913. 2)..,. ( ) ( ),. * 1998 (1998. 5. 7). ** 1).

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp DOI: A study on Characte

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp DOI:   A study on Characte Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp.381-404 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.28.1.201803.381 A study on Characteristics of Action Learning by Analyzing Learners Experiences

More information

09È«¼®¿µ 5~152s

09È«¼®¿µ5~152s Korean Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol.23, No.2, 2007, pp.45~52 Measurement of Backscattering Coefficients of Rice Canopy Using a Ground Polarimetric Scatterometer System Suk-Young Hong*, Jin-Young Hong**,

More information

KIM Sook Young : Lee Jungsook, a Korean Independence Activist and a Nurse during the 이며 나름 의식이 깨어있던 지식인들이라 할 수 있을 것이다. 교육을 받은 간 호부들은 환자를 돌보는 그들의 직업적 소

KIM Sook Young : Lee Jungsook, a Korean Independence Activist and a Nurse during the 이며 나름 의식이 깨어있던 지식인들이라 할 수 있을 것이다. 교육을 받은 간 호부들은 환자를 돌보는 그들의 직업적 소 1 의사학 제24권 제1호(통권 제49호) 2015년 4월 Korean J Med Hist 24 ː1-34 Apr 2015 c대한의사학회 http://dx.doi.org/10.13081/kjmh.2015.24.1 pissn 1225-505X, eissn 2093-5609 간호부 이정숙의 독립운동 김숙영* 1. 서론 2. 본론 1) 출생에서 정신여학교 수학시절까지

More information

- iii - - i - - ii - - iii - 국문요약 종합병원남자간호사가지각하는조직공정성 사회정체성과 조직시민행동과의관계 - iv - - v - - 1 - - 2 - - 3 - - 4 - - 5 - - 6 - - 7 - - 8 - - 9 - - 10 - - 11 - - 12 - - 13 - - 14 - α α α α - 15 - α α α α α α

More information

878 Yu Kim, Dongjae Kim 지막 용량수준까지도 멈춤 규칙이 만족되지 않아 시행이 종료되지 않는 경우에는 MTD의 추정이 불가 능하다는 단점이 있다. 최근 이 SM방법의 단점을 보완하기 위해 O Quigley 등 (1990)이 제안한 CRM(Continu

878 Yu Kim, Dongjae Kim 지막 용량수준까지도 멈춤 규칙이 만족되지 않아 시행이 종료되지 않는 경우에는 MTD의 추정이 불가 능하다는 단점이 있다. 최근 이 SM방법의 단점을 보완하기 위해 O Quigley 등 (1990)이 제안한 CRM(Continu 한 국 통 계 학 회 논 문 집 2012, 19권, 6호, 877 884 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5351/ckss.2012.19.6.877 Maximum Tolerated Dose Estimation Applied Biased Coin Design in a Phase Ⅰ Clinical Trial Yu Kim a, Dongjae Kim

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp DOI: A Study on the Opti

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp DOI:   A Study on the Opti Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 4, pp.127-148 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/11024/pnuedi.27.4.201712.127 A Study on the Optimization of Appropriate Hearing-impaired Curriculum Purpose:

More information

THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE Jun.; 27(6),

THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE Jun.; 27(6), THE JOURNAL OF KOREAN INSTITUTE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING AND SCIENCE. 2016 Jun.; 27(6), 495 503. http://dx.doi.org/10.5515/kjkiees.2016.27.6.495 ISSN 1226-3133 (Print) ISSN 2288-226X (Online) Design

More information

232 도시행정학보 제25집 제4호 I. 서 론 1. 연구의 배경 및 목적 사회가 다원화될수록 다양성과 복합성의 요소는 증가하게 된다. 도시의 발달은 사회의 다원 화와 밀접하게 관련되어 있기 때문에 현대화된 도시는 경제, 사회, 정치 등이 복합적으로 연 계되어 있어 특

232 도시행정학보 제25집 제4호 I. 서 론 1. 연구의 배경 및 목적 사회가 다원화될수록 다양성과 복합성의 요소는 증가하게 된다. 도시의 발달은 사회의 다원 화와 밀접하게 관련되어 있기 때문에 현대화된 도시는 경제, 사회, 정치 등이 복합적으로 연 계되어 있어 특 한국도시행정학회 도시행정학보 제25집 제4호 2012. 12 : pp.231~251 생활지향형 요소의 근린주거공간 분포특성 연구: 경기도 시 군을 중심으로* Spatial Distribution of Daily Life-Oriented Features in the Neighborhood: Focused on Municipalities of Gyeonggi Province

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA The e-business Studies Volume 17, Number 4, August, 30, 2016:319~332 Received: 2016/07/28, Accepted: 2016/08/28 Revised: 2016/08/27, Published: 2016/08/30 [ABSTRACT] This paper examined what determina

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp DOI: * A Research Trend

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp DOI:   * A Research Trend Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp.295-318 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.28.4.201812.295 * A Research Trend on the Studies related to Parents of Adults with Disabilities

More information

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA

DBPIA-NURIMEDIA The e-business Studies Volume 17, Number 6, December, 30, 2016:275~289 Received: 2016/12/02, Accepted: 2016/12/22 Revised: 2016/12/20, Published: 2016/12/30 [ABSTRACT] SNS is used in various fields. Although

More information

歯kjmh2004v13n1.PDF

歯kjmh2004v13n1.PDF 13 1 ( 24 ) 2004 6 Korean J Med Hist 13 20 36 June 2004 ISSN 1225 505X * 1 1886 ( ) 1) 1905 * 1) 20 2) 1910 1926 1910 1926 1930 40 2 1899 1907 3) 4) 1908 1909 ( ) ( ) ( 2) 1995 1998 3) 1997 p 376 4) 1956

More information

03-서연옥.hwp

03-서연옥.hwp 농업생명과학연구 49(4) pp.31-37 Journal of Agriculture & Life Science 49(4) pp.31-37 Print ISSN 1598-5504 Online ISSN 2383-8272 http://dx.doi.org/10.14397/jals.2015.49.4.31 국가산림자원조사 자료를 적용한 충남지역 사유림경영율 추정 서연옥

More information

step 1-1

step 1-1 Written by Dr. In Ku Kim-Marshall STEP BY STEP Korean 1 through 15 Action Verbs Table of Contents Unit 1 The Korean Alphabet, hangeul Unit 2 Korean Sentences with 15 Action Verbs Introduction Review Exercises

More information

상담학연구,, SPSS 21.0., t,.,,,..,.,.. (Corresponding Author): / / / Tel: /

상담학연구,, SPSS 21.0., t,.,,,..,.,.. (Corresponding Author): / / / Tel: / ,,. 164 -. SPSS 21.0., t,.,,,..,.,.. (Corresponding Author): / / 1 11 404 / Tel: 02-880-7636 / E-mail: dikimedu@snu.ac.kr ...,,, (, 2012),, (,,, 2012a, 2012b;,, 2011;, 2011;,, 2010). (, 2013;, 2012;, ;

More information

,,,.,,,, (, 2013).,.,, (,, 2011). (, 2007;, 2008), (, 2005;,, 2007).,, (,, 2010;, 2010), (2012),,,.. (, 2011:,, 2012). (2007) 26%., (,,, 2011;, 2006;

,,,.,,,, (, 2013).,.,, (,, 2011). (, 2007;, 2008), (, 2005;,, 2007).,, (,, 2010;, 2010), (2012),,,.. (, 2011:,, 2012). (2007) 26%., (,,, 2011;, 2006; ,,.. 400,,,,,,.,,, -, -, -., 3.. :, Tel : 010-9540-0640, E-mail : sunney05@hanmail.net ,,,.,,,, (, 2013).,.,, (,, 2011). (, 2007;, 2008), (, 2005;,, 2007).,, (,, 2010;, 2010), (2012),,,.. (, 2011:,, 2012).

More information

Analysis of objective and error source of ski technical championship Jin Su Seok 1, Seoung ki Kang 1 *, Jae Hyung Lee 1, & Won Il Son 2 1 yong in Univ

Analysis of objective and error source of ski technical championship Jin Su Seok 1, Seoung ki Kang 1 *, Jae Hyung Lee 1, & Won Il Son 2 1 yong in Univ Analysis of objective and error source of ski technical championship Jin Su Seok 1, Seoung ki Kang 1 *, Jae Hyung Lee 1, & Won Il Son 2 1 yong in University & 2 Kang Won University [Purpose] [Methods]

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2016, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp DOI: * Experiences of Af

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2016, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp DOI:   * Experiences of Af Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2016, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp.201-229 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.26.2.201608.201 * Experiences of After-school Class Caring by Married Early Childhood

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp DOI: A Study on Organizi

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp DOI:   A Study on Organizi Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp.441-460 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.28.4.201812.441 A Study on Organizing Software Education of Special Education Curriculum

More information

A Study on Married Female Immigrants Life Style and Marriage Satisfaction in Terms of Preparing Their Old Age in Chungcheongnam-do Department of Gerontology, Hoseo University Doctoral Student : Hi Ran

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp DOI: : - Qualitative Met

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp DOI:   : - Qualitative Met Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp.369-397 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.28.2.201806.369 : - Qualitative Meta-Synthesis on Child-Nurturing Experiences of Female

More information

<30382E20B1C7BCF8C0E720C6EDC1FD5FC3D6C1BEBABB2E687770>

<30382E20B1C7BCF8C0E720C6EDC1FD5FC3D6C1BEBABB2E687770> 정보시스템연구 제23권 제1호 한국정보시스템학회 2014년 3월, pp. 161~184 http://dx.doi.org/10.5859/kais.2014.23.1.161 베이비붐세대의 디지털라이프 지수* 1) 권순재**, 김미령*** Ⅰ. 서론 Ⅱ. 기존문헌 연구 2.1 베이비붐세대의 현황과 특성 2.2 베이비붐의 세대이 정보화 연구 Ⅲ. 연구내용 및 방법 Ⅳ.

More information

27 2, 17-31, , * ** ***,. K 1 2 2,.,,,.,.,.,,.,. :,,, : 2009/08/19 : 2009/09/09 : 2009/09/30 * 2007 ** *** ( :

27 2, 17-31, , * ** ***,. K 1 2 2,.,,,.,.,.,,.,. :,,, : 2009/08/19 : 2009/09/09 : 2009/09/30 * 2007 ** *** ( : 27 2, 17-31, 2009. -, * ** ***,. K 1 2 2,.,,,.,.,.,,.,. :,,, : 2009/08/19 : 2009/09/09 : 2009/09/30 * 2007 ** *** (: dminkim@cau.ac.kr) 18 한국교육문제연구제 27 권 2 호, 2009. Ⅰ. (,,, 2004). (,, 2006).,,, (Myrick,

More information

2 大 韓 政 治 學 會 報 ( 第 18 輯 1 號 ) 과의 소통부재 속에 여당과 국회도 무시한 일방적인 밀어붙이기식 국정운영을 보여주고 있다. 민주주의가 무엇인지 다양하게 논의될 수 있지만, 민주주의 운영에 필요한 최소한의 제도적 조건은 권력 행사에서 국가기관 사이의

2 大 韓 政 治 學 會 報 ( 第 18 輯 1 號 ) 과의 소통부재 속에 여당과 국회도 무시한 일방적인 밀어붙이기식 국정운영을 보여주고 있다. 민주주의가 무엇인지 다양하게 논의될 수 있지만, 민주주의 운영에 필요한 최소한의 제도적 조건은 권력 행사에서 국가기관 사이의 대한정치학회보 18집 1호, 2010년 6월:49~74 노무현 대통령과 이명박 대통령의 지도력과 국정운영 비교 : 임기 초 지도력 특성과 국민지지 * 1) 이 강 로 전주대학교 요 약 한국에서 민주주의가 뿌리를 내리기 위해서는 대통령의 지도력 행사에 제도만이 아 니라 여론과 같은 외부적 요인을 통해 체계적으로 견제할 수 있어야 한다. 대통령의 지도력 특성을

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp DOI: * The Effect of Paren

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp DOI:   * The Effect of Paren Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp.95-116 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.29.2.201906.95 * The Effect of Parent Education Program Using Action Learning on Family

More information

Output file

Output file 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 An Application for Calculation and Visualization of Narrative Relevance of Films Using Keyword Tags Choi Jin-Won (KAIST) Film making

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp DOI: * The

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp DOI:   * The Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2017, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp.243-268 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.27.1.201703.243 * - 2001 2015 - The Research Trends on Peer Counseling in Elementary and

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp DOI: * Strenghening the Cap

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp DOI:   * Strenghening the Cap Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp.27-43 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.28.3.201809.27 * Strenghening the Capacity of Cultural Arts Required in Special Education

More information

<35BFCFBCBA2E687770>

<35BFCFBCBA2E687770> 주요개념 : 컴퓨터음란물 접촉자, 성지식, 성태도 남자중학생의 컴퓨터음란물 접촉자와 비접촉자간의 성지식과 태도의 차이 김 영 혜* 이 화 자** 정 향 미*** 1. 연구의 필요성 한국은 I. 서 론 1960 년대 이후부터 시작된 돌진적 산업화 ( 한 상진, 1996) 로 인하여 경제적 부흥을 이루어 집집마다 TV 수상기를 가질 수 있게 되었고 최근에는 PC보급율

More information

P.P.Templat Korea

P.P.Templat Korea Physical examination of the shoulder contents 1. Shoulder anatomy 2. Inspection 3. Bony palpation 4. Soft tissue palpation Shoulder joint의 구성 type of joint - ball and socket joint, degree of freedom :

More information

The influence of soccer field ground types on lower extremity muscle activation during forward side step Hyun-Been Lee, & Bee-Oh Lim* Chung-Ang Univer

The influence of soccer field ground types on lower extremity muscle activation during forward side step Hyun-Been Lee, & Bee-Oh Lim* Chung-Ang Univer The influence of soccer field ground types on lower extremity muscle activation during forward side step Hyun-Been Lee, & Bee-Oh Lim* Chung-Ang University [Purpose] [Methods] [Results] [Conclusions] Key

More information

한국성인에서초기황반변성질환과 연관된위험요인연구

한국성인에서초기황반변성질환과 연관된위험요인연구 한국성인에서초기황반변성질환과 연관된위험요인연구 한국성인에서초기황반변성질환과 연관된위험요인연구 - - i - - i - - ii - - iii - - iv - χ - v - - vi - - 1 - - 2 - - 3 - - 4 - 그림 1. 연구대상자선정도표 - 5 - - 6 - - 7 - - 8 - 그림 2. 연구의틀 χ - 9 - - 10 - - 11 -

More information

Ⅲ Ⅲ Ⅰ Ⅰ Ⅰ α < < < < < χ χ Ⅰ Ⅱ Ⅲ Ⅰ Ⅲ Ⅰ Bagozzi, R., & Dholakia, U. (2002). Intentional Social Action in Virtual Communities. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 16(2), 2-21. Borkovec, T. D. (1976).

More information

XSSEJLHLUTTT.hwp

XSSEJLHLUTTT.hwp 대한물리의학회지제4권제4 호, 2009년 월 Vol.4, No.4, November 2009. p.269~274 ) 팔굽혀펴기에대한생체역학분석 노태환 김정효 박시백 이나나 울산대학교물리학과, 선린대학물리치료과 Analysis of Biomechanics of Push-up Movement Tae-hwan Rho, PhD, Jeong-hyo Kim, Si-baek

More information

도비라

도비라 광고학연구 : 제24권 5호(2013년) The Korean Journal of Advertising, Vol.24, No.5 (2013). pp.99 116 대학생 광고공모전이 광고업계 취업에 미치는 영향: 대학생과 실무자의 인식 비교를 중심으로 차 유 철 우석대학교 광고이벤트학과 교수, 언론학박사 이 희 복 상지대학교 언론광고학부 교수, 언론학박사* 신

More information

Microsoft PowerPoint - 7-Work and Energy.ppt

Microsoft PowerPoint - 7-Work and Energy.ppt Chapter 7. Work and Energy 일과운동에너지 One of the most important concepts in physics Alternative approach to mechanics Many applications beyond mechanics Thermodynamics (movement of heat) Quantum mechanics...

More information

The characteristic analysis of winners and losers in curling: Focused on shot type, shot accuracy, blank end and average score SungGeon Park 1 & Soowo

The characteristic analysis of winners and losers in curling: Focused on shot type, shot accuracy, blank end and average score SungGeon Park 1 & Soowo The characteristic analysis of winners and losers in curling: Focused on shot type, shot accuracy, blank end and average score SungGeon Park 1 & Soowon Lee 2 * 1 Program of Software Convergence, Soongsil

More information

08.hwp

08.hwp 박 기 식 여주대학 토목과 (2001. 10. 24. 접수 / 2002. 6. 14. 채택) A Study on the Longitudinal Vibration of Finite Elastic Medium using Laboratory Test Ki-Shik Park Department of Civil Engineering, Yeojoo Institute of

More information

.,,,,,,.,,,,.,,,,,, (, 2011)..,,, (, 2009)., (, 2000;, 1993;,,, 1994;, 1995), () 65, 4 51, (,, ). 33, 4 30, (, 201

.,,,,,,.,,,,.,,,,,, (, 2011)..,,, (, 2009)., (, 2000;, 1993;,,, 1994;, 1995), () 65, 4 51, (,, ). 33, 4 30, (, 201 4 21.,,,.,,. 1, 2, 3, 4.,,,,,,.,,,,., ( ). 60-66,,,,,.. (Corresponding Author): / / 303 Tel: 063-220-2495/ E-mail: ikkim@jj.ac.kr .,,,,,,.,,,,.,,,,,, (, 2011)..,,, (, 2009)., (, 2000;, 1993;,,, 1994;,

More information

975_983 특집-한규철, 정원호

975_983 특집-한규철, 정원호 Focused Issue of This Month Gyu Cheol an, MD Department of Otolaryngology ead & Neck Surgery, Gachon University of College Medicine E - mail : han@gilhospital.com Won-o Jung, MD Department of Otolaryngology

More information

72 순천향의과학 : 제14권 2호 2008 Fig.1. Key components of the rehabilitation evaluation of patients with the rheumatic diseases. The ICF provides a good frame

72 순천향의과학 : 제14권 2호 2008 Fig.1. Key components of the rehabilitation evaluation of patients with the rheumatic diseases. The ICF provides a good frame Journal of Soonchunhyang Medical Science 14(2) p.71~82 December 2008 71 류마티스 관절염의 재활치료 오 기 영 순천향 대학교 의과대학 재활의학교실 Rehabilitation Interventions for the Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis Ki-Young Oh Department

More information

I 서론 치과용 임플란트는 Brånemark 등1의 골유착 (osseointegration) 발견 이후 끊임없는 발전 을 거듭해 왔다. Brånemark 등 1 이 밝혀낸 골 유착은 임플란트의 표면과 living bone 사이에 연조직 층 의 생성이 없이 직접 골조직이

I 서론 치과용 임플란트는 Brånemark 등1의 골유착 (osseointegration) 발견 이후 끊임없는 발전 을 거듭해 왔다. Brånemark 등 1 이 밝혀낸 골 유착은 임플란트의 표면과 living bone 사이에 연조직 층 의 생성이 없이 직접 골조직이 ISSN 1229-5418 ; 17(4): 268~274 임플란트 드릴링 시 발생하는 열과 그 원인에 대한 분석 한선희 1, 김병국 2, 김범익 2 1 서울대학교 치의학대학원 치주과학교실, 2 오스템임플란트연구소 Temperature Measurement during Implant-site Preparation Seon-Hee Han 1, Byoung Kook

More information

300 구보학보 12집. 1),,.,,, TV,,.,,,,,,..,...,....,... (recall). 2) 1) 양웅, 김충현, 김태원, 광고표현 수사법에 따른 이해와 선호 효과: 브랜드 인지도와 의미고정의 영향을 중심으로, 광고학연구 18권 2호, 2007 여름

300 구보학보 12집. 1),,.,,, TV,,.,,,,,,..,...,....,... (recall). 2) 1) 양웅, 김충현, 김태원, 광고표현 수사법에 따른 이해와 선호 효과: 브랜드 인지도와 의미고정의 영향을 중심으로, 광고학연구 18권 2호, 2007 여름 동화 텍스트를 활용한 패러디 광고 스토리텔링 연구 55) 주 지 영* 차례 1. 서론 2. 인물의 성격 변화에 의한 의미화 전략 3. 시공간 변화에 의한 의미화 전략 4. 서사의 변개에 의한 의미화 전략 5. 창조적인 스토리텔링을 위하여 6. 결론 1. 서론...., * 서울여자대학교 초빙강의교수 300 구보학보 12집. 1),,.,,, TV,,.,,,,,,..,...,....,...

More information

<C7D1B1B9B1B3C0B0B0B3B9DFBFF85FC7D1B1B9B1B3C0B05F3430B1C733C8A35FC5EBC7D5BABB28C3D6C1BE292DC7A5C1F6C6F7C7D42E687770>

<C7D1B1B9B1B3C0B0B0B3B9DFBFF85FC7D1B1B9B1B3C0B05F3430B1C733C8A35FC5EBC7D5BABB28C3D6C1BE292DC7A5C1F6C6F7C7D42E687770> 기혼 여성이 사이버대학에서 상담을 전공하면서 겪는 경험 방기연 (고려사이버대학교 상담심리학과 부교수) * 요 약 본 연구는 기혼 여성의 사이버대학 상담전공 학과 입학에서 졸업까지의 경험을 이해하는 것을 목적으로 한 다. 이를 위해 연구참여자 10명을 대상으로 심층면접을 하고, 합의적 질적 분석 방법으로 분석하였다. 입학 전 에 연구참여자들은 고등교육의 기회를

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp DOI: 3 * Effects of 9th

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp DOI:   3 * Effects of 9th Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2019, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp.357-378 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.29.2.201906.357 3 * Effects of 9th Grade Students Participation in Career Curriculum Cluster

More information

<BCF6BDC3323030392D31385FB0EDBCD3B5B5B7CEC8DEB0D4C5B8BFEEB5B5C0D4B1B8BBF3BFACB1B85FB1C7BFB5C0CE2E687770>

<BCF6BDC3323030392D31385FB0EDBCD3B5B5B7CEC8DEB0D4C5B8BFEEB5B5C0D4B1B8BBF3BFACB1B85FB1C7BFB5C0CE2E687770> ... 수시연구 2009-18.. 고속도로 휴게타운 도입구상 연구 A Study on the Concept of Service Town at the Expressway Service Area... 권영인 임재경 이창운... 서 문 우리나라는 경제성장과 함께 도시화가 지속적으로 진행되어 지방 지역의 인구감소와 경기의 침체가 계속되고 있습니다. 정부의 다각 적인

More information

Microsoft Word - KSR2012A021.doc

Microsoft Word - KSR2012A021.doc YWXY G ºG ºG t G G GGGGGGGGGrzyYWXYhWYXG Ÿƒ Ÿ ± k ¹Ÿˆ Review about the pantograph field test result adapted for HEMU-430X (1) ÕÕÛ äñ ã G Ki-Nam Kim, Tae-Hwan Ko * Abstract In this paper, explain differences

More information

Development of culture technic for practical cultivation under structure in Gastrodia elate Blume

Development of culture technic for practical cultivation under structure in Gastrodia elate Blume Development of culture technic for practical cultivation under structure in Gastrodia elate Blume 1996. : 1. 8 2. 1 1998. 12. : : ( ) : . 1998. 12 : : : : : : : : : : - 1 - .. 1.... 2.. 3.... 1..,,.,,

More information

<35335FBCDBC7D1C1A42DB8E2B8AEBDBAC5CDC0C720C0FCB1E2C0FB20C6AFBCBA20BAD0BCAE2E687770>

<35335FBCDBC7D1C1A42DB8E2B8AEBDBAC5CDC0C720C0FCB1E2C0FB20C6AFBCBA20BAD0BCAE2E687770> Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society Vol. 15, No. 2 pp. 1051-1058, 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.5762/kais.2014.15.2.1051 멤리스터의 전기적 특성 분석을 위한 PSPICE 회로 해석 김부강 1, 박호종 2, 박용수 3, 송한정 1*

More information

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp DOI: NCS : * A Study on

Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp DOI:   NCS : * A Study on Journal of Educational Innovation Research 2018, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp.157-176 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21024/pnuedi.28.3.201809.157 NCS : * A Study on the NCS Learning Module Problem Analysis and Effective

More information

04김호걸(39~50)ok

04김호걸(39~50)ok Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment, Vol. 22, No. 1(2013) pp.39~50 Prediction of Landslides Occurrence Probability under Climate Change using MaxEnt Model Kim, Hogul* Lee, Dong-Kun** Mo, Yongwon*

More information